Intro to Comparative Politics - All IDs
Intro to Comparative Politics - All IDs PSC 1001
Popular in Introduction to Comparative Politics
verified elite notetaker
Rosa Mas Volpe
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Political Science
This 70 page Study Guide was uploaded by Annalea Soudry-Maurer on Saturday May 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 1001 at George Washington University taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Comparative Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
Reviews for Intro to Comparative Politics - All IDs
Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes this semester.
-Dr. Mervin Weissnat
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 05/09/15
ID Definition Comparative Politics the study and comparison of domestic politics across countries inside countries not between countries Politics the struggle for power to make decisions that will affect the public as a whole who gets what how and why who power is not distributed evenly what what are you fighting for freedom vs equality how elections peacefulviolent why why things happen Modernization Theory holds that as societies developed they would become capitalist democracies converging around a set of shared values and characteristics The state Max Weber monopoly over the legitimate use of force enforces laws set of political institutions to generatecarry out policy typically highly institutionalized and sovereign characterized by institutions such as army police taxation judiciary and social welfare system lmportance achieving economicpoliticalsocial success as a unified body Reading Imperative of State Building Francis Fukuyama critical to resolving poverty diseases development economics State Scope different functions and goals taken on by the government want to be somewhat lower on scope State Strength ability of states to plan and execute policies and enforce laws cleanly and transparently implementation of polities want to be somewhat high on strength in order to successfully carry out policies Sovereignty ability of a state to make and execute decisions regarding its own policies Federalism powers such as taxation lawmaking and security are devolved to regional bodies local legislatures that control specific territories asymmetric federalism power is divided unevenly between regional bodies Na on a group of people who share a common identity on the basis of distinguishing characteristics language religion etc have a claim to a territorial homeland Definition desires selfgovernment through an independent state Regime fundamental rules and norms of politics rules regarding individual freedom and collective equality the locus of power and the use of power institutionalized but can be changed revolution characterized as democratic or authoritarian Governments the leadership or elite in charge of running the state weakly institutionalized limited by regime often composed of elected officials such as president or prime minister unelected officials such as monarchs parliamentary or presidential State institutions Executive head of statehead of government Legislative houses pass laws Judiciary courts Bureaucracy civil service taxes Military P F PONT Charles Tilly state made war war made the state formation of states through competition and conflict Advantages of the modern state 1 Encouraged economic development ideas of modernizing the economy eCOHOmieS QFOW more resources 2 Encouraged technological innovations advanced forms of weaponry 3 Created national Identities larger communities unified under a common element Citizenship An individual s relation to the state individual swears allegiance to the state and the state provides certain benefits or rights purely political and thus more easily changed than ethnic and political identity the basis of patriotism the pride in one s sate and citizenship ID Definition Civil Society network of associations that are independent of the state that act in the public sphere bound by law Readings Foley and Edwards Paradox of Civil Society Civil Society community involvement bowling leagues Civil Society ll political involvementactivism Robert Putnam Bowling Alone results in trust in the government could lead to democracy Nationalism pride in ones people and the belief that they have a unique identity can be key as a statemarket as it fosters national unity creates a good citizen strengthens support for state policy can be a statebreaker and become a source of political instability violent conflict and state dissolution Ethnic nationalism belief in a common decent ascriptive born into it exclusive often not aligned with country borders Kurdistanoverlaps 5 nations but not independently recognized Civic Nationalism common belief in political principles voluntary and inclusive usually aligned with country borders ex UK comprised of many ethnic divisions but all follow one political system Reading Angry Youth Evan Osnos Chinese Nationalism is benign and malign patriotism is an extreme version of nationalism benign Two forms of democracy Direct Democracy public participates directly in governance and policy making historically found in small communities such as ancient Athens Indirect democracy public participates indirectly through elected representatives prevalent in modern eras National Identity sense of belonging to a nation and a belief in its political aspirations often but not always derived from ethnic identity inherently political basis for nationalism ID Definition Resource Curse since natural resources oil gas minerals might be a source of great wealth the puzzle is why so many resourcerich countries are underdevelopednot democratic all the money collects to the central government the existence of natural resources is a barrier to modernization and democracy 1 Gives leaders wealth to run state without representation 2 Stunts development of middle class and diverse economies Importance triggers conflict by creating economic instability facilitates corruption very easy to steal oil can fund terrorism and create the desire for separatism creates less reason to tax the population meaning that the population will care less about what the government does disconnect between state and society Reading Michael Ross Blood Barrels Resource Curse gt oil curse encourages separatism can lessen this by trading goods diversifying and reducing dependence Failed State the loss of physical control over territory or monopoly on the legitimate use of force erosion of legitimate authority to make collective decisions inability to provide reasonable public service Reading Rothberg New Nature of Nation State Failure Social Capital the networks norms and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit generalized trust what you can capitalizeearn from a social group interaction and trust Reading Robert Putnam Bowling ALone Political Economy institutions that link politics and economics priorities freedom equality tradeoffs Liberal Policies best state is a limited and small one laissezfaire to let alone fewer public goods lower taxes do not need to raise as many funds free trade greater tolerance for inequality and poverty trickle down wealth income distribution ID Definition Neopatrimonialism system of social hierarchy where patrons use state resources in order to secure the loyalty of clients in the population patronclient relationship that can reach from high up in state structures down to individuals Political Ideologies set of political values held by individuals regarding fundamental goals of politics concerned with ideal relationship between freedom and equality and proper roles of political institutions in maintaining that relation shape the arena of political conflict between groups 5 ideologies liberalism communism fascism anarchism social democracy Liberalism ow equality high freedom limited role of the state high priority on individual political economic freedom laissez faire greater state role in limiting inequality Adam Smith limited state role in the economy free markets individualism Fascism does not believe in personal freedom or equality people are classified through a hierarchy Communism high equality but low freedom state controls all markets and production community is more important no market power Anarchism complete freedom and equality rejects the idea of a state all together believes in the abolition of all government and the organization of society on a voluntary cooperative basis with no force no market power Mercantilism not much focus on freedom and equality much state ownership and power limited market power states must play a strong role in protecting and developing the national economy against foreign competitors ID Definition Social Democracy attempts to balance freedom and equality accepts private property and markets but seeks to regulate them rose as a symbol more public goods than liberalism less tolerance for inequality and poverty trade and competition is under state management outright ownership of some industries is acceptable or necessary Political Attitudes speed and methods of political change describe views regarding the necessary pace and scope of change in the balance between freedom and equality advocate change political values and goals creates scope and goals of political change typically broken down into the categories of radical liberal conservative reactionary Left Center Right lt gt Radicals Liberals Conservatives Reactionaries Types of Attitudes Liberalism slow evolutionary change Conservatives adverse to change holds to traditional values and attitudes Radicals