Educational Psychology Week 1: Ch. 1-6 Chapter 1 Notes: Learning, Teaching and Educational Psychology No Child Left Behind Act ● Signed January 8, 2002 by President George W. Bush ● NCLB Act requires that all students grades 3 through 8 must take standardiIf you want to learn more check out What does the HOMO of 1,3,5-hexatriene look like?
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zed achievement tests in reading and math every year; in addition, one more exam will be required in high school. ○ In 2007, a science test was added. ○ Based on these test scores, schools are judged to determine if their students are making adequate yearly progress (AYP). ● In addition, schools must develop AYP goals and report scores separately for several groups, including racial and ethnic minority students, students with disabilities, students whose first language is not English, and students from low-income homes.i ● There are three studies that speak to the power of teachers in the lives of students. The first two focus on teacher-student relationships and the third on the cost of poor teaching. Teacher Student Relationships ● Bridgett Hamre and Robert Pianta followed children from kindergarten to 8th grade. ● The researchers concluded that the quality of the student-teacher relationship in kindergarten predicted a number of academic and behavioral outcomes through the 8th grade, particularly for students with high levels of behavior problems. ● Students with significant behavior problems in the early years are less likely to have problems later in school if their teachers are sensitive to their needs and provide frequent, consistent feedback. ● In a recent study that followed children from four and a half years to 5th grade, Pianta found that the emotional warmth of a the teacher-child interactions and the teacher’s skill recognizing and responding to children’s needs consistently predicted the child’s growth in reading and math. Cost of Poor Teaching ● Students who had highly effective teachers for 3rd, 4th, and 5th grades scored an average of 83rd percentile on a standardized math achievement test in one district and 96th in another. ● In contrast, students who had the least effective teachers 3 years in a row averaged the 29th percentile in math and 44th in another. ● Sanders and Rivers concluded the best teachers encourage good-to-excellent gains in achievement for all students, but lower-achieving students were the first to benefit from good teaching.Inside Four Classrooms ● The four situations are real, and they exemplify good teaching practices from outstanding teachers. ● The first two teachers worked with the authors student teachers in local elementary schools and were studied by one of their colleagues, Carol Weinstein. ● The third teacher became an expert at helping students with learning difficulties, with the guidance of a consultant. ● The last example is a secondary school teacher who was the focus of a case study. A Bilingual 1st Grade ● Most of the 25 students in Viviana’s class have recently emigrated from the Dominican Republic; the rest come from Nicaragua, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Honduras. ● Even though they speak little to no English, by the time they leave school in June, Viviana has helped them master the normal 1st grade curriculum for their district. ● Viviana accomplishes this by teaching in Spanish early in the year to aid understanding, then gradually introducing English as the students are ready. A Suburban 5th Grade ● Ken teaches 5th grade in a suburban elementary school in central New Jersey. ● Students in the class represent a range of racial, ethnic, family income, and language backgrounds. ● Ken emphasized “process writing”, his students complete first drafts, discuss them with others in the class, revise, edit, and publish their work. ● Ken also has his students keep daily journals and often use them to share personal concerns with him. ● Ken’s students tell him of problems at home, fights, and fears; he always takes the time to respond in writing. ● Ken also uses technology to connect lessons to real life. ● Throughout the year, Ken is very interested in the social and emotional development of his students; he wants them to learn about responsibility and fairness as well as math, science, and social studies. ● Rather than specifying “do’s” and “don’t’s” at the beginning of the year, Ken and his students devise a “Bill of Rights” for the class, describing the rights of the students. An Inclusive Class ● Eliot was bright and articulate, he easily memorized stories as a child, but he could not read by himself.● Eliot’s problems stemmed from severe learning difficulties with auditory and visual integration and long-term visual memory. ● Dr. Nancy White worked with Eliot’s teacher, Mia Russell, to tailor intensive tutoring that specifically focused on Eliot’s individual learning patterns and his errors. ● With his teachers help, over the next years, Eliot became an expert on his own learning and an independent learner; he knew which strategies he had to use and when to use them. An Advanced Math Class ● Hilda Borko and Carol Livingston describe how Randy, an expert secondary school mathematics teachers, worked with his students’ confusion to construct a review lesson about strategies for doing integrals. ● When one student said that a particular section in the book confused them, Randy led the class through the process of organizing the material. ● He asked the class for general statements about the useful strategies for doing integrals, he clarified their suggestions, elaborated on some, and helped students improve others. ● He asked the students to relate their ideas to a passage in the text. ● By the end of the period, the students had transformed the disorganized material from the book into an ordered and useful outline to guide their learning. ● These classrooms all have one thing in common, the teachers are all committed to their students. They must deal with a wide range of student abilities and