study guide for midterm 2
study guide for midterm 2 162
Popular in Music 162
Seong Yong Park
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Popular in Music
This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Seong Yong Park on Monday May 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 162 at University of Washington taught by Dudley in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 375 views. For similar materials see Music 162 in Music at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 05/18/15
Chapter 5 and part of chapter 4 quotChoo Choo Ch39Booqiequot Louis Jordan and the Tvmpanv Five 1946 Jordan was the mostsuccessful black recordina artist of the postWar period with a string of hit rhythm amp blues records This is a classic band consisting of a three horn front line alto sax tenor sax and trumpet and rhvthm section piano guitar bass and drums Jordan who sang and played alto sax was a polished entertainer and his up beat lyrics and smooth vocal quality provided urban black audiences with an alternative to the Delta based Chicago blues style of Muddy Waters Sonny Boy Williamson etc This recording was his first million seller a crossover hit with both black and white audiences Producer Milt Gabler was later involved in the production of Bill Haley and the Comets a rock 39n39 roll band which drew upon the lump band sound quotHoochieCoochie Manquot Willie Dixon Muddv Waters 1953 Chicaaol Muddy Waters b Rolling Fork Mississippi was quotdiscoveredquot in the Mississippi Delta by folk song collectors John and Alan Lomax who recorded him for the Library of Congress Two years later in 1943 he left for Chicago part of a massive movement of blacks from the South In 1948 Muddy recorded for the Chess label playing electric guitar with bass accompaniment by Big Crawford Thouqh still clearlv rooted in Delta bluesstvle Muddv39s earlv Chess recordings marked the beainnind of electric blues in Chicaao Sold at first through record stores groceries and barbershoos in South Chicago his records became popular both in the city and in the South and launched Muddy39s career The evolution of Muddy39s band during the late 1940s and earlv 50 reflects changes in the Chicago electric blues band stvle On this cut one of Muddy39s signature tunes the band includes two electric guitars piano bass drums and amplified harmonica pioneered by Muddy39s sideman Little Walter Muddy along with other southern migrants such as Howlin39 Wolf set the standard for Chicago urban blues during the post War period The electrification and expansion of blues ensembles helped musicians plav dance music in noisv urban bars In this song Muddy continues an old blues tradition the bold assertion of personal power in the face of adverse circumstances quotI got a black cat bone I got a mojo too I got a Johnnie Conkaroo I39m gonna mess wit39 you I39m gonna make you girls lead me by my hand Then the world know I39m a hoochie coochie manquot Form 16 bar blues 8 bars of quotstop timequot then 8 bars to finish quotMama He Treats Your Daughter Meanquot Wallace Lance Sinqleton Ruth Brown 1953 Ruth Brown was Atlantic Record39sflst maior R and B star beqinninq in 1949 Her father was a preacher and she sang spirituals as a child Her recordings were sung with inflections that came from the church and the blues and were in part aimed at the expanding white audience for R and B Note Brown39s use of Upward vocal glides and the prominence of the tambourine associated with revivalist church meetings This song is a 16bar blues like a 12 bar blues but AAAB quotI39ve Got A Womanquot Rav Charles Rav Charles Miami 1954 Rav Charles is a seminal force in American pOpular music Startinq out as an RampB singer and iazz crooner movinq into Rock 39n39 Roll in the 19505 and then into soul music in the 19605 his presence has been felt bv countless artists and fans throuqhout the vears Born in the Deep South during the Great Depression Charles was blinded at age six and orphaned by the time he was sixteen From an early age Charles was musically omnivorous absorbing styles as diverse as jazz blues gospel country classical piano and boogiewoogie piano Charles got his start in Seattle in the late 1940s recording jazzy crooning numbers After he left Seattle in 1950 he formed a band of his own and began singing hard driving RampB songs as well as deeply soulful songs adapted from the gospel tradition Charles pioneered the combination of secular gospel and RampB that was to become soul music The song quotI Got A Womanquot written bv Charles was his first 1 hit on the RampB charts It is basically a remake with secular words of the gospel song It Must be Jesus bv the Southern Tones Charles was criticized for combining sacred and secular music like this but he stood by his sound and by his belief that he should be able to play all different kinds of music Powerful gospel inflections can be heard in Charles voice The use of saxophone riffs and the repeated vocal phrase in each verse similar to aab text form are stvlistic features of the blues The series of breaks or stOp time toward the end of the sonq is an Old iazz technique also related to the use of call and reSponse improvisation in church music quotAin39t That a Shamequot Antoine Domino and Dave Bartholomew Fats Domino New Orleans 1955 Starting in the late 1940s Fats led a New Orleans based RampB band His distinctive piano style based upon local boogiewoogie and Latin influenced piano traditions good natured relaxed singing and excellent sidemen eg coleader Dave Bartholomew a former member of Duke Ellington39s big band contributed to his success This and other early recordings feature tenor sax solos by Lee Allen Fats was the consummate crossover artist and was able not only to generate a series of big hits with young white audiences but also to fight off cover attempts by Pat Boone and other white artists who recorded simplified quotcleaned upquot versions of his originals Lona Tall Sallv Little Richard 1956 Born in Macon Georgia Richard Penniman was washing dishes in a bus station restaurant just months before he became one of the first recording stars of rock and roll He recorded with Fats Domino39s dance band in New Orleans but his vocal style and stage presence was markedly different from Fats39 cool and relaxed style Little Richard was wild exciting and extroverted and he introduced many of the characteristics we now associate with rock n39 roll performance Little Richard s band included piano and saxophones in the tradition of jump blues His driving piano playing and high energy vocals were signatures of his exciting style He was known as a riveting and sometimes even shocking performer dancing and singing lyrics