Chapters 1-5 Abnormal Psychology Review
Chapters 1-5 Abnormal Psychology Review Psyc 2011
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Date Created: 05/07/15
Overview Abnormal psychology study of mental disorders includes psychological dysfunctions that person experiences in terms of distress Complete de nition of abnormal behavior compares behaviors and eXperiences in terms of those accepted in the person s culture Psychopathology study of mental illness in contrast with pathophysiology Characteristic of mental illness lack of control over one s experience loss of freedom or an inability to consider alternative ways of thinking feeling or doing Loss can be eXpressed through emotional eXperiences or cognitive eXperiences Also loss of honest personal contact Affects individuals interpersonal relationships with others but also relationship with themselves intrapersonal Four important components in psychopathology 1 loss of freedom or ability to consider alternatives 2 loss of honest personal contact 3 loss of one s connection with one s self and ability to live in a productive manner 4 personal distress Personal distress for a period of time is one of the criteria required for a diagnosis to be made 262 of American population eXperiences diagnosable mental disorder during a given year Results in lost productivity lost personal enjoyment potentially even premature death Greater loss disabilityadjusted life years DALY total of years lost to illness disability or premature death Stigma negative attitudes and beliefs that cause general public to avoid others including those with mental illness Us vs them way of thinking Data does not support a strong relationship between mental disorders and violence Individuals with mental illness do not show more violence than that seen in the general population Substance abuse can increase violence in some individuals and psychopathy is associated with serial killers Good thing in the US attitudes are moving towards less stigma Brain has close connection to what was previously considered mental processes Many disorders described are characterized by problems in social relationships and their components We are quick to see others who are like us attractive and those not like us as unattractive lt social psychology Behavioral and experiential perspective examines behavior and experience observed in psychopathology manner in which signs and symptoms of particular disorder are seen in a similar manner throughout the world gt universality of mental disorders role culture plays in manifestations of behaviors and experiences related to psychopathology Neuroscience perspective examines what we know about particular psychopathological experience structure and function of brain autonomic nervous system genetic and epigenetic consideration as it relates to psychopathology Evolutionarv perspective how certain ways of seeing or being in the world might be adaptive asking if there is any advantage to behaving an feeling in certain ways that others consider abnormal or if the disordered behavior is secondary to another process that is bene cial EXAMPLE sicklecell anemia may have developed as a result of natural selection because of malaria Epigenetics in which genes can be turned on or off by the environment and these mechanisms can be passed on to future generations without actually changing the basic genetic structure Cultural perspective info capable of affecting individuals behavior that they acquire from the members of their species through teaching imitation and other forms of social transmission Culture can be seen as a system of inheritance skills values beliefs attitudes There is a close connection between cultural and evolutionary perspectives Humans live less in nature and more in culture Genetic and environmental processes can lead to connection developing but being broken through a variety of factors including trauma When a person loses contact with current environment and applies strategies that worked perhaps in an earlier time then unsuccessful adaptation is the result Five ideas are critical in psychopathology l processes are maladaptive and not in the individual s best interest 2 processes cause personal distress 3 processes represent a deviance from both cultural and statistical norms 4 person has difficulty connecting with hisher environment and also with himherself 5 cannot fully consider alternative ways of thinking feeling or doing Affective disorders include feeling anxious tense and fearful of being with others as well as being troubled and not being able to sleep Experiential perspective how the individual with the disorder experiences it and sees the world CHAPTER TWO Galen champion of empiricism which stresses use of direction observation as a means of gaining information Believed that blood was made in the liver which gave it natural spirits Then it went to the heart where it developed vital spirits and with the introduction of air to the blood on the way to the brain transformed into animal spirits Now we call these hormones Middle Ages disease and especially mental illness was seen from the standpoint of a religious perspective with the devil being a major player Between the time of Galen Ancient Greece and the Renaissance Western science and medicine remained fairly stagnant with little new knowledge being added However beginning of 14th century Leonardo da Vinci began carefully studying the human body An important focus the manner in which the nervous system allows us to perform both involuntary and voluntary functions William Harvey Rene Descartes Thomas Willis may have been the first to use the word psychology He sought to combine the study of structure and function He noted how mania and melancholia could change into one another and thus gave us a 1600s description of bipolar disorder l700sl900s realization that the body created