dramatic revolutionary change want to overturn the system Reactionaries want to restore older values that they believe are superior Washington Consensus 1998 Liberating the economy list of economicpolicy measures designed to reduce state scope through lower tariffs privatization subsidy cuts deregulation etc proposed by the IMF claimed that underdeveloped countries have too many institutions and are not effective 10 terms of agreement Reading HaJoon Chang Kicking away the ladder implementation of the Washington consensus ID Definition Impact of Colonialism tangible effect of imperialism Political borders and bureaucracy Socia ethnicity nationalism hierarchies Economic mercantilism infrastructure cash crop ExportOriented Industralism a strategy for economic growth in which a country seeks out technologies and develops industries focused specifically on the export market exJapan Goal develop specific technologies gt export gt develop problems inefficiencies debt ImportSubstitution lndustralization a strategy for economic growth in which a country restrains imports in order to spur demand for locally produced goods Newly lndustrializing Countries Nle vs Less Developed Countries LDCs NCs historically less developed countries that have experienced significant economic growth and democratization ex South Korea LDCs countries that lack significant economic growth andor political institutions ex Ghana Common features of Nle private property along with national ownership active industrial policy sma welfare state because the state is outing all its resources into economic developments neither individual freedom nor collective equality are emphasized country as a whole is competing with others Public Goods goods provided or secured by the state that are available to society indivisibe nobody can own them nonexclusive non rivalrous ink to individual freedom and can generate equality as the public is able to share the benefits examples roads defense health careeducation Bretton Woods System economic regime created in 1944 created to manage international economic relations objectives are to expand and manage economic relations between countries IMF exchange rates provide loans World Bank loansassistance to LDCs WTO oversees trade agreements ID Definition Globalization a process whereby extensive and intensive webs of relationships connect people across time and space creates opportunities political economic societal Reading Moses Naim Globalization Friedman It s a flat world after all Political Globalization part of a larger international regime challenges sovereignty voluntarilyinvoluntarily giving up power EU optimists interconnection leads to fewer wars strengthens and spread democracy around the world Pessimists increased violence criminal organizations terrorist groups reduced demography lack of representation and accountability in international institutions Economic Globalization transforming and creating markets 1 Brettton Woods System 2 Washington Consensus helped by communications and outsourcing optimists exporting the comparative advantage innovation specialization people are able to relocate for jobs new markets gt higher incomes gt increased living standards pessimists dependency based on comparative advantage outsourcing will create a race to the bottom standards wages huge power to nondemocratic firms ID Definition Societal Globalization weakens traditional societal institutions and creates new identities migration tradecommon goods new communication technology optimists muticuturalism and new values cosmopolitanism and political order global democracy through civil society NGOs amplifies local political action Pessimists too many ideas and choices loss of nationalism cutural and intellectual decline speed and consumption vs tradition and values Plurality Westminster System first past the post people compete to be elected and in each district one person is elected single member districts for each constituency Advantages more representationequality know who your leader is leads to majority rule and more effective government Drawbacks unequal distribution of seats leads to a 2 party system excludes smaller groups Proportional Representation PR multimember districts each voter votes for a party percentage of votes received is percentage of representatives it will have seats in parliament Advantages more equal distribution of seats based on public opinion multiple parties consensus building Drawbacks party fragmentation political instability ID Definition Parliamentary System Prime Minister dominates as head of government PM is removed by national elections or vote of no con dence heads of state is a monarch or president largely ceremonial PM must control majority of seats in legislature Advantages PM s party controls parliament able to pass legislation easily Drawbacks dangers of too much power in majority party lack of checks and balances Presidential System directly elected President serves as head of state and head of government powerful can only be removed by election or impeachment Advantages directly elected by population charismatic authority ega rational authority Drawbacks few constraints in office may ignore public opinion and other branches of government Executive Powers and Relationships Parliamentary indirectly elected Prime Minister Presidential directly elected president holds majority power as head of state and head of government Semipresidential has both shared power president helps set policy while Prime Minister executes it President manages foreign policy Dutch Disease apparent relationship between the increase in exploitation of natural resources and a decline in the manufacturing or agricultural center experienced in the Netherlands in 1959 after the discovery of a large national gas field if you find a resource and export it a lot but does not actually boost industry it will raise the value of the currency because people need your currency to buy our oil increase in demand result is that everything else in the country will become too expensive long term effects include that the other sectors of the economy decline especially exportoriented sectors ID Definition Major thinkers in Comparative Politics Aristotle separated comp pol from philosophy Machiavelli fst modern political scientist Hobbes social contract Locke private property is essential Montesquieu separation of power Rousseau civil rights Marx economic development and inequality Weber bureaucracy most important decisions are made by state officials vs elected representatives Institutions organizations or patterns of a captivity that are self perpetuating and valued for their own sake embody norms or values that are considered central to peoples lives and thus not easily changed set the stage for political behaviors vary from country to country exemplified by army taxation elections the state 3 types of legitimacy Traditional built by habit and customs over time stresses history strongly institutionalized example Monarch Queen Elizabeth Charismatic built on the force of ideas and presence of the leader weakly institutionalized example Revolutionary Hero Lenin RationalLegal built on the rules and procedures and the offices that create and enforce the rules strongly institutionalized example elected executive Obama Means of Devolution the transfer or delegation of power to a lower level of government central to local creation of new political institutions at lower levels of government transfer of funds and powers to tax to the lower levels of government affords them more control over resource distribution Imperialism system in which a state extends its power beyond its borders to control other territories and peoples was propagated by European Powers from the 16th to the 21 st centuries drive by economic strategic and religious motives often led to colonialism the physical occultation of foreign territory ID Definition Freedom House measure of global freedom a way of ranking global freedom 1 Political rights electoral democracy 2 Civil Liberties liberal democracy freedom of expression belief Rule of Law personal autonomy and individual rights Free electoral and liberal democracy Partly free some electoralliberal democracy Not free none Challenges to building state autonomy and capacity in LDCs absence of professional bureaucracy clientelism rent seeking and corruption in the handling of state jobs and revenue sovereignty was often compromised by external factors and actors NonState Organizations and Globalization Multinational Corporations MNCs firms that produce distribute and market goodsservices in more than 1 country example Microsoft GE Intergovernmental Organizations lGOs groups created by states to serve particular policy ends example EU UN NonGovernmental Organizations NGOs groups independent of states that pursue policy objectives and foster public participation example Green Peace Red Cross Coercion compelling behavior by threatening harm uses surveillance one way for the government to control people security through domination CoOptation the process by which individuals are brought into a beneficial relationship with the state making them dependent on the state for certain rewards allows the government to control people corporatism amp clientelism corporatism prioritizing certain interest groups clientelism individualized rewards for people who have certain actions ID Definition llliberal regimes another name for a hybrid regime or a semi authoritarian regime countries have elections but they are not free or fair regimes do not fully institutionalize liberty and are hybrid because they