exam 2 study guide waguspack
exam 2 study guide waguspack psyc 3341
Colegio La Salle de Veracruz
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Chapter 4 Exam 2 Study Guide 1 Know the synthesis major pathways receptors and some drugs that affect each of the NT systems Ach NE 5HT DA a Ach i ii b 5 HT i ii iii C DA i ii d NE i ii iii iv Receptors Nicotinic ionotropic Muscarinic Metabotropic Activates second messenger pathway Drugs that affect Ach botulinum toxin Black widow venom Hemicholiium neostigmine muscarine nicotine atropine curare Tryptophan interacts w tryptophan hydroxylase Serotonin Drugs that affect 5HT PCPA Reserpine Fen uramine Fluoxetine Prozac LSD MDMA All DA receptors are metabotropic Drugs that affect DA AMPT Reserpine LDOPA Deprenyl Methylphenidate Cocaine Amphetamine Chlorpromazine Clozapine Receptors metabotropic Slow depolarization Slow hyperpoarization Drugs that affect NE Fusaric Acid Reserpine Idazoxan Desipramine Moclobemide MDMA Amphetamine 2 Know the enzymes that break down each NT ie AChE vs MAO What happens if you inhibit these enzymes say with a drug Acetylcholinesterase breaks Ach into base components Choline and acetate Monoamine Oxidase MAO is an enzyme found in the terminal buttons of neurons that secrete monoamines 3 What is reuptake What happens if you block presynaptic reuptake transporters Do we have drugs that do this for certain neurotransmitters ie 5HT and what might they be used for a it is when the surplus neurotrnasmitter is taken back into the presynaptic cell thus blocking postsynpatic potential b Drugs that block presynaptic reuptake transporters Fluoxetinels used to treat depressionsome forms of anxiety disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder Fen uramineCauses the releases of serotonin as well as inhibits its reuptake appetite suppressant Lsddistortions of visual perceptions Mdmaboth noradrogenic and a serotonergic agonist and has both excitatory and hallucinogenic effectscauses noradrenogenic transporters to run backwards thus causing the release of NE and inhibiting its reuptake 4 Which neurotransmitters are most plentiful in the brain What is the general function of these NTs Know the roes of each of the NTs we discussed in class Ach DA NE 5HT GABA Glutamate a Ach DA NE 5HT GABA Glutamate b DopamineProduces both excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentialsdepending on the postsynaptic receptornvoved in movment attentionearningand the reinforcing effects of drugs that people tend to abuse c Norepinephrine is found in neurons in the autonomic nervous system this neurotransmitter has received much experimental attentions synonmous with adrenaline d Acetylcholineis a the primary neurotransmitter secreted by different axons of the peripheral nervous systemAl muscular movement is accomplished by the release of acethochoine e 5HT or serotonin plays a role in the regulation of mood control of eatingseepand arousaand in the regulation of paint is a indoamine neurotransmitter f GlutamateAn amino acidthe most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brainProduces postsynaptic potentials by activating postsynaptic receptorsthey also have direct excitatory effects glutamic acid and inhibitory effects GABA on axonsthey raise or lower the threshold of excitationthus affecting the rate at which action potentials occur g Gabamost important inhibitory neurotransmitter 5 between ionotropic and metabotropic receptors Which is fast direct and short Which is slow indirect and longer lasting a GABAaionotropic controls a chloride channel i Has ve binding sites for the following GABA picrotoxin barbiturate and alcohol steroid and benzodiazepine b GABAbmetabotropic controls a potassium channel producing IPSPs 6 What is myasthenia gravis How does it produce muscle weakness a A weakness and rapid fatigue of muscles under voluntary control b Muscle weakness occurs when acetychoine cannot activate enough receptor sites at the neuromuscular junction 8 What are the names of the major NT nuclei for the acetychoine and the monoamines Where are these nucei located a Acetylcholine NT is located at neuromuscularjunction b Monoamines serotonin dopamine norepinephrine and epinephrine 9 Know the two different DA pathways discussed in class one of these has two subdivisions Where do they start Where do they connect to What are their general functions a Mesolimbic DA Pathwaybegins in VTA and projects to amygdala hippocampus and nucleus accumbens this pathway is the primary reward system in the brain b Mesocortical DA Pathwaybegins in VTA and projects to the prefrontal cortex this pathway is important in working memory and executive functions planning strategy formation initiation etc 11What is the general effect of stimulating the GABAa receptor What happens if you overstimulate it What happens if you completely block it Be able to recognize drugs or compounds that do one or the other Why is the balance between GABA and glutamate in the brain important hint consider what happens if you have too much of one or the other 12Understand how the NMDA glutamate receptor works What two things have to happen before it will open and allow ions to pass through When it is active which ions pass through What is the effect electrically of the activation of the NMDA receptor on the postsynaptic membrane a is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells Picture on power point b Activation of NMDA receptors results in the opening of an ion channel that is nonselective to cations with a reversal potential near 0 mV A property of the NMDA receptor is its voltagedependent w c It is activated when glutamate and glycine or Dserine bind to it and when activated it allows positivelv charged ions to ow through the in membrane The NMDA receptor is very important for controlling synaptic plasticity and memory function The NMDAR is a speci c type of ionotropic