and used electrical activity in its basic processes Important realization particular functions could be localized to different parts of the brain Joseph Gall Broca s area related to language production in the left hemisphere Wemicke s area language understanding located in the left temporal lobe Hierarchical integration the various levels of the brain can interact with each other Hughlings Jackson suggested that symptoms such as illusions hallucinations and delusions are not in themselves the result of disease It dissolutions which are the reversal of the normal process of evolution Encephalization principle by which more recently evolved higherlevel systems in the brain control the older lowerlevel centers Variation assumption that heritable variations can and do occur in nature Natural selection we already know about Sexual selection we already know about Symptoms features observed by the patient Signs features observed by the clinician Syndrome determination of which signs and symptoms go together J eanMartin Charcot known for initially describing brain disorder relationships for a number of motorrelated disorders including Parkinson s disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis Established Tourette s disorder as a separate disease Phillipe Pinel sorted mental diseases into ve categories melancholia mania with delirium mania with delirium dementia and idiocy He is seen as the father of psychiatry There are two sides to every person with a mental disorder 1 how the person herself has tried to respond to her own symptoms 2 the treatments that mental health professionals have developed to treat the disorder 1950s and 1960s empirically based treatments came into being Psvchodvnamic perspective emphasizes that behaviors and experience may be in uenced by internal processes that are out of awareness Our evolutionary history cultural in uences and personal experiences can lead to con icting reactions to an interaction with others and the environment Freud s The Project sees the brain as basically a blank slate upon which experiences become connected with one another driven by instinctual process of sexuality and selfpreservation Psychoanalysis free association dream interpretation Hans Strupp sought to understand what were the important components of successful therapy and how to perform therapy outcome research ExistentialHumanistic perspective focuses on experience of the person in the moment and the manner in which he she interprets the experiences Emphasizes processing and understanding both internal and external experiences of human life CARL JUNG introduced concepts of introversion and extroversion and KAREN HORNEY created the concepts of selfrealization and real self Selfrealization recognition of who one is and what one appreciates in terms of their connections with themselves and others Real self self includes who one is and what one appreciates Emphasis on human growth and the need for a positive psychology Emphasis on psychological health being more than just the absence of pathology Emphasis on not only considering the external world and a person s relationship to it but also the internal world Carl Rogers clientcentered therapy slash personcentered therapy characterized by therapist s empathic understanding unconditional positive regard genuineness and congruence Rogers suggests that client goes through seven stages during therapy 1 unwillingness to reveal self 2 extemalizes 3 wants to be different not accepting past feelings 4 freer description of feelings 5 recognition of con ict between feelings and thoughts 6 eXperience feelings without denial more willing to risk in relationships 7 comfortable with self and with having new feelings Abraham Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs physiological needs safety belongingness and love esteem selfactualization Leslie Greenberg emotionfocused therapy emotion viewed as centrally important in eXperience of self Emotion can be either adaptive or maladaptive It is the crucial element that brings about change in therapy In therapy clients are helped to identify and eXplore their emotions Aim is to both manage and transform emotional eXperiences Emotionfocused therapy bonding and awareness evocation and exploration transformation and generation of alternatives Mindfulness meditation technique involving increased focused nonjudgmental purposeful awareness of present moment to observe thoughts without reacting to them in the present Behavioral perspective focused on level of actions and behaviors Ivan Pavlov John Watson first behaviorist saw the goal of psychology as identifying environmental conditions that direct behavior Classical conditioning Extinction conditioned stimulus will no longer produce the response BF Skinner and the rats Operant conditioning Reinforcement vs punishment Observational learning Bandura and the dolls modeling Coenitive behavioral perspective suggests that dysfunctional thinking is common to all psychological disturbances By learning in therapy how to understand one s thinking it is possible to change the way one thinks as well as one s emotional states and behaviors Aaron Beck cognitive triad individual s negative view of self individual s tendency to interpret eXperiences in a negative manner person regards future in a negative way Catastrophizing believing that nothing will work out Personalization believing that everything relates to you Overgeneralization believing that one event is how it always is Dichotomous thinking believing that things are either good or bad CHAPTER THREE Memory process including specific brain areas such as the hippocampus and the biochemical and structural changes among neurons as new info is retained Categorical situation in which objects or concepts are defined as part of a category Dimensional situation in which objects or concepts are defined along