combine democratic and nondemocratic institutions institutions are democratic but are infused and executed in an authoritarian context executives usually hold a great amount of power and political competition is limited in a way these regimes can be seen as a grey area between democratic and nondemocratic regimes big question is whether or not they are transitional phase between one regime or another Advantages benefits of appearing democratic get the legitimacy that comes from democracy but the power through authoritarianism stability control order certainty can conduct necessary reform legitimacy from meaningful elections Disadvantages certain degree of uncertainty Third Wave occurred from 1974 to the 1990s consisted of 35 countries shifting to democracy Samuel Huntington Democracy s Third Wave went in depth bout the causes of the third wave there were 5 factors that contributed to the third wave 1 2 3 Deepening legitimacy problems of authoritarian regimes Unprecedented economic growth of the 19603 shift in doctrine of the Catholic Church Changes in external policies gt EU and Soviet Union The Snowballing effect reverse third wave seen in Nigeria and Sudan that is reverting to authoritarian rule according to Huntington important because it leads to analysis on why this wave occurred and whether or not there will be a reverse wave Brazil is a major third wave democracy ID Definition Authoritarian a political system in which a small group of individuals exercises power over the state without being constitutionally responsible to the public used to covert many different forms of nondemocratic rule Positives can be somewhat stable and in certain contexts stability may be necessary countries with severe ethnic divisions or economic instability they are decisive can push forward economic reforms that may be unpopular but necessary Negatives tend to repress their people can create grieVanceS prevents people from doing what they want to do may not make the right decisions may not represent what the population wants may roll over minority rights may not make the right economic decisions can pose threats in an international context Totalitarian a nondemocratic regime that is highly centralized possessing some form of strong ideology that seeks to transform and absorb fundamental aspects of state society and the economy using a wide array of institutions COUNTRIES UNITED KINGDOM Westminster Model pluralityfirst past the post democratic parliamentary system of government sovereignhead of state who functions as the nominal or legal and constitutional holder of executive power head of government executive branch usually made up of members of the legislature with the senior members in a cabinet independent civil service parliamentary opposition legislature with at least one elected house parliament which can be dissolved and elections called at any time parliamentary privilege Parliamentary Supremacy the legislative body has absolute supremacy over all other government institutions legislative body may changerepeal any previous legislation and so is not bound by written lawprecendet House of Commons 646 members representing districts maximum of 5 year term small salaries few resources largest party elects PM activey debate issues participate in legislative committees can remove PM through vote of no confidence can propose legislation House of Lords virtuay powerless 750 members quotLife Peersquot appointed for life quotHereditary Peersquot aristocracy can delay legislation court of last appeal little judicial influence about 12 top officials from the Church of England Law Lords appointed for life UNITED KINGDOM AngloSaxon Capitalism 18th century UK Adam Smith free market liberalism flexible labor markets relatively low taxes small welfare state emphasis on service industries finance high income inequality Prime Minister head of government elected member of the legislature head of the lower house elected to a maximum of 5 year terms commonly calls early elections to take advantage of favorable political conditions subject to a legislative vote of no confidence must maintain the support of their fellow Members of Parliament must appear in the legislature weekly for a televised question period in which they must defend government policies must direct the activity of the cabinet and smooth over differences among cabinet members expected to provide national leadership Collectivist Consensus postwar consensus between the UK s major parties to build and sustain a welfare state Third Way advocated moderate freemarket policies with ambitious constitutional reform Tony Blair an option regarded as an alternative to two extremes UNITED KINGDOM Labor Party formed in 1990 as an outgrowth of the trade union movement sought to give the British working class a voice in Parliament turning point came with its landslide victory in 1945 considered socialism its dominant ideological characteristic championed a strong welfare state and some state ownership of industry but never threatened to replace capitalism Labor party depended heavily on workingclass votes starting in the 1970s the composition of the class structure changed with fewer Britons in bluecollar jobs solid identification of workers with Labor began to erode creating a serious challenge for the pany by the mid 1970s the Labor Party was divided between radical socialists and moderates internal division caused the party39s more conservative elements to mold in 1971 1970s and 1990s Labor party began a process of ideological and organizational moderation constitution was rewritten to weaken severely the ability of trade unions to control party policy Tony Blair consolidated these changes and advocated moderate freemarket policies with ambitious constitutional reform UNITED KINGDOM Conservatives moderate right emerged in the late 18th century identified with the democratization of the UK and origins of the British welfare state pragmatic conservatives that embrace democratic rule widespread respect and electoral support rise to power of Margaret Thatcher marked the dominance of the neoIiberal faction party was further split over policy regarding the EU Tories struggled in opposition after their defeat in the 1997 elections series of ineffective leaders attempted to lead the party back to power Tories gained 33 seats in the 2005 elections but failed to dislodge labor selected David Cameron as leader gained 97 additional seats entered into a coalition with the liberal democrats Liberal Democrats 3rd party refuge for voters embracing a range of values and political positions formed in 1988 through the merger of the Liberal Party and defectors from the Labor party 2010 alliance with the conservatives ideology is a mixture of classical liberalism39s emphasis on individual freedom and a weak state and social democracy s emphasis on collective equality Liberals whigs were displaced by the rise of the labor party and current liberal democratic party has been unable to recover the power and influence of early Whigs consistent supporters of European integration Often attaCk Labor s policies as too timid and frequently called for increased taxation and social spending UNITED KINGDOM UKIP opposes membership in the EU limited success on the local level or in elections to the European Parliament Margaret Thatchet Prime Minister 19791990 r0n Lady leader of conservative party liberal economic policies privatization pioneered liberalism firm in commitment to policies created the basis to the Washington Consensus committed to growth limited the state low taxes cut inflation longlasting influence Tony Blair Prime Minister 19972007 centrist policies social and economic context changing less blue collar jobs rejected old leftright divisions creation 0f quotnew laborquot Third Way maintaining what was already in place increased spending on social services David Cameron Current Prime Minister conservative party leader youngest prime minister since 19th century conservatives coalition with liberal democrats return to more liberal economic policies quotBig Societyquot small state big society dramatic budget cuts and increased taxation critic of globalization Nick Clegg Deputy Prime Minister 2010 softened impact of budget cuts on the poor leader of Liberal Democrats since 2007 MP since 2005 coalition with conservative party unpopular among supporters GERMANY Weimar Republic 19191933 name to the federal republic and semi presidential democracy established in 1919 to replace the imperial form of government 1st wave of democracy offered universal suffrage for all adults universal health care and employed compensations PR system with no minimum threshold fragmentation and polarization due to too many parties led to nazi party which had 37 votes in 1932 Basic Law established the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949 as a democratic and demilitarized state form of a constitution still used today amended in 1990 to incorporate East German States weakened legislature39s power Federal Constitutional Court guards the basic law Bonn Republic GlelfmaW s political regime since 1949 Bonn was West Germany39s capital from 1949 1990 preventing breakdown of democracy better balance between local and national power political stability and representative democracy power of state and rights of individuals more checks and balances multiparty system with limited PR 5 threshold Bundestag Lower House represents the population more powerful 622 directly elected officials maximum of 4 year terms elects the Chancellor 12 elected by PR GERMANY 12 elected by SMD vote of no confidence with