Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide 112
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Philosophy 112 Final Exam Guide Film Mindwalk jack Edwards former presidential candidate Sonia Hoffman Norwegian scientist Thomas Harriman former speechwriter Meeting the two men in the monastery bell tower Sonia states that the clock became the model of the cosmos and then they mistook the model for the real thing People got the idea that nature was just a giant clock not a living organism but a machine She says that Descartes was the primary architect of this view particularly his conception of the human body as a machine Would Descartes plead guilty to this charge Sonia argues that many of life s problems starvation rainforest depletion health problems are interconnected and they can never be solved by looking at each in isolation Jack responds Supposing you re right and everything is interconnected with everything else as you say Still you ve got to start somewhere don t you So that s the real political question here where do you start Sonia answers By changing the way we re seeing the world You see you re still searching for the right piece to fix first You don t see that all the problems are fragments of one single crisis a crisis of perception Why can t Jack s approach serve as a solution to this crisis of perception Sonia explains what matter consists of at the subatomic level there is only empty space with probability patterns of interconnections She states The essential nature of matter lies not in objects but in interconnections As these interconnections extend out from objects all things are then interconnected at the subatomic level Ultimately whether we like it or not we re all part of one inseparable web of relationships Even if Sonia s view is true we nevertheless draw clear moral and legal boundaries between ourselves and others such as regarding property and bodily integrity Once we grant individual moral autonomy doesn t Sonia s rigid holistic view of things collapse In defense of her view that scientists are responsible for the consequences of their discoveries she notes that some Native American tribes made all of their important decisions with the seventh generation of their descendents in mind This she believes is how scientists should think about their work instead of simply as pure research As with utilitarianism doesn t the Native American perspective fall prey to the problem of omniscience namely that we need to know a lot about how the future of the world would be affected by our various choices Introduction to Systems Theory Reading Meditations on First Philosophy 1 amp 2 Descartes The Problem of Perception Meditation 1 quotWhat can be called into doubtquot meditator re ects on the number of falsehoods he has believed during his life and falsehoods he has built up from this body of knowledge He decides to erase all he thinks he knows and to start over from the foundations building up his knowledge once more on certain grounds He reasons that he only needs to nd some reason of doubt in order to seek sturdier foundations for his knowledge Rather than doubt every one individually he reasons that he might cast them all into doubt if he can doubt the foundations and basic principles on which they are formed Everything he accepts as true he has learned from his senses He acknowledges that sometimes senses can deceive but only with respect to objects that are very small or far away and that our sensory knowledge is sturdy as a whole Insane people might be more deceived but he writes it off and sees himself as sane However he realized that when he is dreaming his senses trick him Though his present sensations may be dream images he suggests that when he wakes up from experience he realizes it was not real When a painter paints something unreal like a mermaid he draws from real things like a woman and a s even when it is new it is drawn from real experiences like dreams He concludes he can doubt composite things but not what they are constructed from like shape quantity size time etc he doubts studies based on these things like medicine astronomy or physics we cannot doubt studies based on simple things though like arithmetic and geometry Yet he realizes even simple things can be doubted Omnipotent god could make math false Proves it is difficult to justify skepticism Believing there is no god makes room for more doubt to assume our perfect senses were not made by a perfect being Finds it almost impossible to keep his opinions and assumptions out of his head resolves to pretend they are false and imaginary Supposes a demon has committed itself to deceive him Doubt is a powerful tool against Aristotelian philosophy His method in rst motivation is to start a new position in the Aristotelian philosoohers minds that thev would agree with and then subtly seduce them away from it He must do this in order for his ideas to be understood It is an effort to coax them away from their customary opinions and read different interpretations into the stages of doubt Meditation 6 Meditator considering the existence of material things Accepts a strong possibility they exist because of math which he can perceive clearly First distinguishes imagination and pure understanding In a triangle he can perceive it is three sided and derive other properties from that understanding alone He can perceive them with imagination by picturing the triangle in his minds eye However when he thinks about a thousand sided gure his imagination is weak Dif cult to still differentiate that mental image from one with 999 sides However the pure understanding in mathematical relations can perceive all properties of a thousand sided gure just as easily as a triangle Because of how week it is the