a continuous scale Comorbid refers to an individual having more than one disorder at the same time Intemalizing disorders disorders that are eXperienced internally like anxiety and depression Extemalizing disorders disorders that are manifested in external world OCD ODD antisocial substance use Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM gt International Classification of Diseases 1CD National Institute of Mental Health NIMH gt Research Domain Criteria RDoC 1 negative affect fear distress aggressions 2 positive affect reward seeking learning creation of habits 3 cognition how individuals conceptualize and think about themselves and environment 4 social processes how individuals eXperience and view others 5 regulatory systems variety of individuals regulatory systems ranging from sleepwake cycles to manner in which they regulate their emotions Reward system particular brain structures in uenced by an increase in dopamine during reward Genes form blueprint that determines what an organism is to become Endophenotypes patterns of processes that lie between the gene genotype and manifestations of the gene in the external environment phenotype Epigenetics study of factors that turn genes on and off and are passed to the next generation largely in uenced by environment of the organism Neurotransmitters chemicals involved in increasingdecreasing potential for action potentials to be produced maintain communication across synpase Central executive network neural network involved in performing tasks like planning performing actions Salience network neural network involved in monitoring and noting important changes in biological and cognitive systems Electroencephalography EEG record electrical activity from the scalp related to cortical activity which re ects electrical activity of the brain at the level of the synapse Positron Emission Tomography PET measure related to blood ow in the brain that re ects cognitive processing measure variations in cerebral blood ow that are correlated with brain activity fMRI functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging based on the fact that blood ow increases in active areas of the cortex measures ratio of hemoglobin with and without oxygen maps changes in cortical blood and infers neuronal activity Magnetoencephalography MEG measures small magnetic field gradients exiting and entering surface of head that are produced when neurons are active Diffusion Tensor Imaging DTI use of MRI to measure cortical connections in the brain shows fiber tracts in the brain Eventrelated potentials ERPs evoked potentials show EEG activity in relation to a particular event Small world framework model of brain connections based on idea that the ability to socially contact any two random individuals in the world can be accomplished in a limited number of connections Defaultintrinsic network neural network that is active during internal processing Executive functions cognitive functions involved in planning understanding new situations cognitive exibility Modularity describes how speci c areas in the brain are dedicated to certain types of processes Mendel s first law law of segregation for the trait to appear both non dominant elements must be present Mendel s second law law of independent assortment inheritance of the gene of one trait not affected by inheritance of gene for another trait Allele alternative molecular form of the same gene Homozygoteshomozygous person has two copies of the same allele Heterozygotesheterozygous person has two different alleles at the same location Epigenetic inheritance factors largely in uenced by the environment of the organism that turns the genes on and off can be passed on to the next generation without in uencing the DNA itself Epigenetic markstags in uences whether a segment is relaxed and able to be activated or condensed resulting in no action CHAPTER FOUR Hypothesis formally stated expectation Falsification the approach by which a claim is shown to be wrong in philosophy of science it is the position that a goal of science is to falsify hypotheses Empiricism acceptance of sensory information as valid Case study method of studying individual participants Naturalistic observation observing and describing the phenomenon occurring naturally without manipulating any variables Correlational approach designed to help us understand how specific factors are associated with one another Correlation coefficient statistical technique to determine if an association exists in a relationship Positive correlation Negative correlation Experimental method in uence of the IV on the DV is determined with random selection and random assignment of the participants Experimental group group that receives the IV in the study Control group group that is treated exactly like the experimental group except for the IV factor being studied Operational definition definition of events in terms of the operations required to measure them which thus gives an idea a concrete meaning IV manipulated variable DV depends on or is in uenced by the IV Validity truth and capability of being supported Confounding variables unintended variables not chosen by the experimenter that in uence the IV Covary the degree to which variables are related to one another Inference Internal validity ability to make valid inferences between IV and DV External validity generalizability possibility of applying the results from an internally valid experiment to other situations and other research participants Demand characteristics bias that occurs when a participant s response is in uenced more by the research setting than by the IV Placebo effect phenomenon that some people show psychological and physiological changes just from the suggestion that a change will take place Experimenter effects bias that occurs due to the experimenter s expectations Doubleblind research