glutamate receptor Chapter 6 13What is a sensory receptor What does it do What is the process that sensory receptors are responsible for hint this is just the technical name for the process that sensory receptors do a Specialized neurons that detect a particular category of physical events b Sensory system is highly evolved and processes thousands of incoming messages simultaneously This complexity allows you to be aware of your surroundings and take appropriate actions 14What are the 3 characteristics of light that we talked about in class How does each of these qualities change as the wave form of light changes ie what happens to these when the wavelength gets shorter The amplitude gets bigger Etc a Hue the dominant wavelength b Brightness intensity c Saturation purity d Look at 62 IMAGE 15What is the fovea What does it do Where is it located roughly Is it lled with rods cones or both For that matter what are rods and cones and what function do they serve a The fovea is the center most part of the macula This tiny area is responsible for our central sharpest vision A healthy fovea is key for reading watching television driving and other activities that require the ability to see detail Unlike the peripheral retina it has no blood vessels It s a region of the retina that mediates the most acute vision of birds and higher mammals Colorsensitive cones constitute the only type of photoreceptor found in the fovea b cones c Rod sensitive to light of low intensity d Cone maximally sensitive to one of three different wavelengths of light and hence encodes color vision 16What is the optic disk Why does it create a quotblind spotquot that we are usually unaware of a location of the exit point from the retina of the bers of the ganglion cells that form the optic nerve responsible for the blind spot b The blind spot is a result of the optic nerve connecting with the back of your eyeball Everything you see is the result of light falling on your retina which is a layer of light sensors called photoreceptors lining the inside of your eyeball There is a gap in the retina right where the optic nerve connects so any light that falls there doesn39t hit any photoreceptors and so isn39t quotseenquot by that eye Since the blind spot lies in a different part of the visual eld for each eye usually the information not sensed by one eye can be quot lled inquot with information from the other eye 17Which cells in the retina are responsible for generating action potentials What kind of potentials do other cells of the retina produce a Neural tissue and photoreceptive cells located on the inner surface of the posterior portion of the eye b Photoreceptors one of the receptor cells of the retina transduces photic energy into electrical potentials 18Trace the path of visual information through the entire visual system from eye to cortex Understand which bers cross and where where visual information from each visual eld ends up and what happens to someone s vision if you cut optic bers at various points a I think this has to do with an image 19What is convergence and how does it relate to visual acuity Hint compare convergence in the fovea vs the rest of the retina a The rotation of both eye balls inward in the direction of light so the visual lies on correlating spots on the foveas It allows the minutely variant visuals of an item viewed by each eye ball to join one another and shape one visual 20Where does the dorsal visual stream originate and terminate and what kind of information does it process What about the ventral stream What types of de cits might you experience with damage to either a Dorsal visual stream begins in striate cortex and ends in posterior parietal cortex it processes the perception of spatial location b Ventral stream begins in striate cortex and ends in inferior temporal cortex it processes the perception of form c Damage to either one would cause dif culties in knowing the position of objects in space and recognizing the form of objects 21What is agnosia What do I mean when I say that it is quotmodality speci cquot What area would likely be damaged to produce visual object agnosia d Agnosia is the inability to process sensory information e Modality speci c refers to the sense that is affected f Posterior occipital lobe 22What is prosopagnosia Which area is damaged to produce it g The inability to recognize faces h Damage to the fusiform gyrus produces it Chapter 7 23What is sound How is it produced What are the three qualities of sound waves that we discussed in class how do they relate to the waveform properties of sound ie wavelength etc and how do they compare to the properties of light i Sound is the reception of waves and their perception by the brain j It is produced by the vibration of objects which set molecules of air into motion k The 3 qualities of sound waves are pitch loudness and timbre 24What are the parts of the ear involved in sound transduction How does this process take place hint consult the video we watched in class I Tympanic membrane auditory ossicles the boney labyrinth and hair cells m It takes places through a series of vibrations 25What is a tonotopic map Which two parts of the auditory system have a tonotopic arrangement and which of the three properties of sound are coded in these arrangements n Tonotopic maps are a particular case of topographic organization similar to retinotopy in the visual system Tonotopy in the auditory system begins at the cochlea the small snaillike structure in the inner ear that sends information about sound to the brain o The cochlea and something else 26Be able to trace the pathway of auditory information through the central nervous system hint remember ECOLI MA GOOGLE A PICTURE p E eighth nerve action potential wave l q C cochlear nucleus wave H r O olivary complex superior wave III S L lateral lemniscus wave IV t I inferior colliculus wave V 27What