imagination cannot be an essential property of the mind since the meditator would still exist if he could not imagine He thinks it is not unreasonable to suppose his senses come from an outside source Meditator is puzzled why his mind seems attached to one particular body which he calls his own Why does he feel pain etc but not in any other body And why should the tugging of the stomach of that body suggest to his mind that he is hungry He concludes that he is only a thinking thing in essence The body is an extended in space time but the mind is not so he can conclude he is distinct from his body and can exist without it Reasons that imagination and the senses are modes of thought because he could conceive of himself without them so they are not essential to him but those things could not exist without a mind to contain them Body and mind are separate from one another cannot claim heat color taste in an object resides in it the same way he percieves it Nature teaches us to seek pleasure and avoid pain but does not teach us to draw conclusions about material objects based only on sensory perception Correct judgment relies on intellect alone and not the senses Body is divisible mind is indivisible Why you crave bad food when youre sick when you know it will make you sicker It is the whole mind that imagines though not separate parts of it but bodies can be easily divided Only the pineal gland can send messages from body to mind Philosophy of Mind Meditation 2 Supposes what he sees does not exist memory is a faulty He has no senses and no body that extension movement and place and mistaken notions Only thing he is certain of is there is no certainty Notes that the physical world does not exist which might also seem to imply his nonexistence And yet to have these doubts he must exist There must be an quotIquot that can doubt and be deceived He concludes that since he thinks he exists but can only be sure that he is a thing that thinks he also knows that he is able to understand and imagine If he is a thinking thing then why does he have such a hard time identifying this quotIquot that thinks He considers how we come to know a pieve of wax just taken from a honeycomb through senses or by some other means He considers we know taste smell color shapr size hardness Then he asks what happens when it is placed mnear the re and melted all the qualities changeour knowledge that it is still the same wax could not come from the senses along He knows this by intellext alone Reading Brains in a Vat Putnam if similarity is not necessary or suf cient to make something represent something else how can anything be necessary or suf cient for this purpose How can one thing represent a different thing If the and had seen Winston Churchill and it had intellegence and skill to draw a picture of him it produced it intentionally and therefore it would have represented him On the other hand if it was an accident it would have not represented him In order for it to represent him it must have been able to think about Churchill in the rst place How can thought reach out and quotgraspquot what is external No physical object can in itself refer to one thing rather than another only the thought in the minds do So thoughts must have a different nature than physical objects Thoughts can intend things and refer to other things Resemblance does not make it real only intention can make It a representation 1 If I know that P then I know that I am not a brain in a vat 2 I do not know that I am not a brain in a vat 3 Thus I do not know that P If you cannot be sure you are not a brain in a vat you cannot rule out that all of your beliefs of the external world are false P stands for any belief or claim about the external world Since the brain in a vat gives and receives exactly the same impulses as it would if it were in a skull and since these are its only way of interacting with its environment then it is not possible to tell from the perspective of that brain whether it is in a skull or a vat However if one is a utilitarian then one should behave as though the external world is real If one believes it is not real it follows that other humans do not exist and therefore cannot be helped or harmed by ac ons Film The Matrix reality percieved by most humans is a simulation called the matrix created by sentient machines to subdue human population Neo learns the truth and is drawn into a rebellion against the machines with others freed from the dream world Similar to Platos allegory of the cave Trinity a hacker is cornered in an abandoned hotel by police she escapes but is pursued by agents with superhuman abilities After picking up a phone in a telephone booth she vanishes Thomas Anderson Keanu is a computer programmer who is also a hacker that goes by Neo He is puzzled by online encounters with the phrase the matrix Trinity contacts him and explains that Morpheus will tell him everything Agents led by agent smith attempt to stop them from meeting Neo meets Morpheus who con rms that Neo can either choose to swallow a red pill or a blue pill the red shows him the truth of reality He does this and he awakens in a liquid lled vessel nding him and many other humans connected to cables in an electrical system He is rescued and goes to Morpheus39 hovercraft He explains humans waged war against intelligent machines they had created They blocked their access to solar energy so the machines began to harvest human bioelectricity instead The matrix is a shared simulation of the world in 1999 where the minds are trapped Neo has been living in it since birth Morpheus is a rebel with a group who hack into the matrix and unplug enslaved humans The understanding of true nature of the simulation allow them to bend physical laws Neo is warned