with sexual double entendre This song for example appears to have homosexual double entendre Well I saw Uncle John with bald head Saly He saw Mary coming and he ducked back in the Alley Who is Sally She s long and tall and has a bald head and she is doing something in the Alley with Uncle John that she doesn t want Mary to see quotRock Around the Clockquot J DeKniqht and M Freedman Bill Halev and the Comets lNYC 1954 A former disc jockey and country and western bandleader from Chester Pennsylvania Haley was the first white musician to achieve major success by emulating RampB This song is considered the first big rock 39n39 roll hit 1 on the pop charts in 1955 partly due to its association with Blackboard Jungle a film about high school juvenile delinquents Haley39s band featured Rudy Pompilli on sax and Haley on electric guitar and vocals quotRock Around the Clockquot is a country tinged version of the jump band sound of Louis Jordan and is a 12 bar blues After several hits in the 1950s and a successful tour of Europe in 1957 Haley39s career went into decline He died in 1981 quotShake Rattle and Rollquot Jesse Stone and Charles Calhoun Joe Turner lNYC 1954Big Joe Turner39s roots were also in the Kansas City shouting style and he developed his technique singing with swing bands and boogie woogie piano players This is a 12 bar blues with swing band style riff patterns In the mid 50s this song was covered by Bill Haley who cleaned up the lyrics to produce a version acceptable to white controlled AM radio stations Turner39s description of himself as quota one eyed cat peepin39 in a seafood storequot admiring quotdresses the sun comes shinin39 throughquot were censored Turner39s success was generally restricted quotShake Rattle and Rollquot Jesse Stone Bill Halev and the Comets NYC 1954 It is important to compare Bill Haley39s version of quotShake Rattle and Rollquot to Joe Turner39s version from CD 3 Composed by Jesse Stone a black producer for Atlantic Records in 1954 Big Joe Turner39s recording from the same year was in a jump blues RampB style Bill Haley former leader of a country and western band recorded a cover version of this song in 1954 as well His version differs from Turner39s in that he emphasizes the guitar over Turner39s saxophones and his rhythm is derivative more of Western Swing than of jump blues RampB Significantly the highly erotic lyrics of Turner39s are partially censored in Haley39s version Whereas Turner sings quotWell you wear those dresses the sun come shinin39 through I cain39 believe my eyes all that mess belong to youquot Haley sings quotWearin39 those dresses your hair done up so nice You look so warm but your heart is cold as icequot Interestingly the line quotI39m like a one eyed cat peepin39 in a seafood storequot was retained in Haley39s version a double entendre that likely went right over the censor39s head Unlike later cases of white artists covering songs from black artists and generating huge profits both recordings of quotShake Rattle and Rollquot sold well The difference was that Turner39s version made both the pop and the RampB charts while Haley39s version never made it onto the RampB charts Black audiences appreciated Turner39s jump band approach over Haley39s approach This song was one of the first of many future hits for Haley while it marked the beginning of the end of Joe Turner39s career Though obviously influential in early rock 39n39 roll Turner39s time had passed and he was forced to take a backseat in the rock 39n39 roll explosion quotMavbellinequot Chuck Berrv Russ Fratto and Alan Freed Chuck Berrv lChicaqo 1955 Chuck Berry who also recorded on the independent label owned by the Chess brothers was one of rock and roll39s foremost innovators both as an electric guitarist and as a songwriter adept at dealing with the concerns of his teen aged audience An RampB musician who played clubs in East St Louis while earning a living as a cosmetician by day Berry moved to Chicago in an attempt to break into the big time He landed a contract with Chess through his friend Muddy Waters Berry39s simple direct style and clearly enunciated lyrics about cars high school romance and the glories of rock n39 roll reached a wide audience He had a string of hits from 1955 to 1958 though his recordings did not dominate the pop charts to the same extent as those of Presley Domino Little Richard and others In fact his first 1 pop hit did not come until 1973 with the novelty song quotMy Ding a Lingquot This song is a modified 12 bar blues with a country and western influenced beat basically a fast polka It was originally known as quotlda Redquot and had been recorded by a number of country musicians including western swing bandleader Bob Wills Berry revised the song putting lda Red into a car and because quotlda Redquot was a public domain song which meant it couldn39t be copyrighted and couldn39t generate royalties renaming her quotMaybellinequot a term drawn from his beauty shop days The song was purportedly co written by white rock n39 roll disc jockeys Freed and Fratto although their major contribution was to promote the song on their radio shows quotThe Sun Didn39t Shinequot Roosevelt Fennov Golden Gate Quartet 1941 This gospel quartet was recorded by the Okeh and Columbia labels Note the strong steady pulse call and response percussive approach interlocking vocal parts use of special vocal effects such as rhythmic breathing the importance of the bass vocal lines background vocal quotpadsquot sustained quotoooohsquot and quotaaahsquot and an emphasis upon direct communication of emotional experience quotShBoomquot James Keves Carl and Claude Feaster Flovd McCrae and William R Edwards The Chords lNYC 19541 The Chords were a vocal RampB group from The Bronx This performance was recorded as the B side of a cover of a popular Patti Page song quotCross Over the Bridgequot quotSh Boomquot reached 3 on the RampB charts 9 on the pop charts and is regarded as one of the first rock n39 roll hits Recorded by the indie label Atlantic which specialized in rhythm and blues recordings during the early 1950s the slick vocal sound of this group represents a conscious attempt to create a cross over hit attracting a racially mixed audience The structure of the song is AABA with the Asection chords based on the classic I Vl minor lV V pattern common to much vocal group music of the period The vocal lead and choral quotpadsquot or backgrounds are also typical of the style The record was produced by Atlantic Records founder Ahmet Ertegun quotShBoomquot The Crew Cuts lChicaao 19541 Major record label Mercury specialized during the mid 1950s in covering rhythm amp blues hits with white groups performing