challenges, and they have to adapt instruction and assessment to student’s needs. Every teacher was reflective. Reflective – constantly thinking back over situations to analyze what you did and why, and to consider how you might improve learning for your students. What is Good Teaching? ● Teachers must be both knowledgeable and inventive. ● They must be able to use a range of strategies, and they must also be able to invent new strategies. ● They must have some basic research-based routines for managing classes, but they must also be willing and able to break from the routine when the situation calls for change. ● They must know the research on student development, “patterns common to particular ages, culture, social class, geography, and gender”, and they also need to know their own particular students who are unique combinations of culture, gender, and geography. “The difference between a beginning teacher and an experienced teacher is that the beginning teacher asks ‘How am I doing?’ and the experienced teacher asks ‘How are the children doing?’”Research and Theory in Education ● Issues Plato and Aristotle discussed – the role of the teacher, the relationship between the teacher and student, methods of teaching, the nature and order of learning, the role of affect in learning – are still topics in educational psychology today. ● From the beginning, psychology in the United States was linked to teaching. ○ In 1890, William James at Harvard founded the field of psychology in America and developed a lecture series for teachers entitled Talks to Teachers about Psychology. ○ James’s student, G. Stanley Hall, founded the American Psychological Association, his dissertation was about children’s understandings of the world; teachers helped him collect data. ○ Hall encouraged teachers to make detailed observations to study their students’ development – as his mother had done when she was a teacher. ○ Hall’s student, John Dewey, founded the Laboratory School at the University of Chicago, and is considered the father of the progressive education movement. ○ Another one of William James’s students, E.L. Thorndike, wrote the first educational psychology text in 1903 an founded the Journal of Education Psychology in 1910. ● In the 1940s and 1950s, the study of educational psychology concentrated on individual differences, assessments, and learning behaviors. ● In the 1960s and 1970s, the focus of research shifted to the study of cognitive development and learning, with the attention to how students learn concepts and remember. ● Recently, educational psychologists have investigated how culture and social factors affect learning and development. Educational Psychology Today ● Educational Psychology- a distinct discipline with its own theories, research methods, problems, and techniques. ● Educational psychologists do research on learning and teaching and, at the same time, work to improve educational practice. ● In order to understand as much as possible, educational psychologists examine what happens when someone teaches something to someone else in some setting. ● So educational psychologists study child and adolescent development; learning and motivation – including how people learn different academic subjects such as reading and math; social and cultural influences on learning; teaching and teachers; and assessment, including testing. ● Research by Ogden, Brophy, and Evertson found that the answer to the question “What method should a teacher use in selecting students to participate in a primary grade reading class?” is not a simple answer.○ In a 1st grade reading class, for example, going around the circle in order and giving each child a chance to read led to better overall achievement than calling on students randomly. ○ Without some system for calling on everyone, students can be overlooked or skipped. ○ Research suggest that there are better alternatives for teaching reading than going around in a circle, but teachers should make sure that everyone has the chance to practice and feedback whatever approach is used. ○ When asked “When should teachers provide help for lower-achieving students as they do class work?”, Sandra Graham found that when teachers provide help before students ask, the students and others watching are more likely to conclude that the helped students does not have the ability to succeed. ● The student is more likely to attribute failures to lack of ability instead of lack of effort, so motivation suffers. ● When discussing the topic of whether or not schools should allow brighter students to skip grades, Samuel Kirk and his colleagues stated “From early admissions to school to early admissions to college, research studies invariably report that children who have been accelerated have adjusted as well as or better than have children of similar ability who have not been accelerated. ● Whether acceleration is the best solution for a student depends on many specific individual characteristics, including intelligence and maturity of the student as well as other available options. Using Research to Understand and Improve Learning ● Descriptive Studies- often include survey results, interview responses, samples of actual classroom dialogue, or audio and video records of class activities. ● One descriptive approach, classroom ethnography, is borrowed from anthropology. ● Ethnographic Methods – involve studying the naturally occurring events in the life of a group and trying to understand the meaning of these events to the people involved. ● In some descriptive studies, the researcher uses participant observation and works within the class or school or understand the actions from the perspectives of the teacher and students. ● Researchers also employ a case study. ● Case Study – investigates in depth how a teacher plans courses, for example, or how a student tries to learn specific material. Correlation Studies ● Correlation – a number that indicates both the strength and the direction of a relationship between two events or measurements. ● The sign of the correlation tells the direction of the relationship. ● Positive Correlation – indicates that the two factors increase or decrease together. ● Negative Correlation – increases in one factor are related to decreases in the other.