fatal injuries in the matrix will also harm his real body and hat the agents are powerful programs that eliminate threats to the system Morpheus believes that Neo is quotthe onequot a man prophesied to end the war The group visits the matrix to see the oracle who predicted this She implies Neo is not the one and warns he will have to choose between his life and the life of morpheus The agents nd them and Morpheus allows himself to be captured so that neo and his crew can escape They are stopped though by Cypher a man who betrayed Morpheus in return for a comfortable life in the Matrix Cypher disconnects and murders several crew members before he is killed by Tank Agents interrogate morpheus in an attempt to learn his access codes to the mainframe computer in Zion the rebel humans39 last refuge in the real world Neo proposes returning to the matrix to rescue Morpheus believing he is not the one Trinity accompanies him They rescue him and Neo is con dent in his abilities Smith ambushes and kills neo before he can leave In the real world the machines attach the ship while trinity stands over neo and whispers that he is the one because the oracle told her she would fall in love with him She kisses neo and he comes back with new powers to perceive and control the matrix He destroys smith and leaves the matric and disables the machines Some time later he makes a phone call in the matrix promising the machines he will show the prisoners a quotworld where anything is possiblequot He ends the call and ies into the sky Reading What Mary Didn t Know jackson Mary is con ned to a black and white room is educated through black and white books through lectures relayed on black and white television She learns everything there is to know about the physical nature of the world She knows all the facts about us and our environment including all sciences lf physicalism is true she knows all there is to know To suppose otherwise is to suppose that there is more to know than every physical fact and that is what physicalism denies hysicalism noncontroversial thesis that the actual world is largely physical but the challenging thesis that its entirely physical Mary does not know all there is to know when she is given a color tv or let out of the room she will learn what it is like to see something in color This is learning so physicalism is false Powers of imagination are not the point Even though she knows all there is to know about sciences she could not imagine what it is like to sense red she would not know But if physicalism is true she could know and no great powers of imagination would be called for Imagination is a faculty that those who lack knowledge need to fall back on She lacked knowledge about the experiences of others not about her own When she is let out she has new experiences it is not an objection that she learns something things change and you learn with time What she did not know until her release is not a physical fact about their experiences but it is a fact about them That is the trouble for physicalism The brain is beyond physical as is perception Implication All physical knowledge of color is given to mary without seeing it if she learns more after seeing it them there was some knowledge about human color vision that she did not have before her release proving physicalism wrong Film What Dreams May Come Chris nielson robin williams is a pediatrician while vacationing he meets an artist annie collins They bond as if they have known each other for a long time They marry and have kids Ian and Marie who die in a car crash Life becomes difficult annie suffers a mental breakdown and they contemplate divorce but manage through Chris is killed in another car crash unaware he is dead he lingers on earth he sees annies attempts to cope with his loss and tries to communicate with her despite advice from a presence that it will cause her more pain After his attempts cause more sorrow he decides to move on He wakes up in heaven and learns his immediate surroundings can be controlled by his imagination He meets a man he recognizes as albert who was a mentor from his medical residency Albert guides and helps in this new afterlife A blue tree appears in chris surroundings matched by a tree in a painting by annie she believs that she can communicate with him in the afterlife Albert explains that it is a sign they are soul mates Annie decides chris cannot see the painting and destroys it He nds his daughter Annie is unable to cope and decides to commit suicide Chris is relieved but grows angry when he learns those who commit suicide go to hell chris tries to rescue her from hell but albert says nobody has ever succeeded in doing soAbert agres to help chris nd a tracker to help nd armies soul Chris realizes that albert is his son He chose albets appearance because he knew chris would listen to albert without reservation lan begs chris to remember how he saved his marriage Chris must walk across the eld of faces of the damned they can be heard talking Chris and the tracker arrive and a dark version of their old house The tracker reveals himself as the real albert and warms chris if he stays with annie he may be permanently trapped in hell Annie is suffering from amnesia unable to remember her suicide Unable to stir her memories the tracker sees chris give up his quest but instead of returning to heaven chris decides to stay with annie forever in hell She regains her memories while chris is making her nightmare his Annie wants to save chris and ascends to heaven bringing him with her They are reunited with their kids in heaved and chris proposes reincarnation so they can experience life together again The lm ends with them meeting as children in a situation parllel to their rst time meeting Reading Minds