sanitized less rhythmically complex versions directed at the mainstream pop audience The CrewCuts were a Canadian group modeled on The Four Lads The Crew Cuts and other performers specialized in covering rhythm amp blues songs Such groups generally had little or no understanding of the texture and rhythmic momentum of black popular music and the results often seem awkward and amusing today This is a classic example complete with a tympani solo replacing the swinging tenor sax solo and a cleancut vocal performance by the Canadian group Crew Cuts reminiscent of bandleader Paul Whiteman39s attempt to quotmake a lady out of Jazzquot some 30 years earlier The Crew Cuts39 version of quotShBoomquot far surpassed the original in sales and reached 1 on the pop charts quotMvsterv Trainquot Junior Parker Elvi Preslev Memphis 1955 As far as middle class America was concerned Elvis was the performer that established rock n39 roll as the dominant popular music nationwide Born in Tupelo Mississippi and raised in Memphis Elvis was working as a truck driver when he was discovered by record producer Sam Phillips Phillips had previously specialized in recording black blues performers and said that if he could find quota white man with the Negro sound and the Negro feelquot he could make quota million dollarsquot Elvis Presley filled the bill This recording was made for Phillip39s Sun Records in 1955 and represented the emergence of a new blend of country music and RampB later dubbed quotrockabillyquot This style used blues songs such as this one first recorded by Junior Parker and added a simple accompaniment of electric guitar played here by Scotty Moore bass and later drums Presley strummed acoustic guitar and sang in an unaffected manner incorporating aspects of country and blues style In 1954 and 1955 Presley created a sensation performing African American derived music for white audiences in concerts and via the expanding medium of television quotDon39t Be Cruelquot Oti Blackwell and Elvis Preslev Elvi Pre lev Nashville 19561 This was Elvis39 first recording for RCA and it was a very big crossover hit reaching an unprecedented 1 position on the pop country and RampB charts This recording demonstrates a more polished and highly produced studio sound with a more artificial self conscious vocal style a slick vocal back up group the Jordannaires and professional Nashville studio musicians under the direction of country music star Chet Atkins Rather than drawing upon blues and country songs Elvis began to sing songs written for him by professional tunesmiths Later under the guidance of RCA recording moguls he began to record ballads such as quotLove Me Tenderquot and pop songs of all kinds and starred in a series of commercially successful motion pictures Elvis said that this is what he always wanted to be a film star and not a rock n39 roller Today Elvis39 image that of the poor southern boy metamorphosized into wealthy though troubled superstar is enshrined at Graceland a museum amusement park visited by hundreds of thousands of fans each year La Bamba Ritchie Valens 1958 Richie Valens was a Chicano Mexican American musician brought up in the barrios of East Los Angeles who did a great deal to introduce Latin influences to mainstream rock and roll quotLa Bambaquot released on the indie label Del Fi in 1958 is a rock n39 roll version of a Mexican folk song It is a son from the Veracruz region of Mexico where the style is known as son jarocho La Bamba was the B side of the 2 pop hit quotDonnaquot Although it reached only 22 on the pop charts quotLa Bambaquot was very influential and became a quintessential party song Richie Valens died before his 18th birthday in the plane crash that also killed Buddy Holly and the Big Bopper The 1987 film based on Valens39 life featured covers of his music by Los Lobos who scored a 1 hit with quotLa Bambaquot La Bamba Son de Madera Las Orquesfas de Dia Led by requinfo player Ramon Guiterrez Son de Madera performs the repertoire of son jarocho from Veracruz Mexico Their style is rooted in the practice of community fandangos gatherings at which people sing sones play jaranas and other instruments and dance zapafeado rhythmic footwork on the farima a portable stage or stomp box that basically functions as a drum played with feet The recording begins with a requinfo solo followed by the entrance of the jarana a type of strumming guitar It also includes bass and percussive zapateado dancing on the farima While this is a commercial recording you can hear influences of the fandango protocol and aesthetic Singers alternate choosing the verses they want to sing and in between verses there is instrumental improvisation and more active footwork on the farima quotI Want to Hold Your Handquot The Beatles 1963 John Lennon and Paul McCartnev Georqe Martin producer The impact of the Beatles not only on popular music but on Western mass culture in general is incalculable They were the first of the British Invasion groups and opened the door for many young UK bands The Beatles helped reintroduce elements of 1950s R amp B and rock 39n39 roll into the increasingly bland American popular music mainstream They also helped to establish the idea of the singersongwriter The group39s origins lie in John Lennon39s skifer group the Ouarrymen formed in Liverpool in 1955 Skifer was the British equivalent of America39s late1950s folk revival an imitation of New Orleans jazz and jug band styles Paul McCartney and George Harrison joined the Ouarrymen in 1957 after meeting Lennon at a church picnic The band with drummer Pete Best played in Hamburg Germany 196061 developing their stage act and incorporating Chuck Berry Little Richard and Buddy Holly songs into their repertoire The Beatles a name chosen in homage to Buddy Holly39s Crickets debuted at the Cavern Club in Liverpool in 1961 and soon developed a local following Their manager Brian Epstein was able to land a contract with major record company EMl after being rejected by nearly every label in Europe Producer George Martin auditioned and signed the group in 1962 and soon thereafter Ringo Starr joined Their first EMI single quotLove Me Doquot was released in October 1962 and soon became a top 20 hit in England After their first 1 hit quotFrom Me To Youquot the British record industry applied the term quotMerseybeatquot to the Beatles and other groups from Liverpool eg Gerry and the Pacemakers EMl39s American label Capitol had not released the 1963 recordings which George Martin had licensed to indie labels without much success They finally released the fourth Beatles single quotI Want to Hold Your Handquot and the LP Meet the Beatles in January 1964 and invested 50000 for