replacement must approve all federal laws Bundesrat Upper House represents the 16 states 69 members appointed by governments of each state ministerpresidents legislation submitted here first must approve all laws that affect states acts as a check on government Chancellor most powerful political figure and chief executive authority head of government elected by Bundestag lower house leader of largest party in legislature appoints and oversees the cabinet 15 ministers who head government departments may createeliminate cabinet positions Christian Democratic Union right wing probusiness antisocialist proWest supports the EU Social Democratic Party old party renounced Marxism in 1959 coalition with CDUCSU in 1966 increased worker involvement Free Democratic Party defender of freemarket liberties and consistently has support from upper class less supportive of welfare GERMANY The Greens postmodern issueswomen39s and gay rights quotantiparty partyquot won first seats in 1983 moderatesradicals victory in 2011 The Left founded in 2007 former East communists and marxists opposes privatization and tax cuts opposes CDUCSU Angela Merkel coalition with conservatives and social democratic union Chancellor since 2005 CDU leader since 2000 moderate and conservative proEU Sovereign Debt Crisis debts of the sovereign state began in fall 2009 challenged Germany as the EU39S weanhiest most powerful state caused by the 2008 economic crisis rapid increase in interest rates fear in 2011 that countries could default on debts questioning the future of the euro Germany responded 750 billion euro bailout package Merkel took a tough stance BRAZIL Bureaucratic Authoritarian 1964 military leaders hold the regime national leadership is dominated by individuals who had risen to prominence through bureaucratic careers in organizations leaders suspended the constitution and decreed a new authoritarian one banned existing parties and replaced them with 2 official ones took control of trade unions restricted civil liberties sought to erase Vargas39 legacy stripped political system of its democratic features this rule coincided with a period of sustained economic growth that averaged over 105 growth annually Chamber of Deputies Lower house 513 members 4 year terms must approve all legislation before it is sent to the president equal power to the upper house Federal State Upperhouse 81 members 8 year terms must approve all legislation when houses disagree they convene joint committees to iron out differences can override presidential vetoes with majority vote of both houses can amend the constitution with a 23 vote in both houses and agreement from the president inability to reach quorum on key matters constitution allocates significant power to Congress highprofile congressional hearings have exposed fraud and corruption BRAZIL Openlist proportional representation citizens vote for a specific individual on a party list rather than for the entire party votes for each party are then tallied and seats are allocated to each party proportionally determination of how many seats are allocated to individual party members is based on the number of votes they receive candidates must campaign under their own name system serves to weaken the power of political parties to enforce internal discipline statelevel parties determine the composition of party lists no threshold for gaining seats widespread dissatisfaction for this system in 2011 the Senate created a reform committee to propose an overhaul of the electoral system but major parties were divided over what system to use low party loyally weak personalistic parties Lula da Silva elected President in 2002 and reelected in 2006 leftist first workingclass president campaigned on a pledge to end hunger in Brazil rejected further tax increases ability to increase social spending was constrained by the huge debt burden policies to reduce poverty had dramatic success created the Bolsa Familia family fund conditional cash transfer program Dilma Rousseff first female president elected in 2010 currently presides over a coalition of 11 parties continued marketfriendly policies while increasing social spending distanced herself from some aspects of Lula39s foreign policy made the promotion of human rights a priority BRAZIL and has vocally criticized human rights abuses in Cuba and Iran Workers Party PT most important leftist party largest party in the legislature founded in 1980 among unionized industrial workers has grown to incorporate landless workers rural unions attracted significant support from educated middleclass Brazilians claims to represent the poor and advocated social democracy high degree of internal democracy da Silva was elected in 2002 on the PT39S reputation for honest and clean government corruption scandals in 2005 and 2007 lost seats in Congress but they rebounded in 2010 established itself as a moderate centerleft force controls only about 17 of the seats in the lower house Bolsa Familia conditional cash transfer program pays monthly small cash stipends to poorest families on the condition that recipients39 Children attend school and receive medical attention payments are made by the federal government directly to a family debit card usually held by the mother by the end of 2010 the program had reached over 11 million families 14 of the population largest targeted welfare program in the world program paid political dividend as well BRAZIL Abertura 19741985 gradual political opening military allows formation of political parties 1985 leader of opposition party wins presidency 1988 new constitution begins quotNew Republicquot peaceful democratization State Corporatism all sectors of society were strongly encouraged to organize within statecontrolled associations a model strongly favored by Vargas Vargas viewed this system as a way to cultivate his base of support among different sectors of society while limiting the ability of civil society to challenge the state unofficial unions groups and parties were marginalized and harassed Import Substitution Industrialization 1960s1970s a strategy for economic growth in which a country restrains imports in order to spur demand for locally produced goods high degree of government intervention in Brazil heavy industry oil steal energy Hardliners and Softliners hard liners usually the political leadership and those directly engaged in acts of repression during its tenure soft liners those who benefit from the regime but do not have visible decisionmaking roles and uninvolved in the repression the minority who genuinely worked from the inside to promote reform must dominate in the regime and opposition to transition to democracy SOUTH AFRICA African National Congress ANC most important organization resisting racial discrimination founded in 1912 largely black organization that sought the extension of suffrage to black people initially nonviolent and called for multiracial democracy under the leadership of Nelson Mandela led a series of nonviolent civil disobedience campaigns against apartheid laws government arrested top ANC leaders including Nelson Mandela in 1963 life sentences legalized once again by FW de Klerk freed Mandela as well Mandela and ANC leadership agreed to power sharing and numerous guarantees to assuage white fears dominant party post 1994 has done well in managing the economy improving health care and promoting racial equality not doing well in job creation crime reduction and reducing inequality Zuma s ride to leadership creation of COPE first genuine black opposition party to the ANC post 1994 ANC attempted to coopt many civil society groups bringing them under its direction won three national elections post 1994 and embraced liberal capitalism and electoral democracy must adopt policies that ameliorate economic problems without alienating broad constituencies liberal politicaleconomic model 1996 adopted liberal macroeconomic structural adjustment plan GEAR growth employment and redistribution opening trade privatizing SOEs limiting role of state prickly relationship between ANC and international community SOUTH AFRICA Democratic Alliance DA party led by Hellen Zille became the premier party in 2009 provincial elections increasing number of protests against ineffective local governments set the stage fora major increase in the DA vote in May 2011 municipal elections won almost 14 of the national vote and made its first inroads into areas that had previously been bastions of ANC support Apartheid racist authoritarian system quotseparatenessquot policies imposed by ruling minority regime 19481994 that systematically segregated races and privileged white South Africans distinguished by the National Party39s 2 goals consolidate Afrikaner power eliminate all vestiges of black participation in South African politics Afrikaner leaders sought to construct elaborate legal justifications for racial discrimination Population Registration Act of 1950 divided the country into 4 racial categories apartheid architects argued that blacks were not citizens of South Africa Group Areas Act of 1950 blacks were deemed to be citizens of 10 remote quottribal homelandsquot regular elections fairly vigorous press seemingly independent judiciary quashed opposition tolerated mild opposition banned the ANC and PAC UN condemned Apartheid in 1952 ANC waged a guerrilla war against the apartheid regime eventual economic decline only 1 growth mercantilist apartheid policies of selfsufficiency and protectionism creation of industriesservices that were not competitive cornerstone of apartheid economic system race preferencejob protection