Brains and Programs Searle Researchers in Artificial Intelligence AI and other fields often suggest that our mental activity is to be understood as like that of a computer following a program Our brains are simply massive information processors with a great deal of working and longterm memory Many in A1 would subscribe to functionalism what matters for mental activity is not the physical materials making up a system but rather its patterns of responses to environmental input What Searle calls strong AI insists therefore that any appropriately programmed computer would exhibit a genuine mental life and understanding Searle calls this intentionality similar to our own Searles aim is to show that this is manifestly false The Turing Test roughly Anything capable of conducting a conversation well enough to fool a typical human questioner or interlocutor into thinking that it is conversing with a genuine human ought to be deemed intelligent Turing conceived of this as a test for machine intelligence Reading Mad Pain and Martian Pain Lewis two forms of pain quotmad painquot is a human being except when his brain is in a state of pain mind turns to math and begins to snap his ngers He is not inclined to prevent the pain from occuring Pain is relative to a species implying the man who exhibits mad pain is an exception He is in painbecause instantiated in him is that physical state which is normally an instantation of pain in his specied quothe feels pain but his pain does not at all occupy the typical casual rold of painquot quotmartian painquot is not human but when subject to pain will react the same way that humans do He is strongly inclined to prevent whatever stimulus is causing discomfort however it is different because pain is identical with in ation of cavities in his feet The martian is in pain because it is relevant to his species quot he feels pain but lacks the bodily states that either are in pain or else accompany it in usquot Film Arti cial In telligence David is a robot built ends up loving his mom even though she wants to get rid of him Reading 0f Identity and Diversity Locke What makes up a human person Human body is necessary but not enough to comprise identity of a person stil necessary but memories are the most important A person is different than man ManBody Reading Reasons and Persons Par t Ethical egoism people act morally out of their own self interest self interest theorists consider the differences between different people at the same time as signi cant in terms of rationality but do not consider differences between the same person and different times as signi cant But if a reductionist theory of personal identity holds then the difference between different people at the same time is more like the difference between the same person at different timesSo if non reductionism is true self interest theories are inconsistent in viewing spatial relations as signi cant but temporal relations insigni cant Thus the foundations of self interest theories are undermined by non reductionism which lends support to the present ain theory of rationality the critical version which par t favors Personal identity At time 1 there is a person at time 2 later there is a person these people seem to be the same person and share the same memories and personality trraits but there are no further facts in the world that make them the same person Film Tuvix and the Sea that Thinks Is this real What do I think see Screenwriter looking for a connection between separate scenes in his story does what he types types what he does illusion and reality mix let go of bad thoughts and be happy Nothing is what it seems She is a tree robbed of happiness because of illusion The greatest illusion is that the lm is really about the viewer trying to make sense of it all Reading A Diologue Perry Survival to survive means that there would be someone for whom it would be appropriate for me to anticipate having their future experiences You are here now then in the future there will be someone who is you exact similarity does not amount to identity Proble of personal identity how do we identify one person at one time that is the same person at another time Unlike kleenex boxes we have immaterial minds or sould that allow us to track identity across time To say that one person is identical to another is to say they have the same immaterial soulsOn earth there is a correlation between body and soul Analogy with the river what allows us to say that the river we see here is the same as over here is that they are appropriately connected Personal identity is not at all mysterious We simply employ a straighforward bodily criterion Experience is the only source of judgment we cannot decide any question is fact or existence Everything ows temporary physical bodies Film Zardox Human population is divided by quoteternalsquot and quotbrutalsquot mortals Bruts grow food in a wasteland for eternals Eternals live aimlessly in comfort Zardoz ying stone head orders brutal exterminators to kill the brutals his aim is to breed supermen who could save mankind from the stagnant status quo Zardoz supplies them with weapons in exchange for food they collect An exterminator hides on zardox and kills its operator temporarily he goes to the vortex and is made prisoner they keep him alive for study Eternals are overseen by Al tabernacle limitless lifespan makes them bored and corrupt meditation replaces sleep babies are not born To give life more meaning there are complex social rules installed Violaters are turned old when they die they are reborn as an identical baby Eternals welcome death Reading Utilitarianism Mill Reading Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals Kant philosophy divided into three rlds physics the physical