promotion in the US On February 7 screaming mobs met the Beatles at Kennedy Airport and more than 70 million people watched each of their appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show on Feb 9th and 16th By April they had monopolized the top five positions in the Billboard pop charts Tomorrow Never Knows the Beatles 1966 Revolver The words for this song are taken frm the book The Psychedelic Experience A Manual Based on the Tibetan Book of the Dead Links to an external site by counterculture guruTimothy LearyLinks to an external site Richard Alpert Links to an external site and Ralph Metzner Links to an external lts sounds and form evoke the experience of a spiritual experience or a drug experience The Beatles used tape loops to create diverse sound effects as well as an Indian tampura to play the atmospheric drone that is the first sound you hear at the beginning This was one of the first songs the Beatles recorded that depended extensively on studio effects not playable by their live fourpiece band A Dav in the Life The Beatles 1967 John Lennon and Paul McCartnev Georqe Martin producer Sgt Pepper It took four months and 75000 to record Sgt Pepper Lonely Hearts Club Band The release of this album June 1 1967 is considered a major event in the history of rock music The album cover includes some sixty figures whom the Beatles admired including Lewis Caroll Edgar Allan Poe Bob Dylan Marilyn Monroe and Karl Marx All the lyrics were printed on the back cover setting a precedent Sgt Pepperis regarded as one of the first quotconcept albumsquot in which individual songs are like chapters of a novel The amalgam of eclectic styles rock 39n39 roll folk Indian classical music vaudeville psychedelic electronic and aleatoric chance music was recorded on a four track tape recorder primitive by today39s technological standards quotA Day in the Lifequot is actually a combination of two separately conceived songs Lennon39s surreal reading of the quotnewsquot and McCartney39s prosaic account of a typical daily routine The crescendo of the middle and ending part of the song was played by a symphony orchestra the members of which were instructed to perform a gradual collective glissando slide from the lowest pitch on their instruments to the highest This song was the first Beatles song to be banned from British airplays surreal fragments such as quotblew his mindquot quotwent into a dreamquot and quotI39d love to turn you onquot were regarded by censors as pro drug propaganda ghapter 6 quotThe Twistquot Chubbv Checker Philadelphia 19601 cHank Ballard The Twist was the first major dance craze of the rock 39n39 roll era Its success came largely through the influence of Dick Clark perhaps the most powerful person in the music industry at that time who had already created several quotteen idolquot stars including Frankie Avalon and Fabian through his television show American Bandstand quotThe Twistquot was written and first recorded in 1959 by Hank Ballard and the Midnighters and became a moderate rhythm amp blues hit The following year Dick Clark recruited a Philadelphia singer named Ernest Evans to record the song as Chubby Checker a name inspired by Fats Domino and both the song and the hipgyrating dance of the same name were heavily promoted on Clark39s show The song went to 1 on the pop charts twice first in 1960 and again in 1961 inspiring other quottwistquot songs twist dance clubs and other dance fads Dick Clark reaped most of the profits from the success of quotThe Twistquot while Hank Ballard and Chubby Checker got relatively little quotWipe Outquot The Surfaris lLA 1963 This instrumental piece by the Surfaris is a surf rock classic 2 pop in 1963 and was also made popular by the Ventures the most successful of the instrumental rock 39n39 roll bands of this era quotWipe Outquot is a term from surfing sub culture that describes getting knocked off your surfboard by a wave The form is 12 bar blues quotBlowin39 in the Windquot Peter Paul and Marv NYC 1963 0 Bob Dvlan Peter Paul and Mary were the most popular acoustic folk group of the mid 1960s They were also the first to bring the general public39s attention to Bob Dylan this cover of a Dylan song went to 2 on the pop charts Rooted in the Greenwich Village folk club scene the trio specialized in quotprotest songsquot eg quotIf I Had a Hammerquot by Pete Seeger 10 in 1962 and love ballads quotLeavin39 on a Jet Planequot 1 in 1969 Peter Yarrow Paul Stookey and Mary Travers shared the political commitments of the Weavers and were active in many Civil rights marches and anti war demonstrations in the 1960s quotThe Times Thev are a Chanqinquot39 Bob Dvlan 1963 Bob Dylan born Robert Zimmerman was brought up in Duluth Minnesota Influenced by Depression era folksinger Woody Guthrie and black blues singers such as Blind Lemon Jefferson Dylan wandered the country as an itinerant singer and finally ended up in the coffee house folk music scene of Greenwich Village in the early 1960s Writing and performing his own songs he encouraged other urban folk singers to augment their traditional repertoires with original material His songs of social criticism and protest became anthems for the Civil Rights and anti War movements This song is in triple meter its form typical of Anglo American traditional ballads is strophic Turn Turn Turn The Byrds L39A39s 1955 Responding to the success of the British Invasion groups in 1964 and 65 some American folk and country musicians formed rock groups One of the first post Beatles bands in this genre was the Byrds led by singer and 12 string guitarist Jim later Roger McGuinn Made up of musicians with experience in the folk coffee house scene and country music including David Crosby later of Crosby Stills Nash and Young this band pioneered folk rock This style used quotfolk songsquot both from traditional oral sources and songwriters like Bob Dylan and Pete Seeger as well as new songs composed by the band in a folkish vein and accompanied them with rock rhythms played by an electrified rhythm section The Byrds39 trademark was McGuinn39s electric 12 string guitar sound and their distinctive harmonies quotTurn Turn Turnquot was their second big hit following a cover of Bob Dylan39s quotMr Tambourine Manquot in 1965 The group stayed together through the 1970s and recorded several important countryrock albums with singer Gram Parsons the Temptations 1965 Smokey Robinson Performing in a style derived from vocal RampB quartets The Temptations were the most successful male vocal group of the 1960s and early 70s Their success was based on Motown39s efficient promotion machine and on a combination of David Ruffin39s rough edged lead vocals the group39s urgent