hindered SOUTH AFRICA developmentefficiency by the mid 1970s leading Afrikaner politicians were convinced that apartheid needed reform paved the way for future democracy FW de Klerk President from 19791994 repealed the Reservation of Separate Amenities Act the Group Areas Act and the Population Registration Act legalized black political parties and freed leaders legalized the ANC released Mandela from prison used perfect credentials as an NP stalwart to persuade NP to accept the transition 1993 Nobel Peace Prize winner SOUTH AFRICA Nelson Mandela leader of the military wing of the ANC int he 19505 imprisoned in 1963 for sabotage and treason spent 27 years in prison 19641990 released at the age of 71 became the first president in 1994 of post apartheid South Africa resigns as ANC chairman in 1997 does not run for reelection won Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 quotthe face of the revolutionquot began negotiations with apartheid while still in jail Thabo Mbeki served as President for 9 years as the second postapartheid president 19992008 forced to resign from the presidency when he was forced to resign after he failed to win re election to the ANC leadership under him economy grew an average rate of 45 created employment in the middle sectors of the economy and oversaw a fastgrowing black middle class with the implementation of Black Economic Empowerment Jacob Zuma current President elected by parliament following his party39s victory in the 2009 general election President of the ANC Deputy President from 1999 to 2005 many legal challenges National Assembly lower house preparespasses legislation to the president can be dissolved by the president can get rid of the president by a vote of no confidence with a 23 majority 400 members 5 year terms approves the national budget SOUTH AFRICA weekly question time can override upper house with 23 vote National Council of Provinces upperhouse 90 members indirectly elected by the 9 provincial legislatures and include the premier of each province each province sends 10 delegates who cast their votes as a bloc when proposed legislation affects provinces the national council can amendreject measures exist to ensure local interests are heard at national level Truth and Reconciliation Commission highest profile effort of bridge building 1995 led by Archbishop Desmond Tutu eStab39iShed a truth of crimes committed on all sides from the time of 1960 Sharpeville Massacres through the outlawing of apartheid in 1994 using that truth as the essential foundation for healing the deep wounds of the era RUSSIA State Duma lower house 450 seats 5 year terms may FGJGCt the president39s nominee if it rejects the nominee 3 times the president must dissolve the Duma and hold new elections more powerful right to initiate and acceptreject legislation Override president39s veto with 23 vote approved the appointment of the PM can call a vote of no confidence in opposition to the PM and his government during the Yeltsin administration the majority of legislation originated in the Duma in the Putin administration most legislation now originates with the president or PM Duma became dominated by a single party loyal to Putin and has thus receded from a significant political role in November 2009 president proposed changing the constitution to extend the terms of the president and the Duma most regular legislation is passed within a day RUSSIA Federation Council upperhouse 166 seats varied terms less powerful serves to represent local interests and acts as a guarantor of the constitution body represents each of the 83 federal administrative units with 2 representatives from each since 2002 one representative has been selected by the governor of each region and another by the regional legislature must approve bills that deal with taxation and budget may consider other Duma legislation if it acts within 2 weeks of the proposal39S passage by the lower house if the DC rejects legislation the two houses compromise to approve it the Duma can override the FC by 23 vote has the ability to approve or reject presidential appointments to the constitutional court declarations of war and martial law and international treaties weighs in publicly on international relations issues with little influence Superpresidentialism an apparatus 01 IOOWer that dwarfs all other agencies in terms of size and the resources it consumes a president who enjoys decree powers legislature that cannot repeal presidential decree court system is declared wholly or mainly by the president and that cannot check presidential prerogatives or abuse of power aka Putin RUSSIA Glasnost the policy or practice of more open consultative 90V fnment and wider dissemination of information initiated by Gorbachev in 1985 increased transparency in government institutions frequently used to specify the policies he believed might help reduce corruption at the top of the Communist Party and the Soviet government and moderate the abuse of administrative power in the Central Committee can also refer to the specific period of the USSR during the 1980s when there was less censorship and greater freedom of information Perestroika political movement for reformation Within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1986 associated with Gorbachev and his glasnost policy reform the meaning is restructuring referring to the restructuring of the Soviet political and economic system argued to the be the cause of the dissolution of the Soviet Union the revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe and the end of the Cold War Shock Therapy rapidly dismantling central planning and freeing up prices with the hope that these actions would stimulate competition and the creation of new businesses wave of hyperinflation in 1992 alone the inflation rate was 2000 savings were wiped out economy sank into recession tensions between Yeltsin and the parliament deepened and fostered the clash between the 2 branches of government in 1993 GDP contracted dramatically and only in the 1990s did it begin to grow again RUSSIA Oligarchs small number of new businessmen that took advantage of the economic environment to start new businesses and buy old ones assumed a lot of wealth noted for control of large amounts of the economy close ties to the Yeltsin administration accusations of corruption surrounding their rise to power problems were compounded in 1996 when the government instituted the loansforshares program Yeltsin administration chose to borrow funds from the oligarchs in return for shares in their businesses foreign investment played a very small role in the privatization process United Russia created from the merger of FatherlandAll Russia in 2001 has won a majority of seats since 2003 boasts a cult of personality around Putin party membership grants individual access to important jobs in the state and economy strongly corporatist tendency campaign platforms have emphasized stability and conservatism economic development and the restoration of the country as a quotgreat powerquot ideology is less important than their role in reinforcing executive rule 2007 Duma elections were evidence that Russia could no longer be considered democratic the media gave overwhelming support to United Russia in 2011 it suffered with ver half of the popular vote going to various parties opposed to United Russia RUSSIA Boris Yeltsin first President of the Russian Federation 1991 to 1999 originally a supporter of Gorbachev emerged under the perestroika reforms as one 01 GIOIfbaCheV s most powerful political opponents faced a set of political institutions that were unchanged sought increased reform but the parliament grew hostile and tried to impeach him on September 1993 Yeltsin responded by dissolving the parliament with support of the army wrote and ratified a new constitution in 1993 facilitated the development of a system that emphasized presidential power ruled under a semipresidential system allowed regions to establish significant autonomy borrowed funds from oligarchs in return for shares in the privatized businesses RUSSIA Vladimir Putin elected President in 2000 after serving as YeltSin s Prime Minister reelected in 2004 selected Medvedev to run for office in 2008 returned to the Presidency in 2002 during his first presidency prime ministers were career bureaucrats chosen for technical expertise or loyalty his appointment to be Prime Minister under Medvedev raised questions about the nature of the semipresidential system in advance of the 2008 elections he made it clear that he expected to become PM in return for his selection of Medvedev to run for president and continued to dominate politics from the weaker office moved the constitutional court from Moscow to St Petersburg further distancing it from political power he first promised to implement a quotdictatorship of lawquot but the result has been more dictatorship than law strongly marginalizes smaller parties through electoral changes and mechanisms that eliminate the presence of small parties in the Duma rigs elections and determines disloyal governors whose districts are not demonstrating the appropriate vote result in his favor keeps civil society under state pressure and control puts strong economic pressure on most of the independent media employing economic and legal tactics to acquire them and curb independence administration faced high rates of poverty inequality and disproportionate power of the oligarchs corruption crime and inefficiencies seen as the architect of the country39s economic transformation RUSSIA Dmitri Medvedev current prime minister easily won