world ethics morals logic logical principles These elds may involve either empirical study of our experiences or quotpurequot analysis of concepts quotmetaphysicsquot is the study of pure concepts as they relate to moral or physical experience People assume moral principles must apply to all rational beings at all places and times Moral principles must therefore be based on concepts of reason as opposed to culture or personality Actions are moral if and only if they are undertaken for the sake of morality alone without any ulterior motive the moral quality of an action is judged not according to the actions consequences but the motive that produced it Actions are moral if and only if they are undertaken out of respect for moral law as opposed to some other motivation such as need or desire moral law must be a general formula that is applicable in all situations rather than commanding speci c actions it must express principle that actions should be undertaken with pure motives without consideration of consequences and out of pure reverence for the law We should act in such a way that we could want the maxim of our action to become a universal law Nearly impossible to nd examples of pure moral actions Nearly every action we observe can be attributed to some interest or motivation other than pure morality Yet this should not discourage us moral principles come from reason not experience They could not come from experience bc all experiences depend on particular circumstances where moral principles have absolute validity independant of circumstances catergorical imperative may be expressed according to the same formula as the moral law when people violate this they apply a different standard to their own behavior than they would want applied to everyone else as universal law This contradiction violates the principles of reason May also be formulated as a requirement that we must not treat other rational beings as mere means to our own purposes Rational beings can pursure predetermined ends by means of will yet in their goals they never think of themselves as mere means to another purpose they are themselves the purpose of action they are their own ends If we treat other rational beings as mere means we contratict that they are ends in themselves Our principles could not be universal laws in that case and we would violate the categorical imperative Ex rational beings are ends in themselves is to say that they are also the authors and subjects of principles they execute through their will All that we may know is that we have a concept of freedom of the will and that morality may be based on this concept Film Fail Safe Cold war accidental rst shot red await nal instruction by proceeding toward soviet targets general black ordered to drop same nuclear bomb to avoid nuclear holocaust Reading What Makes Right Actions Right Ross Rejects deotological and utilitarianism ethics ethics not reduced to a single good but right actions produce the most good overall so there is no need to consider the greater good Resulting from promises prior relationships consequences Film Crimes and Misdemeanors Judeth is ophthalmologist cliff is a lmmaker Judeth he is having an affair with a ight attendant named Dolores she threatens to tell his wife since he wont end his marriage He con des in a Rabbi Going blind Ben advises to be honest but he doesn t want to lose his marriage Jack Judas brother hires a hitman to kill Dolores Sees her corpse and feels guilty turns to religion for the rst time he felt god was watching him Cliff despises brother in law who he is hired to document Cliff falls in love with lesters associate producer Hailey in a failing marriage with Lester s sister tries to woo hailey Prof Levy a philosopher commits suicide quotlve gone out the windowquot Haley and Lester get engaged writes her a love letterJudah and Cliff meet at the rabbis daughters wedding Judah says with time any crisis will pass cliff says instead one is forever faced to bear ones burden for crimes and misdemeanors Reading Outline of a System of Utilitarian Ethics Smart smart advocates a modern and sophisticated version of utilitarianism tries to formulate a consistent elaboration or doctrine that the rightness and wrongness of actions is determined solely by their consequences and for the sum total of human happiness Bernard Williams offers a critique of these assumptions suggesting that the theory of action fails to engage at a serious level with the real problems of moral and political philosophy and fails to make sense of integrety or even human hapiness itself Both agree its importance it cuts across numerous different philosophical disputes and combines a systematic account of ethical problems with a distinctive and substantive moral stand The book begins with a definition and defense of utilitarianism by JJC Smart He explains that his belief is in actutilitarianism which posits that the rightness or wrongness of an action depends only on the total goodness or badness of its consequences ie on the effect of the action on the welfare of all human beings He compares this to deontological ethics which don t appeal to consequences but rather stress conformity to particular rules of duty He believes deontological systems can lead to rule worship in which people follow a rule even if it will cause harm He believes Utilitarianism is based on generalized benevolence seeking happiness and good consequences for mankind and that this will resonate with many people Act utilitarianism judges rightness or wrongnes of an action by consequences good or bad Ruleutilitarianism believes the rightness or wrongness of an action should be judged by the goodness or badness of the consequences of a rule that everyone should perform the action