harmonies and precise choreography quotMy Girlquot went to 1 on the pop and RampB charts in 1965 On this recording a basic drum pattern bass part and guitar riff in this case acting as the song39s hook or signature combine to form the musical core over which are added layers of vocals strings and horns Notice how the snare drum rhythm guitar and finger snaps accent beats 2 and 4 of each measure maintaining a compelling dance rhythm even at a slow tempo Stob in the Name of Love The Supremes 1965 Eddie and Brian Holland Lamont Dozier The Supremes were Motown39s greatest commercial success the most popular female group of the 1960s They had a dozen 1 hits on the pop charts between 1963 and 1970 a record bettered only by the Beatles and Elvis Presley The Supremes projected an image of wholesome maturity instead of the little girl appeal or the street tough sensuality of earlier groups Lead singer Diana Ross emerged as the groups visual focal point and was very successful despite her somewhat limited vocal capabilities quotStop In the Name of Lovequot was the Supremes39 fourth 1 pop single in row and reached 2 on the RampB charts Note the elaborate arrangement and orchestral accompaniment influenced by the innovations of Phil Spector The Holland DozierHolland song writing and production team was responsible for many of Motown39s most successful recordings You ve Reallv act a Hold on Me Smokey Robinson and the Miracles 1962 Producer Berry Gordy working out of Detroit applied the techniques of mainstream pop production to RampB music and created a dominant crossover sound during the 1960s In 1960 Gordy gave up a job on an auto assembly line and borrowed 600 to start his own label Tamla Records later Motown Motown was the first blackowned record company since the Depression Gordy fostered a corporate image a set of stylistic characteristics that immediately identified the Motown Sound Gordy combined the emotional intensity of gospel based RampB with the careful orchestrations and arrangements of the Brill Building sound Borrowing from the Tin Pan Alley tradition he also maintained a permanent stable of producers and song writers Smokey Robinson the songwriter producer and expressive interpreter of lyrics for the Miracles made them one of Motown39s most distinctive and consistent groups Listen for gospel influence in the piano introduction and in Robinson39s vocal style His singing swoops from mid to high range attempting notes that are nearly out of his range The call and response sections and the intensity of Robinson39s performance evoke the emotional involvement of black church music One of the quothooksquot of the song is the guitar line introduced at the very start and repeated during the chorus This song reached 8 pop 1 RampB in 1963 MAretha Franklin 1967 Otis Redding After touring as a gospel singer in her teens Aretha Franklin quotLady Soulquot spent five frustrating years with major record label Columbia attempting to define her sound In 1967 she signed with Atlantic Records and began working with producer Jerry Wexler Her gospel background is evident in her strong voice and impassioned delivery The saxophone solo is by King Curtis an important session musician during this period Aretha had 13 top ten hits between 1967 and 1974 and scored a comeback during the 1980s Papa s Got a Brand New Baq James Brown 1965 quotPapa39s Got a Brand New Bagquot James Brown aka The Godfather The Hardest Working Man in Show Business Soul Brother Number One started singing gospel as a teen living in Georgia From gospel he moved to secular music copying popular R amp B groups of the late 40s and early 503 He and his group the Famous Flames had their first hit in 1956 with quotPlease Please Pleasequot James Brown has always had a distinctive sound a raw intensity in his voice that combined singing with elements of preaching Nevertheless up until the mid 1960s the overall style was still heavily RampB influenced With quotPapa39s Got a Brand New Bagquot Brown initiates a sound that is based on a repetitive groove It39s a move towards making the whole band part of the rhythm section something that Brown said he had started quothearingquot in the early 60s The overall effect later came to be known as quotfunkyquot and influenced countless groups both white and black the world over quotPapa39s Got A Brand New Bagquot is a 12 bar blues Listen for the use of stop time at the end of each chorus and for the quotchankaquot style of guitarist Jimmy Nolan who strikes the strings in a short percussive manner This became the signature style for many soul and funk guitarists The Pavback James Brown 1973 James Brown s songs were created to have a great groove beat feel Often they have very little harmonic variety and in this case there are virtually no chord changes The Payback has a repetitive cyclical form with a constant groove created by several repeating and contrasting parts bass 2 guitars drumset and shaker Horns also play at the breaks where there is a moment of chord changes On top of the steady groove James Brown is improvising you might call it rapping a lot of the time more speech style than singing style He also brings in background singers sometimes and calls for a unison break from time to time Hit him Fred hit him I need those hits to create variety and interest in an otherwise repetitive form This kind of groove based music is great for dancing but it needs a good singer or other soloist to keep it fresh Somebodv to Love Jefferson Airplane San Francisco 1967 Grace Slick San Francisco and more particularly the Haight Ashbury district became a major counter culture and music center in the mid1960s and Jefferson Airplane was the first of the Bay Area groups to have hits on the pop charts and to be signed by a major label RCA They started as a folk rock group fronted by former folk singers Marty Balin Paul Kantner and Signe Anderson from Seattle Grace Slick joined the group in 1967 bringing with her songs she had performed with her previous group The Great Society quotSomebody to Lovequot and quotWhite Rabbitquot were the two first Top Ten singles to come out of the Haight Ashbury scene and the LP on which they appeared Surrealistic Pillow sold over a million copies The Jefferson Airplane pioneered a unique psychedelic style a synthesis of elements from folk pop jazz blues and rock with lyrics dealing with love and drugs Summertime Janis Joplin with Big Brother and the Holding Company San Francisco 1968 Heyward and Gershwin Big Brother and the Holding Company was among the most influential of the San FranciscoHaight Ashbury bands others included Quicksilver Messenger Service Steve Miller Band Moby Grape Santana and Sly and the Family