Presidential elections in 2008 when Putin hand picked him switched places with Putin in 2012 to be Prime minister criticized by the mayor of Moscow in 2010 for his indecisiveness endorsed by United Russia in 2007 in May 2012 he was appointed officially as the Leader of United Russia top agenda as president was a ranging modernization program aiming at modernizing the economy and society and lessening reliance on oil and gas launched an anticorruption campaign and initiated a law enforcement program Hybrid regime Russia is an example of a hybrid regime calls itself democratic due to holding national meaningful elections but is still authoritarian CHINA PartyState a state in which a single political party rules the entire country the party forms the government all other parties are outlawed or only allowed limited participation Communist Party of China created mass organizations to control society and mobilize social groups to fulfill national goals combination of cooptation responsiveness and censorship and extensive reach of security apparatus has kept a lid on social unrest CHINA China s partystate has retained partial or substantial ownership of many of the private firms Beijing Consensus neomercantilist development model sometimes called the China Model political and economic policies that began after M30 ZeOdOHQ s death and the rehabilitation of Deng Xiaoping coined by Joshua Cooper Ramo to pose China s economic development model as an alternative to the Washington Consensus of marketfriendly policies pragmatic use of innovation and experimentation in the service of peaceful equitable growth the use of stable if repressive politics and economic growth state handle on the levers of capitalism absence of political liberalization strong leading role of the ruling political party population control gradual reform rather than liberal economic shock therapy CHINA Chinese Communist party Chinese Communist Party is the main party in China CCP remains essential for acquiring political influence and status and is financially beneficial for its members offers primary path to political advancement obligatory credential for careers and appointments membership is sought after and selective in 2011 there were more than 80 million registered members 23 million accepted every year from a carefully screened applicant pool of over 20 million 14 of its members are under age 35 4 million are capitalists membership has always been the chief pathway to elite recruitment Since Mao s death China s reformist leaders have successfully broadened the definition of political correctness in an effort to coopt into the ranks of the party those deemed important to the reform program broadened the definition of the party in a 2001 policy known as the Three Represents to include not just workers and peasants but even private entrepreneurs as of 2011 90 of China39s 1000 weaIthiest individuals were either officials or members of the CCP has resisted external challenges and internal decay recent party leaders have effectively employed a mixture of authoritarian controls patriotic nationalist appeals and economic benefits to maintain the GOP s virtual monopoly of political power CHINA Tiananmen Square pro democracy movement here in 1989 first major sign that the Communist party no longer had a monopoly on political ideas studentled popular demonstrations protests forcibly suppressed by hardline leaders who ordered the military to enforce martial law in the country39s capital causes were death of Yaobang economic reform inflation political corruption economic nepotism social unrest in Eastern Europe goals were social equality freedom of the press freedom of speech socialism and democracy deaths and injuries protesters peacefully withdrew after negations with the PLA protest leaders and prodemocracy activists later exiled or imprisoned market reforms delayed media control tightened political reform haltened Reform and Opening changes launched a period of extended unmatched economic growth GDP has grown at an average of 10 since it began in 1978 raised about 400 million out of poverty huge income inequality and social disruption created new avenues of economic and social mobility in China Red capitalists private entrepreneurs who belong to the GOP and have benefited from economic reform and therefore have little reason to challenge the state or make new demand CHINA Mao Zedong founding father of the People39s Repubnc of China chairman of the CCP in 1949 to 1976 marxistlenist theories known as Maoism during his rule the partystate attempted to reshape traditional political culture through massive propaganda mobilization and repression solidified his control through land reforms and campaigns against landlords and other perceived enemies of the state numerous accomplishments including modernizing China and building it into a world power promoting the status of women improving education and health care improving life expectancy also a strong dictator who committed many wrongs in terms of death tolls and famines moved capital to Beijing and directly connected rule to traditional Chinese authoritarianism believed that the key to revolutionary success lay in the ability of the party to create a quotnew socialist manquot and to alter the way people think promoted class struggle emphasized the collective over the individual drawing on traditional Confucian notions sought to transfer loyalty from family to the larger community revolutionary throughout could replace Chinese values and the party could promote these ideas through constant propaganda and slogans mass campaigns and the education system favored political correctness over technical expertise died in 1976 since his death the importance of Maoism has waned current leaders do not desire the type of mass mobilization that was a hallmark of Mao39s China CHINA Deng Xiaoping reformist leader of the CCP who led the country toward market economy never held office as the head of state head of government or General Secretary Was Still the quotparamount leaderquot of China from 1978 1992 under his lead economic reform began gradually as communist leadership shifted focus to creating rapid economic growth late 1978 emphasized that an ability to catch mice expertise and not the color of the cat ideological conformity was the true measure of contribution to China39s progress welcomed professionals scholars and intellectuals into the party Hu Jintao former paramount leader of China between 2002 and 2012 held offices of General Secretary President of China and Chairman of the Central Military Commission member of the 14th to 17th CPC Politburo Standing Committee rise to leadership represented China39s transition of leadership from establishment communists to younger more pragmatic technocrats reintroduced state control in some sectors of the economy that were previously relaxed conservative with political reforms sought to improve socioeconomic equality domestically kept a tight lid on China politically cracking down on social disturbances ethnic minority protests and dissident figures adVOC ted for China s peaceful development CHINA Xi Jinping current head of state President General Secretary of the CCP Chairman of the Central Military Commission ex offcio member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee called for a renewed campaign against corruption continued market economic reforms an open approach to governance and a comprehensive national renewal under the neOIOQism quotChinese dreamquot Iron Rice Bowl Mao s promise to the people that there will always be 3 public goods provided health care food and pensions or unemployment benefits very strong social safety net that Communist China provided form of social contract we rule and in exchange you will get the Iron rice bowl for your whole life important because it does not exist anymore thrown out by Ping with the reforms and opening set of actions by the government politically salient issue because there is no more iron rice bowl factions within the communist party say that we should return to this because it was a major source of legitimacy for the party CHINA National Party Congress legislature nominal authority only elects the Central Committee PartY s cumbersome representative body over 2000 delegates meets too infrequently to conduct any real policy making its sessions have been used as venues for announcing changes in policies and leadership and formally endorsing the ideological line of the party lately it has convened at 5 year intervals delegates represent the more than 80 million members of the CCP organized at the provincial and local levels delegates are left with few if any choices of candidates for the higherlevel bodies highest organ of the state government and state institutions Politburo below the Standing Committee of Politburo above the Central Committee Central committee elects the politburo group of 25 people power is centralized in the Politburo Standing Committee power resides in the fact that its members simultaneously hold positions within China39s state positions and with the control over personnel appointments that the Politburo and Secretariat have some members hold powerful regional positions meets once a month and standing committee meets weekly decisions are made by consensus IRAN Ayatollah Komeini sought to create a theocracy in which a religious elite dominated the regime leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Raza Pahlavi the Shah of Iran became the COUHtFY s supreme leader highest ranking held until his death spent more than 15 years in exile for his opposition to