in like circumstannces like kant Williams argues that some situations are unthinkable and you cannot predict outcomes you can also not measure these outcomes perfectly Film Minority Report John Anderson runs all raids to homes of future criminals secretly using illegal drugs wife divorced him prediction that he will murder someone Leo Crow in 36 hours thinks he is being framed and runs away Seeks advice from the creator of the machineDr Hineman he needs to download minority report from her brainB accidently reveals himself as Livelys murderer If B kills A B is imprisoned for life if not pre crime will be shut down Pre crime is actually a awed system with uncertain results since imprisoning someone whos future is not truly predictable risks jailing the innocent Kidnaps Agatha precrime shuts down However he nds his innocence doesn t exist Finds out Crow killed his son he confesses Agatha reminds him people have free will and he can change the outcome Crow confesses he was hired to plant photos and be killed to save his family Crow grabs Andersons hand and pulls the trigger killing himself Being targeted because he knows Lively exists so must be eliminated so precrime will be approved Burgess kis witwer frames Anderson precrime is shut down so nobody knows for real B kis himself Reading Intending Harm Kagan The second way to characterize a constraint against harm is as a constraint against intending harm This presupposes a distinction between harm that is intended as a means or an end and harm that is merely foreseen as an unintended side effect We can again provide some intuitive support for this distinction in terms of either the idea of using someone or the idea of aiming at evil but here too the distinction ends up sorting cases in ways that are intuitively unattractive And once again attempts to defend the relevance of the distinction are ultimately unsuccessful as are attempts to show that the distinction would support a constraint Film Slaughterhouse Five Billy Pilgrim becomes quotunstuck in timequot and experiences the events of his life in a random order including a period spent on the alien planet of Tralfamadore Experiences in WWII including bombing of dresden and time spend with fellow prisoner of was Edga Derby and the psychopathic Paul Lazzaro His life as a husband and father are also shown as they live and sometimes even enjoy their life On the alien planet he is a zoo curiosity A few months after the war ends Billy is institutionalized with posttraumatic stress disorder and put into psychiatric care to recover they have a daughter named Barbara On Barbara39s wedding night Billy is captured by an alien space ship and taken to a planet billions of miles away from Earth called Tralfamadore On Tralfamadore Biy meets a porn star also abducted named Montana Wildhack who disappeared and is believed to have drowned herself in the Pacific Ocean She and Billy fall in love and have a child together Billy is sent back to Earth to relive past or future moments of his life In 1968 Billy and a copilot are the only survivors of a plane crash Valencia dies of carbon monoxide poisoning while driving to the hospital where Billy is being treated Billy shares a hospital room with Bertram Rumfoord a Harvard history professor Billy talks about the bombing of Dresden and the professor claims it was justified Justifies allied bombing since the germans put him in a slaughterhouse Free Will and Determinism Reading Of Liberty and Necessity Hume Debate and controversey regarding free will and determinism is a matter or disputants not having properly de ned their terms He asserts all people would nd themselves of the same opinion if they were more careful in de nitions what we call necessity in physical processes we are apt to suppose that there are laws in nature that determine the necessary forces causes and effects that determine the movements of all bodies without exception Our ideas of necessary connection result only from observation of constant conjunctions between events and a certain determination of our minds We infer the idea but nowhere observe in directly in nature Considers human nature and laws that govern our behavior Thru history and culture our behavior remains constant Similar motives produce similar actions and similar causes produce similar events What we call human nature springs from a regularity we observe in human behavior in all sorts of circumstances If we observe a phenomenon that runs counter to our expectations we will not suppose the laws of physics have been suspended but simply some are unobserved and contrary force must also have been acting that upset our predictions We may similarly explain the unexpected behavior of people Rather than percieve them acting at random we may assume a hidden motive or unknown personality trait Thus people like objects can behave in accordance with strict laws ans principles we might claim to understand We predict and infer human behavior based on certain observed regularities just as much as we do dead matter Hume suggests any opposition to this view sprung from false supposition that we can percieve necessary connections in nature Our inferences are based solely on observation and deny any kind of necessity governs our actions However if we grant that we observe no necessary connection we might see our predictions reduce to a similar set of observations Connection be it matter or human behavior is not found in object itself but imagination of the observer Film The Manchurian Candidate premise brainwashing of the son of a prominent right wing political family as an unwitting assassain in an international communist conspiracy During Korean war soviets capture a US platoon and take them to china All but two return to US lines and Staff