Stone Their focus was Janis Joplin b 1943 Port Arthur Texas the premier white blues singer of the 1960s Like the Who and Jimi Hendrix Joplin and Big Brother became wellknown through their appearance at the Monterrey Pop Festival in the summer of 1967 39The Summer of Love39 The 1968 album Cheap Thrills which contains this version of George Gershwin39s quotSummertimequot sold a million copies As Joplin39s reputation grew she left Big Brother and started the Kozmic Blues Band and later the Full Tilt Boogie Band Her career was cut short by a heroin overdose in 1970 This example a version of Tin Pan Alley composer George Gershwin39s quotSummertimequot demonstrates her bluesrooted style inspired by such singers as Bessie Smith and Big Mama Thornton M Cream London 1969 Robert Johnson After leaving the mid1960s quotrave upquot group The Yardbirds which included a number of influential rock guitarists Eric Clapton played with British bluesman John Mayall and then formed Cream the prototypical guitarbass drums power trio Drummer Ginger Baker using two bass drums and bassistvocalist Jack Bruce playing an unusual 6 string bass provided a solid background for the virtuoso blues derived guitar solos of Eric Clapton This live performance captures some of Cream39s approach to extended improvisatory playing a development from the Yardbirds39 quotraveupsquot This supergroup a term coined by the recording industry was unstable and broke up in 1970 after recording only three albums This song a twelve bar blues is attributed to Delta bluesman Robert Johnson M Jimi Hendrix London 1967 J Hendrix Born in the northwest and raised in Seattle Hendrix was one of the most important figures in the development of electric guitar technique others include T Bone Walker and jazz guitarist Charlie Christian who played with Benny Goodman39s band He pioneered the use of the instrument as an electronic sound source turning feedback effects and quotdistortionquot into a controlled sonic vocabulary and influencing all rock guitarists after him As a teenager Jimi taught himself to play guitar by listening to Muddy Waters BB King and Chuck Berry He began his career on the rhythm and blues circuit playing behind Sam Cooke Little Richard Wilson Pickett and many others and was quotdiscoveredquot by ex Animals bass player Chas Chandler who brought him to London The Experience with Noel Redding on bass and Mitch Mitchell on drums was a success in England first they first appeared in the US at the Monterrey Pop Festival at the insistence of Paul McCartney in 1967 This cut is from his first LP Are You Experienced released in England in 1967 Note the influence of blues style on Hendrix39s guitar playing and his innovative use of electronic techniques to create textures Stairan to Heaven Led Zepplin 1971 The British hard rock band Led Zeppelin is often credited with originating the sound of heavy metal in the early 1970s Made up of the virtuosic guitarist Jimmy Page the drummer John Bonham bassorgan player John Paul Jones and lead singer Robert Plant Led Zeppelin pioneered the sound of heavy metal drumming while the high tenor voice of Plant set the standard for later heavy metal singers Zeppelin drew its influences from varying sources from urban blues to the virtuosity and sound design of Hendrix and from San Fransisco psychedlia to British folk music This song Stairway to Heaven from the album quotLed Zeppelin IVquot is Led Zeppelin39s most famous song and has become an infamous standard for amateur guitarists It is also an example of a seeming paradox in heavy metal music the link between acoustic folk sensibilities and hardcore rocker mentalities These two seemingly opposing themes run throughout heavy metal for example slow ballads are a staple of many heavy metal groups Zeppelin expressed their folk music influences through the use of Celtic mythology and imagery in their lyrics and albums Ban Ban Joe Cuba 1968 Bang Bang Push Push Push Single This song hit the charts on both English and Spanish radio in 1968 Its pure fun includes the sounds of a house party with children shrilly shouting the chorus The mixture of Latin rhythms with a strong African American backbeat represents a conscious connection between those two communities as does the naming of similar foods like chit lins the singer says chitterlins and cuchi frito African American and Puerto Rican dishes respectively that are made from pig intestines Ove Como Va Santana 1970 When Santana first exploded onto the national scene in 1969 the band included drummer Michael Shrieve and keyboardist Greg Rolie who were White African American bass player Dave Brown Mexican born guitarist Carlos Santana conga player Mike Carabello a third generation San Francisco Puerto Rican and Nicaraguan percussionist Chepito Areas Santana s membership reflected not only the ethnic diversity of the Bay Area generally but also the Latino diversity within San Francisco s Mission district where Carlos Santana attended high school Carlos Santana himself was born in Mexico and played violin with his father in a mariachi when he was young In his teen years he moved to San Francisco and moved away from the Mexican music of his childhood to learn electric guitar and pursue his passion for the blues When he and his friends managed to get a gig at the Fillmore they advertised themselves as the Santana Blues Band and performed original blues inspired material Oye Como Va is a cover of a 1963 cha cha cha by Tito Puente In the Santana version Puente s horn section is replaced by Greg Rolie s organ and the lead melody instrument is Santana s soulful electric guitar instead of flute Although the tempo rhythms and form are almost identitical to Puente s version these changes in instrumention helped Santana s version rise to 13 on the national pop charts W Ruben Blades with Willie Colon Siembra quotSalsaquot was a marketing term popularized by the Fania record label founded in New York in 1964 Fania recorded many of the younger musicians and bands in New York who were integrating new sounds and sensibilities into Latin Caribbean dance music Salsa s sound and lyrics reflected an edgy urban sensibility that spoke to the experience of the urban working class throughout Latin America The composer and singer her is Panamanian singer Ruben Blades salsa s most celebrated poet Blades began his career at Fania working in the mailroom but soon teamed with with Willie Colon to record a series of ground breaking records Like quotSiembraquot many of Blades39 songs speak of of struggle and hope and of pan Latino solidarity The title of this 1978 song and the album it was on Siembra means to plant or sow Blades encourages Latinos everywhere to sow the