participants don t know whether they are in experimental or control group researchers do not known either Blind controls research participants don t know if they are in the experimental or control group Factors critical to sound inference l participant selection 2 participant assignment 3 design of experiment 4 interpretation of relation of IV to DV Population vs sample Randomization Match subjects design design type in psychopathology research in which the closer a scientist can match individuals in the individual and control groups the stronger the logic of the design Null hypothesis statistical hypothesis that is tested to determine if there are differences between the experimental and control groups states that there is no difference Confound hypothesis asks if our results could be the result of a factor other than the IV Research hypothesis formal statement of the manner in which the DV is related to the IV Inferential statistics study that concerns the relationship between the statistical characteristics of the population and those of the sample Single subject designs smallN designs uses the data from each participant without averaging it as part of a group of participants Longitudinal design following a speci c group of individuals across a period of time to document changes that take place during that time Epidemiology study of distribution and determinants of the frequency of a disorder in humans Lifetime prevalence percentage of a specific population that had the disorder at some point in their life even if they no longer show symptoms of the disorder currently Incidence of new cases of a disorder that develop during ac certain period of time Risk asks how likely someone in a specific population is god develop a particular disorder in a given time period Behavioral genetics study of genetic and environmental contributions to organisms behavior Gene by environment interaction possibility that individuals with different genotypes may respond to the same environment in different ways Gene by environment correlations how certain genotypes and certain environments occur together Monozygotic twins identical twins resulting from zygote dividing during first two weeks of gestation Dizygotic twins gt fraternal twins Statistically significant probability that the IV in uences the DV by chance Clinically significant whether the results of a study even if statistically significant would in uence clinical outcomes Effect size measured magnitude that a treatment has on the DV Metaanalysis statistical examination of the results of studies taken together and treated as one study Informed consent voluntary participation right to privacy private personality conf1dentiality anonymity gt Institutional review board CHAPTER FIVE Flight of ideas responses that are not related to question asked or tell narrative in which each sentence is not related to the one that came before it Delusional thinking unrealistic pattern of thoughts forming a theme Obsessional thinking pattern of repeated thoughts beyond control of the person Structured interview Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders SCID directly probes for existence of criteria for disorders within DSM Cultural Formulation Interview set of questions developed to help mental health professionals obtain info concerning person s culture and its in uence on behavior and experience Focuses on 1 Cultural identity 2 Cultural conceptualizations of distress 3 Psychosocial stressors and cultural features of vulnerability 4 Cultural features of relationship between individual and clinician 5 Overall cultural assessment TYPES OF RELIABILITY Internal asks whether different questions asked on an instrument relate to one another Testretest asks whether two measurement opportunities result in similar scores Alternative form asks whether different forms of an instrument give similar results Interrater asks how similar two or more individuals are when they observe and rate specific behaviors TYPES OF VALIDITY Content refers to degree to which an instrument measures all aspects of phenomenon Predictive refers to degree to which an instrument can predict cognitions emotions actions that person will experience in the future Concurrent refers to ability of an instrument to show similar results as other established measures would Construct refers to extent an instrument measured what it was designed to measure Ecological refers to manner in which data collected has been considered beyond local context Beck Depression Inventory BDI questionnaire useful for determining level of depressive symptoms that a person is reporting Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI 5 67 truefalse questions for personality used to assess broad mental disorders hypochondriasis bodily symptoms depression hysteria psychopathic deviate masculinity femininity paranoia psychasthenia excessive anxiety and obsessive behavior schizophrenia hypomania social introversion Projective instruments Rorschach Inkblot Thematic Apperception Test Five different purposes of classi cation 1 nomenclature to describe and discuss the clients they see 2 basis of information retrieval to search for info concerning mental disorders 3 descriptive name of the disorder summarizes behaviors thoughts emotions of individuals with the disorder 4 predictive allows one to know the course of the disorder if untreated and particular treatments that may be effective 5 basis for a theory of psychopathology use classification to understand the disorder Changes in the DSM use of dimensional assessments and spectrumrelated disorders organization placement of disorders based on underlying vulnerabilities as well as symptom characteristics chapters organized by general categories to re ect how a variety of disorders may have some common underlying similarities
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