Sergeant Raymond Shaw is credited with saving their lives in combat Upon recommendation Raymond is awarded metal of honor for his heroism When asked to describe him marco and other soldiers say he is the kindest bravest most wonderful human etc deep down they know he is a cold sad unsympathetic loner When he returns Marco is promoted to major and suffers a recurring nightmare in which a hypnotized shaw murders the two missing soldiers before the comminusts during a practical demonstration of a brainwashing technique Marco wants to investigate but has no solid evidence and no support from army intelligence However marco learns another soldier Allen has the same nightmare Melvin and Marco seperately identify men in the dream as leading communist gures Army intelligence agrees to help him investigate Shaws mother drives the political career of her husband senator lselin nds a new political pro le claims that communists are working in the department of dedecse Unknowing that his wife is actually a communist agent with a plan to secure presidency under communist in uence She is responsible for controlling raymond who was conditioned to be an unwitting assassain whos actions are triggered by a queen of diamonds playing card He sees it and blindly obeys orders Never has memory of his actions His heroism was a false memory implanted in the platoon during conditioningWhen Marco visits shaws apartment he becomes suspicious and they ght Raymond nds happiness with Jocelyn Jordan daughter of senator thomas one of his step fathers political rivals Mrs I had previously broken up the relationship but now is using it as part of her scheme so her husband can become VP Jocelyn wearing a queen of diamonds costume accidently hypnotizes him and elopes with him Raymond is sent to kil jordan and shoots jocelyn with no knowledge of his actions After discovering info about the card marco uses a forced deck to get the full story He verbally drills raymond the suggestion that the queen of d no longer controls him Mrs l primes her son to assassinate their parties presidential nominee at the nomination convention so senator l can become president SWhe tells raymond she did not know he was to be selected by the communists but vows to grind them in the dirt Marco attempts to free him and apperantly fails marco enters madison square garden disguised as a priest to carry out his orders Marco and his supervison Milt arrive to stop him Instead of assassinating him raymond shoots his stepfather then his mother and commits suicide in front of Marco while wearing his medal of honor Marco voices a putative medal of honor citation for raymonds genuine act of heroism Reading 2001 A Philisophical Odyssey SF Stoehr Interprets space odyssey as a meditation on the nature and value of human existence Points out applications in the view that there are no absolute standpoints for being such as ourselves Those who worship technology and suppliments it with discussion of the existential psychologival and moral dangers of technology in general Says it is dehumanizing Film 2001 A Space Odyssey ln african desert tribe of early hominids is driven from their water hole by a rival tribe Wake up to nd a featureless black monolith has appeared before them One man ape realizes how to use a bone as a tool the tribe kills the leader of their rival and reclaim the watering hole millions of years later a Pan am space plane carries Dr Heywood Floyd to a space station orbiting earth for a layover on his trip to Clavius Base a US outpost on the moon Floyds soviet scientist friend and her colleague ask him about rumors of an epidemic at clauvis He doesnt answer At clavius oyd heads meeting a base of personel apologizing for the cover story but stressing secrecy His mission is to investigate a recently found artifact buried four million yeaes ago Floys rides a moonbus to the artifact which is a monolith like in the beginning 18 months later US Spacecraft Discovery One is set for Jupiter On board are mission pilots and scientists Bowman and Pool and 3 others in cryogenic hibernation Operations are controlled by the ships computer known as Hal They watch Hal and themselves about the mission Hal says it is foolproof Bowman replies Hal appears to have human emotions but truth is unknownAn antenna control device fails they retrieve the component but nd nothing wrong with it Hal suggest reinstalling the part and letting it fail so problem can be found Mission advises Hal is in error Hal insists the problem is due to human error Bowman and Poole enter an EVA pod to talk without Hal overhearing and agree to disconnect it if proven wrong Hal secretly lip reads themWhen Poole attempts to replace the unite in his EVA pod hal severs his oxygen hose and sets him adrift Bowman takes another pod to recue leaving his helmet Hal turns off the life support of the crew members suspended When bowman returns with pooles body hal refuses to let him in stating their plan jeapardizes the mission Bowman emergency opens the ships airlock manually and enters the ship to disconnect Hal tries to reassure bowman then pleads with him to stop and expresses dear He regresses to his earliest programmed memory and sings Daisy Bell When Hal is nally disconnected a pre recorded video message from oyd reveals the existence of the monolith on the moon Bowman races at speed across vast distances of space viewing bizarre cosmological phenomina and unusual colors He nds himself still in the pod in a bedroom sees older version of himself his point of view switching A black monolith appears at the foot of the bed and bowman reaches for it and transforms into a fetus in an orb of light The new being oats in space beside earth gazing at it
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