kinds of information do cutaneous receptors give us What about free nerve endings What is a nociceptor u Cutaneous receptors give us info on pressure vibration heating cooling and tissue damage v Free nerve ending respond to temperature and pain w Nociceptor is a receptor of a nerve cell that responds to potentially damaging stimuli by sending signals to the spinal cord and brain This process called nociception usually causes the perception of pain 28How do we trigger the sensation of pain What happens when we receive a painful stimulus ls pain useful x We trigger the sensation of pain by damage to the tissue y The cell receives the stimuli and send the signal to the spinal cord and brain and skips any inhibitor so that the signal gets there as fast as possible 2 It is useful because it lets us know of danger for example if you touch a hot iron you pull your hand away immediately because you feel the pain so you know it s dangerous 29Which thalamic nuclei does somatosensory information pass through on its way to the cortex aaMedial geniculate nucleus 30What is the somatosensory homunculus Where is it located How is it arranged on the cortex ie which areas of the cortex receive sensory information from which part of the body abThe somatosensory homunculus Sensory info from different parts of the body is processed by speci c regions of the primary somatosensory cortex ac It is in the cerebral cortex Chapter 8 31Which type of neuron is responsible for skeletal muscle contraction What is the name of the place where these neurons and muscles meet and what neurotransmitter is active here adApha motor neuron is responsible for skeletal muscle contraction aeNeuromuscuar junction af Acetylcholine is active here 32What are the major pathways of the lateral group What functions do they serve How about the ventromedial group hint consult the tables in the book or the ppt for a concise summary agMajor pathways of the lateral group i the corticospinal tract grasping and manipulating objects ii the corticobulbar tract face and tongue movements iii the rubrospinal tract movement of hands and forearms ahMajor pathways of the ventromedial group i Vestibulospinal tract posture ii Tectospinal tract coordination of eye movements with those of trunk and head iii Lateral reticulospinal tract walking iv Medial reticulospinal tract walking v Ventral corticospinal tract locomotion and posture 33What is the motor homunculus How is it arranged on the cortex ie which areas of the cortex control which part of the body Are all parts of the body represented equally in the motor homunculus Why or why not al Eupplemenlaw imijtijr area quot Pr m l r m Primary rn t r E lFTE39iIE Leg abdomen Toes 39 Shouldlalr Firth ButtDelta ggw Forearm a Geruirlale F alrn i EmLE 1 v Fingers 39 is x 1 H n K I f a h 1 gt A lquot 1 Thumb r e39 w 3 w 1 i I39ll ii I39ll I lquot 3 l V 39339 quotu l 7 7 u L IRE 77 T I II n39 39 fquot lgquot I quot ll x g aL f l Mquot NHquot quot E 757quot 39 l a I r I A Face rl 3 Lips quot39 Neck M E Tongue a r g maxiHa a quotTR f quot v 39 r or wry 456 SW II WIln Q aj Not all parts of the body are equally represented because some parts are more sensitive than others hands vs lowerback 34Where do neurons in the primary motor cortex receive their inputs from hint there are multiple brain areas involved akTemporal lobe occipital lobe parietal lobe prefrontal cortex premotor cortex supplementary motor area 35What contributions does the parietal lobe make to motor control hint consider the role of the parietal reach region al It helps with perception of space and location of limbs am Parietal reach region region in the medial posterior parietal cortex that plays a critical role in control of pointing or reaching with the hands 36What is apraxia What causes it anlt s a motor disorder caused by damage to the brain in which someone has dif culty with the motor planning to perform tasks or movements when asked provided that the request or command is understood and heshe is willing to perform the task aoCaused by injury to left hemisphere of the brain usually the frontal and parietal lobes 37Understand the circuitry of the basal ganglia Where does it get inputs from Where do its outputs go What are the direct indirect and hyperdirect pathways and what effect does each produce when it is active What are the three structures or nuclei that comprise the basal ganglia Which two of these structures comprise the neostriatum or striatum ap 7 Primary meter F rirr39luatryr acvrnla tcaelrlecry Supplmentaw ccrtex 39 mictar area Preemppiementary mater area IF remct t39 ccrtex Dcpaminergic excua Excited lay cliirect pathway quotf inhibited by indirect pathway VMVL thalamue Cal g Wat39s a g I r p m and patamen lHypercllrect 39 ELItract i pathway quotA pathan 4 t direct 39 pathway 7 Glebue pallidue r t ifquot external if aubthalamic nucleus Excitath effectig 7 V V V an D1 receiptch 39 39 GIlleUE patlidue I internal llmll39liciltcry39 effect Inmrem 7 an D2 receptcra pathway Tc mlcvtcr nuclei in the crate etem ventrcmedial Subatantia nigra system mi aqThree nuclei that comprise the basal ganglia causdate nucleus putamen and globus pallidus ar Neostriatum is made up of caudate nucleus and putamen 38What is the function of the premotor cortex What kind of specialized neurons are located in the ventral premotor cortex and what makes them active What is the function of the supplementary motor cortex as Premotor cortex involved in learning and executing complex movements guided by sensory information at Mirror neurons are in the ventral premotor cortex and are activated by when a particular movement is made or when one sees another make that movement auThe function of the supplementary motor cortex is movement guided by ones will instead of as a response to sensory input Also the control of sequences of movement
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