seeds of a better future The chorus con fe siembra y siembra y tu vera means with faith sow sow and you will see ghapter 7 quotThank You Falettinme Be Mice Elf Againquot Sly and the Family Stone 1970 Sly and The Family Stone helped to establish funk music a genre which simultaneously reached down into basic principles of African American music repetitive patterns interlocking rhythms call and response and rhythmic momentum or quotgroovequot and extended out to incorporate aspects of rock music Sylvester Stewart39s family moved from Texas to San Francsico in the 1950s He began his musical career as a gospel singer studied music theory and composition in college and became a popular disc jockey on a local soul station Sly formed his band in 1966 and created a style that blended jazz RampB San Francisco psychedelia and lyrics with social messages The band39s popularity was boosted by a fiery appearance at the Woodstock Festival in 1969 quotThank Youquot was a 1 single on the pop and RampB charts in 1970 It features Larry Graham39s prominent bass line a profound influence on later funk bands an approach to arrangement which brings the whole band into the rhythm section an idea pioneered by James Brown and jazz influenced horns quotFlash Lightquot Parliament 1978 ClintonCollinsWorrell The apotheosis of funk music was a loose aggregate of musicians called Parliament aka Funkadelics led by George Clinton aka Dr Funkenstein Clinton an ex Motown vocal group leader hung out with hippies listened to Iggy Pop and changed style radically in the late 1960s Enlisting some ex members of James Brown39s band eg bassist Bootsy Collins he developed a mixture of compelling polyrhythms psychedelic guitar jazzinfluenced horn arrangements and RampB vocal harmonies Clinton expressed an alternative black sensibility embodied in street talk and science fiction derived images of intergalactic travel He took stereotypes and stood them on their heads reconfiguring funk a term originally used to describe unpleasant odors as a positive human quality Flash Light exemplifies Clinton39s brand of quotdeep funkquot heavy bass interlocking rhythms and a collective sound as though the music is taking shape spontaneously in live performance The variety of timbres is extraordinary eg the bass is doubled by a synthesizer to give it a special sound quotHotel Californiaquot Eagles 1976 The 1970s saw the emergence of a new category designating slickly produced rock music aimed at a wide mainly white audience AOR Album Oriented Rock Los Angeles center of the film and television industries became an important center of rock production and several LA bands had huge successes during the mid late 1970s The Eagles a southern California band with roots in folk rock and countryrock were formed 1971 by drummer Don Henley and guitarist Glenn Frey Guitarist Joe Walsh joined in 1975 They were very successful scoring 16 Top 40 hits during the 1970s The Eagles39 sound was based upon tight vocal harmonies careful arrangements and studio production and fine guitar work The LP Hotel California won the Album of the Year Grammy in 1977 and sold 11 million copies worldwide The single quotHotel Californiaquot combines aspects of rock country music and reggae particularly noticeable in the rhythm guitar parts The lyric presents a surrealistic portrayal of cut throat life in Hollywood with images derived in part from horror movies Many music critics hated them for their AOR success and the band split up in 1981 quotLiving for the Cityquot Stevie Wonder 1973 Wonder Stevie Wonder is an African American singersongwriter who got his start in Motown in the 1960s Breaking with the constraints of Motown in 1971 he renegotiated his contract to give him full artistic control over his music Wonder was able to do many of his recording and composing work himself playing most of the instruments himself through the process of overdubbing A studio technique pioneered by Buddy Holly overdubbing allows instruments and vocals to be added to an original master recording seperately and independent from each other He also innovated in the use of synthesizers and wrote songs with a great variety of themes and styles Living for the City puts a spotlight on poverty and racism quotIt39s Too Latequot Carole King 1971 Carole King Singer songwriters eg James Taylor Joni Mitchell Randy Newman formed another category of mainstream 1970s pop Carole King former Brill Building songwriter scored the biggest success with her LP Tapestry which was the 1 pop LP spawned four top singles appeared for 301 weeks on the charts and eventually sold over 13 million copies At the 1971 Grammy ceremonies she won awards for Best Album Best Female Vocalist Record of the Year and Song of the Year Like most of the cuts on Tapestry quotIt39s Too Latequot is a song about a highly personal experience carefully designed to appeal to millions of listeners framed with an intimate arrangement which focuses attention on King39s voice and piano Two weeks after the Rolling Stone39s quotBrown Sugarquot quotIt39s Too Latequot moved into the 1 spot on the pop charts Velvet Underground 1967 quotI39m Waiting for the Manquot Although the Velvet Underground never sold many records their intentionally crude sound and alienated lyrics influenced many important figures in the PunkNew Wave movement of the 1970s Pop artist Andy Warhol discovered the group in 1966 at the Cafe Bizarre in NYC and produced their first album with a peelable picture of a banana on its cover Guitaristvocalist Lou Reed and viola player John Cale former students of classical music were the key members Their style combined a loud repetitive minimalist sound deliberately designed to be 39uncommercial39 with lyrics focused on alienation sado masochism drug addiction and violence quotI39m Waiting for the Manquot is a description of Reed39s journey to Harlem to buy heroin from a pusher 96 Tears and the Mysterians 1964 and the Mysterians was a band from Flint Michigan the sons of Texas Mexican migrant farmworkers had come to Michigan to harvest beets and settled there This song with its monotonous pulse simple chords and dark alienated lyrics has been cited as one of the first punk songs even though the genre didn t have a name yet The hook on the organ was originally conceived on an accordion the iconic instrument of working class Texas Mexicans The Ramones 1978 quotI Wanna Be Sedatedquot The Ramones39 quintessential punk sound simple high speed energetic guitar chords without solos influenced London punk groups and also became a blue print for LA hardcore bands Although they project a street tough image all are from middle class Queens families Their manager Danny Fields had previously