the last Shah expended the Shi a Usuli theory of velayae faqid the quotguardianship of the jurisconsult clerical authority to include theocratic political rule by the Islamic jurists held the total of Grand Ayatollah and is officially known as Imam Khomeini was a figure that the end of times was near since his death the regime has faced the challenge of what Max Weber called quotthe routinization of charismaquot sought to ensure that the principles of the Islamic Republic would be maintained after his death his death in 1989 made liberalization possible IRAN Ayatollah Khamenei President of Iran from 1981 to 1989 Supreme leader since 1989 viewed as unthreatening lacks charismatic or intellectual power or religious authority of the most senior clerics key figure in the revolution and a close confidant of Khomeini Vewed to eliminate quotdeviation liberalism and Americaninfluence leftistsquot vigorous opposition to the regime was answered by state repression and terror helped guide the country during the IraqIran war in the 1980s and developed close ties with the nowpowerful Revolutionary Guards reputation of being deeply interested in the military budget and administrative details continued Khorneini s policy of quotbalancing one group against another making sure that no single side gains too much powerquot brought many of the powers of the presidency with him into office under him the government is said to resemble a clerical oligarchy more than an autocracy stays aloof from day to day politics IRAN Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Elected as President in June 2005 serious blow to the reformers that led to a period of increased conservatism at home and confrontation abroad focus on social justice religious piety and confrontation with the West built a base of support that rivaled Khamenei but over the course of his second term Khamenei was able to check much of the president39s power widespread support from the poor and more conservative 2009 elections pitted him against several rivals including Mir Hussein Mousavi former prime minister from 1981089 won over 60 of the vote thus eliminating the need for a second round sparked massive demonstrations more populist line opposing economic reform and liberalization in favor of reducing poverty and inequality hassan Rouhani 7th president of Iran in office since 2013 expressed official support for upholding the rights of ethnic and religious minorities if elected he said he would prepare a quotCivn rights charterquot restore the economy and improve rocky relations with the West viewed as politically moderate encourages personal freedom and free access to information has improved women39s rights has been described as a centrist and reformist who has improved diplomatic relations with other countries through exchanging conciliatory letters IRAN Assembly of Experts body of 86 members all men and Islamic scholars elected for 8 year terms candidates are vetted in advance of elections limiting peoples choices and ensuring that membership is dominated by clerics who accept the political status quo chooses the supreme leader in theory supervises supreme leader39s activities current laws require that the assembly meet for at least 2 days every 6 months Majlis the legislature unicameral body whose members are directly elected on the basis of universal suffrage 290 members 4 year terms limited power initiates and passes legislation oversees the budget approves the members of the president39s cabinet and can remove them by a vote of no con dence 8 women some seats for religious minorities inherent supremacy of God39s iaw in the Iranian constitution raises questions about the functioning of the legislature role is technically to legislate in accordance with divine law conflicts between them and the president over national policy is common important instrument of local politics Guardian Council 12 individuals who serve 6 year terms 6 lawyers nominated by the chief justice and approved by the Majlis 6 clerics specializing in religious law who are appointed by the supreme leader powers are significant power to review all legislation that derives from the Majlis quotensure its comp ability with the criteria of Islam IRAN and the Constitutionquot may send legislation back to the Majis for revision Expediency Council appointed by the supreme leader for 5 year terms currently headed by Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani a rival to Khamenei who served as the country39s president from 1989 to 1997 final decision cannot be overturned Supreme Leader dominant executive position originally created for Khomeini following the revolution most powerful office created to ensure that a senior cleric is at the helm of politics directing both political and spiritual life serves for life theoretically can be removed for incompetence or failure to uphold his religious duty may decide who is allowed to run for the office of president and can eliminate rivals commander in chief of the army and appoints the heads of the branches of military appoints the chief justice and the directors of radiotv broadcasting given the power to supervise policy and call referenda can be seen as the head of state role in policy is more reigning than ruling looks more like a traditional monarch than any corresponding modern political executive chosen by the Assembly of Experts IRAN lslamism Islamic fundamentalism set of ideologies holding that quotSam Sh0ud guide social and political as well as personal lifequot following the Arab Spring political Islam has been described as quotincreasingly interdependentquot with political democracy lslamists generally oppose the use of the term flaming that their political beliefs and goals are simply an expression of Islamic religious belief some experts favor the term activist Islam or political Islam and some have equated the term militant Islam with lslamism central prominent figures of modern lslamism include Ata Abu Rashta Sayyid Qutb Hasan alBanna and Abdul Ala Maudidi and Ruhollah Khomeini Theocracy quotRule by Godquot how texts serve as foundation for regime and politics religious elite dominates the regime many followers of islam reject the Iranian theocracy for avowing a mistaken form of the faith moved away from devolving power emphasis on the notion of the ummah or community whose members were expected to act as a unified group that served the revolution Velayate faqih Rule by jursists rule by Islamic jurists ISIamiC RepUbliC s political system which places power in the hands of clerics supported by political conservatives replaces the sovereignty of men and women with the sovereignty of God as transmitted by the clergy EGYPT Muslim Brotherhood transnational Islamic political organization founded in Egypt in 1928 by the Islamic scholar Hassan albanns began as a PanIslamic religious and social movement by the end of WWII the MB had an estimated 2 million members ideas gained supporters throughout the Arab world and influenced other lslamist groups with its quotmodel of political activism combined with Islamic charity workquot banned by Nasser in 1956 in 2012 it became the first democratically elected political party in Egypt considered a terrorist organization by the governments of Egypt Russia Syria Saudi Araba and the UAE the goal is to instill the Qur39an and Sunnah as the quotsole reference point forordering the life of the Muslim family individual community and statequot financed by contributions from its members who are required to allocate a portion of their income to the movement Arab Spring at first brought considerable success for the Brotherhood until 2013 Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood was legalized in 2011 when Mubarak was overthrown the MB won several elections including the 2012 presidential election when its candidate Mohamed Morsi became the first democratically elected President On december 25 2013 the Egyptian government declared the MB a terrorist group as a response to an attack on police headquarters in Mansoura EGYPT Arab Spring revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests riots and civil wars in the Arab world that began on 18 December 2010 protests shared some techniques of civil resistance in sustained campaigns involving strikes demonstrations marches and rallies as well as the effective use of social media to raise awareness and communicate in the face of state attempts at censorship demonstrations met with violent responses from authorities major Slogan quotthe people want to bring down the regime widely believed to have been instigated by dissatisfaction with the rule of local governments issues such as dictatorship absolute monarchy human rights violations political corruption economic decline unemployment extreme poverty and demographic structural factors Tunisia Egypt Libya Yeme Bahrain Syria Algeria Iraq Jordan Kuwait Morocco and Sudan Arabs no longer passively accepted authoritarian rule when the people of Tunisia and Egypt overthrew their dictators other Arabs found they could identify With them revolts succeeding gave hope to other Arabs that they could do the same common enemy is their rulers EGYPT Lotus Revolution occurred in Egypt revolution f0 2011 January 25 Revolution popular protests on Tahir square that ended up resulting in the ouster of Mubarak transition that failed to create a democratic state implies a cascade of events specifically deals with the context of the Arab spring and the overthrow and the attempts to transition away from military rule ultimately not successful causes included electoral fraud political