worked with MC5 Iggy Pop and the Stooges and Lou Reed The Ramones gained popularity playing at CBGBampOMFUG Country Bluegrass Blues and Other Music for Urban Gourmets a Bowery bar that was a center of the NYC alternative music scene in the mid 1970s They were one of the first of the CBGB bands to sign a record contract with the indie label Sire The Ramones39 1976 tour of England inspired many London Punk musicians Their style was influenced by the Stooges bubblegum music and surf music quotI Wanna Be Sedatedquot is a parody of the Beach Boys39 style quotAnarchy in the UKquot The Sex Pistols 1976 The owner of a London quotantifashionquot boutique Sex Malcolm McLaren had first managed a glam rock group the New York Dolls in 1975 McLaren conceived the idea of a Rock and roll band that would challenge the mainstream pop music industry Glen Matlock bass Paul Cook drums and Steve James guitar were regular customers at the shop and they were looking for a singer McLaren found Johnny Rotten who had never sung before and formed the Sex Pistols in 1975 England39s biggest and most conservative record label signed Sex Pistols in October 1976 and they released the first single quotAnarchy in the UKquot in December That month Rotten uttered an obscenity during a TV interview and in January 3977 EMl terminated their contract In March Matlock was replaced by Sid Vicious AampM signed up the Pistols only to drop them the next week In May Virgin signed them and released their second single quotGod Save the Queenquot Despite being banned from airplay the song went to 2 on the British charts cited as a blank The Sex Pistols broke up in January 1978 during their only US tour The Clash 1977 quotI39m So Bored with the USAquot Joe Strummer the son of a British diplomat quit school and formed a pub rock band called The 10139ers After seeing the Sex Pistols Strummer formed the Clash While Sex Pistols were nihilists the Clash were more explicitly political performing songs about racism and police brutality The Clash were also more ambitious musically incorporating elements of reggae rockabilly zydeco and other styles into a rock 39n39 roll format British CBS signed the Clash in 1977 Although their debut album was not offically released in the US it was the biggest selling import album up to that time selling 100000 copies The Clash has continued to be active in political causes and have performed benefit concerts for Rock Against Racism quotI39m So Bored with the USAquot is a response to American domination of popular culture in Europe its main lyric line is a parody of songs like the Beach Boys39 quotSurfin39 USAquot quotpsycho Killerquot Talking Heads 1977 Talking Heads formed in 1975 by design school graduates David Byrne and Chris Frantz represents the more self consciously quotartsyquot side of the New York new wave club scene They played their first shows at CBGBampOMFUG Country Bluegrass Blues and Other Music for Urban Gourmets a Bowery bar that was a center of the NY punk scene in the mid 1970s Their sound featuring Byrne39s trembling high pitched voice and eclectic songwriting is very different from that of the Ramones with whom they toured in the early days Talking Heads have drawn the elements of funk minimalism and African rhythms creating some of the most adventurous and danceable new wave music Brian Eno produced three of their albums Okie from Muskogee Merle Haggard Merle Haggard is an icon of country authenticity from Bakersfield California This song highlights the differences between the views of working class people in Bakersfield or Oklahoma as the song suggests and the hippies in nearby San Francisco a center of the counterculture including the free speech movement the antiwar movement civil rights women s liberation free love communal living etc in the 19603 Friends in Low Places Garth Brooks No Fences Capitol Records Garth Brooks was one of country music s biggest selling stars in the 19903 This song is an example of a modern urban sound in country music with a strong backbeat on the drums heavy bass and a rockstyle guitar solo in addition to iconic country instruments like steel guitar and fiddle The song s lyrics on the other hand appeal to a defiant underdog redneck identity Midterm 1 Study Guide Music 162 Spring 2015 Songs quotChoo Choo Ch39Boogiequot quotHoochie Coochie Manquot quotMama He Treats Your Daughter Meanquot 1 Got a Woman The Wild Side of Life It wasn t god who made honky tonk angels Your Cheatin Heart Long Tall Sally quotRock Around the Clockquot Maybelline Mystery Train Don t be Cruel La Bamba Sh Boom 2 versions The Sun Didn t Shine The Answer is Blowing in the Wind The Times are a changing Turn Turn Turn You ve Really Got a Hold on Me My Girl Stop in the Name of Love GuestsMovies One exam question for each Laurel Sercombe Beatles Linda Towsend line dancing Respect The Payback Somebody to Love Purple Haze Cross roads Cream Stairway to Heaven Oye Como Va Bang Bang Siembra quotThank You Falettinme Be Mice Elf Againquot Flashlight Hotel California Living for the City I m Waiting for the Man 96 Tears Anarchy in the UK I m so Bored with the USA La Bamba Plugz I Can t Stop Loving You Okie From Muskogee Funny How Time Slips Away Friends in Low Places Artistscomposersgroups Louis Jordan Ray Charles Hank Williams Alan Freed Fats Domino Lilttle Richard Bill Haley Chuck Berry Elvis Presley Ritchie Valens Buddy Holly The Beach Boys Pat Boone The Beatles George Martin Barry Gordy Woody Guthrie Pete Seeger Bob Dylan The Temptations The Jackson Five Aretha Franklin GenresDancesEnsembles Jump band Urban blues RampB Country amp Western Honky Tonk Rock and Roll Cha cha cha Doo Wop Rockabilly James Brown The Grateful Dead J imi Hendrix Eric Clapton Led Zepellin Santana Joe Cuba Willie Colon Ruben Blades George Clinton Parliament Sly and the Family Stone SteVie Wonder The Eagles The Ramones The Sex Pisols The Clash Bad Brains Merle Haggard Soul Psychedelic Rock Funk Punk Boo galoo Salsa Latin rock AOR Instruments Banjo Bones Tambourine FiddleViolin Piano Trumpet Saxophone clarinet Guitar steel guitar slide guitar electric Trombone Drumset Other ideas concepts facts developments African conceptual approaches to music making Syncopation Independent record labels ASCAP BMI Atlantic records Musical terms Texture monophony Homophony Polyphony Polyrhythm F orm Strophic Verse and Chorus Call and response AABA Sectional Harmony Chord 12 bar blues Conga Bongos Clave Guiro Maracas Bass Moog synthesizer Chess records Sun Studios Motown Cover versions CBGBS FM radio Fania records Timbre Rhythm Meter Hook Stop time Riff Clave Tumbao Other Montuno Slap bass Distortion feedback
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