censorship widespread corruption high unemployment food price inflation low minimum wages and inspiration from concurrent regional protests result overthrow of Mubarak government assumption of power by the Armed Forces suspension of the constitution disbanding of State Security Investigations Service dissolution of the NDP former ruling party prosecution of Mubarak and his family and former ministers lifting of the 31 year old state of emergency democratic election held to replace Mubarak with Morsi writing of a new constitution additional subsequent protests in response to lVIOVSi s declaration of an lslamistbacked draft constitution ending with his ouster in a second revolution ongoing civil unrest in response to the coup EGYPT Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrew the monarchy to establish a republic in 1952 post colonial leader in the 1960s who tries to establish Egypt as an independent secular authoritarian state in the 1960s the Nasser regime forged a ruling bargain with labor and middle class all political parties were banned and all civil society organizations including trade unions came under the direct control of the regime state provided social and welfare services in the form of government employment food subsidies energy housing transport free education and health care was famous for trying to promote the idea of PanArabism neutralist policies during the Cold War led to tense relations with Western powers popularity in the region grew and calls for pan Arab unity under his leadership increased with the formation of the United Arab Republic with Syria 19581961 in 1962 Nasser began a series of major socialist measures and modernization reforms in Egypt introduced a new constitution in 1964 between 1967 and 1968 Nasser appointed himself prime minister launched a war to regain lost territory and began a process of depoliticizing the military issued a set of political liberalization reforms died in 1970 remains an iconic figure and symbol of Arab dignity in the present day presidency encouraged a cultural boom EGYPT Rentier State theory used to classify states which derive all or a substantial portion of their national revenues from the rent of indigenous resources to external clients Egypt with the Suez Canal Suez canal is a massive source of revenue as it is one of the most important trading hubs in the world gains benefit because the canal is on their territory quotfree moneyquot operates in a similar way to oil or natural gas fuels corruption and makes it so that the state does not need to tax the population as much since they have this steady source of income extracts rent from the canal and gets a great deal of funds from foreign aid supplies Hosni Mubarak former Egyptian President leader and military commander 4th president from 1981 2011 stepped down after 18 days of demonstrations during the 2011 Egyptian revolution Lotus revolution sentenced to life imprisonment in June 2012 August 2013 a court ordered his release as there are no more legal grounds for his detention now under house arrest lead the National Democratic Party NDP and dominated the political system from 1981 to 2011 legal and electoral framework ensured the almost complete dominance of the NDP regime watched NGOs closely because of his positions against Islamic Fundamentalism and diplomacy towards Israel he was the target of repeated assassination attempts political corruption rose dramatically Freedom House reported in 2005 that the government under Mubarak expanded EGYPT bureaucratic regulations registration requirements and other controls that feed corruption EGYPT Social Media Reading After Egypt Lynch protestors effectively used social media in their struggles difficult to demonstrate rigorously that these new media directly caused any of the outcomes with which they have been associated socialmediabased forms of political organization may be effective at mobilizing and channeling leaderless challenges to authoritarian states do not have the usual array of party elites available for repression or cooptation this political tool has a major weakness when the time comes for negotiating the terms of democratic transition and dealing with the challenge of governing in the wake of a change of regime new media has reshaped the structure of political opportunity across an increasingly unified political field but have ambitious effects on the specific mechanisms of authoritarian state power social media offers a powerful tool to protest organizers reducing transaction costs offer transmission routes for reaching international audiences and influencing foreign perceptions do not necessarily translate into enduring movements or into robust political parties capable of mounting a challenge to entrenched regimes or transferring into governing parties social media can strengthen the repression capabilities of authoritarian states new media environment has fundamentally changed the texture of Arab politics but Arab states may yet prove able to adapt and absorb their challenge quotTwitter doesn t cause revolutions but revolutions are tweetedquot EGYPT PanArabism ideology that describes the unification of the countries of North Africa and West Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea closely connected to Arab nationalism asserts that the Arabs constitute a single nation height of popularity during the 1950s and 1960s advocates have often supported socialist principles and strongly opposed Western political involvement in the Arab world sought to empower Arab states from outside forces by forming alliances and economic co operation EGYPT SCAF Supreme Council of the Armed Forces governing body of 21 military officers headed by Abdul Fatah alSisi held only in the case of war or great insurgencies took the power to govern Egypt after Mubarak39s ouster as a consequence of the 2011 revolution during the course of the 2011 revolution the SCAF met in February 2011 under the chairmanship of Mubarak Met on the following day without Mubarak and issued their first press statement which signaled that the council was about to assume power which they did the next day dissolved the Parliament suspended the constitution announced free open presidential and parliamentary elections within 6 months have not yet lifted the emergency law and failed to live up to promises of civilian transfer of power and implementing demands of the revolution declared the Egypt is quotcommitted to all regional and international obligations and treatiesquot interpreted as relating to the EgyptIsrael Peace Treaty heavily criticized polls have shown that the SCAF enjoys wide legitimacy form the people and confidence in their ability to provide free elections Jan 2012 announced that the state of emergency would be partially lifted and power would be handed over to the democratically elected government after election in June 2012 in June 2012 after Morsi39S electionSSCAF passed legislation which gave them control over the process of drafting a new constitution and immunity from civilian oversight EGYPT Mohamed Morsi 5th president of Egypt from June 2012 to July 2013 removed by elSisi after June 2013 protests and the coup data first democratically elected head of state won 517 of the vote against Ahmed Shafik granted himself unlimited powers giving as reason that he would protect the nation from the Mubarakera power structure granted himself the power to legislate without judicial oversight in November he issued an lslamistbacked draft constitution that called for a referendum an act that his opponents called an quotIslamist coupquot issues along with complaints of prosecutions and attacks brought thousands of protesters in the 2012 Egyptian protests in June 2013 a revolution erupted calling for his resignation Morsi was given a 48 hour ultimatum by the military to meet the people39s demands and to solve political differences or else they would intervene by implementing their own road map for the country removed on 3 July 2013 by a military Coup consisting of Defense Minister Fatah al Sisi and others military suspended the constitution and established a new administration headed by the chief justice and initiated a brutal crackdown on the Muslim Brotherhood EGYPT General alSisi military commander who was Commander in Chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces and well as Minister of Defense from August 2012 to March 2014 played leading role in ousting Morsi in the 2013 coup d etat subsequently appointed as First Deputy Prime Minister while remaining Minister of Defense confirmed in March 2014 that he will run for president in the election announced on TV that the president had quotfailed to meet the demands of the Egyptian peoplequot and declared that the constitution would be suspended many Islamist movements such as the MB rejected the change of regime as a military coup which they described as quotiuegitimatequot and quotantidemocratic In july 2013 EISisi called for mass demonstrations to grant the military and police a mandate to crack down on terrorism some interpreted this to mean that EISisi felt the need of the people to prove to the world that it wasn39t a coup but popular will statement was seen by others as contradicting the militarY s pledges to hand over powers to civilians after removing Morsi and as indicating an imminent crackdown against Islamists in August 2013 in an interview he criticized the US response and accused the Obama administration of disregarding the popular will and providing insufficient support amid threats of a civil war
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'