● Experimental Studies – allows educational psychologists to go beyond predictions and actually study cause and effect, instead of just observing and describing the situation, the investigators introduce changes and note the results. ○ First, a number of comparable participants are created. ○ One way to make sure that groups of participants are essentially the same is to assign each person to a group using the random procedure. ○ In one or more of these groups, the experimenters change some aspect of the situation to see if this change has an expected effect. ○ The results in each group are then compared, usually statistical tests are conducted. ○ When differences are described as significantly different, it means that they probably did not happen simply by chance. ● Single-Subject Experimental Design – the goal is to determine the effects of a therapy or teaching method, or other intervention. ○ One common approach is to observe the individual for a baseline period (A) and assess the behavior of interest; try an intervention (B) and note the results; then remove the intervention and go back to baseline conditions (A); and finally reinstate the intervention (B) ○ This form of single-subject design is called an ABAB experiment. ● Microgenetic Studies – the goal is to intensively study cognitive processes in the midst of change – as the change is actually happening. ● The microgenetic approach has 3 basic characteristics: ○ (a) researchers observe the entire period of the change – from when it starts to the time it is relatively stable ○ (b) many observations are made, often using videotape recordings, interviews, and transcriptions of the exact words of the individuals being studied ○ (c) the behavior that is observed is “put under a microscope”, that is, examined moment by moment or trial by trial. ○ The goal is to explain the underlying mechanisms of change – for example, what new knowledge or skills are developing to allow change to take place. The Role of Time in Research ● Longitudinal Studies – researching and observing subjects over many years as changes occur. ● Cross Sectional Research- focusing on groups of children at different ages. ● What is Scientifically Based Research? ○ Uses observations or experiments to systematically gather valid and reliable date ○ Involves rigorous and appropriate procedures for analyzing the data ○ Is clearly described so it can be repeated by others ○ Has been rigorously reviewed by appropriate, independent experts ● Principle – an established relationship between two or more factors – between a certain teaching strategy, for example, and student achievement.● Theory – an interrelated set of concepts that is used to explain a body of data and to make predictions about the result of future experiments. Theories for Educational Psychology ● Jean Piaget created one of the best-known stage theories, describing four qualitatively different stages of cognitive development. ● From one stage to the next, the thinking of the child changes in ways that involve more than the addition of knowledge and skills. ● According to Piaget’s stage theory, all the explanation and practice in the world will not help a child functioning at one stage to understand the ways of thinking at a higher stage. Sigmund Freud ● By analyzing the dreams and childhood memories of his patients, mostly upper and middle class women, Freud decided that there were five stages of psychosexual development – the same five stages in the same order for all people. ● If the conflicts of one stage are not resolved, Freud suggested that the individual could become fixated at that stage. Erik Erikson ● In his psychosocial theory, Erikson, like Piaget, and Freud, saw development as a passage through a series of stages, each with its particular goals, concerns, dangers, and accomplishments. ● The stages are interdependent: Accomplishments at later stages depend on how conflicts are resolved in the earlier years. ● At each stage, Erikson suggests that the individual faces a developmental crisis – a conflict between a positive alternative and a potentially unhealthy alternative. ● The way in which the individual resolves the crisis will have a lasting effect on that person’s self-image and view of society. ● Learning and Motivational Theories: Behaviorism, Information Processing, and Social Cognitive Theory: Behaviorism ● One strand of learning theories focuses on something that can be observed – behaviors. ● We may think of behaviors as sandwiched between two sets of environmental influences: those that precede it and those that follow it. ● This relationship can be shown very simply as antecedent – behavior – consequence, or A – B – C. ● Behavioral theories carefully analyze the A-B-C relationships with special attention to the C- consequences. Information Processing● How people process and remember information became an important focus for research, and information processing theories of learning, development, and motivation appeared. ● So now we have a strand of cognitive learning theory that focuses on attention, types of memory, how knowledge is represented and stored, forgetting, and the cognitive system that make all this possible ● Important concepts in information processing theory are attention, perception, working memory, long-term memory, and types of knowledge. Social Cognitive Theory ● Over 30 years ago, Albert Bandura noted that the traditional behavioral views of learning were accurate – but incomplete – because they gave only partial explanation of learning and overlooked important elements, particularly beliefs and social influences. ● Banduras social cognitive theory of learning and motivation combines behavioral concerns with consequences and cognitive interest in thinking. ● Key concepts of the social cognitive theory are the interactions among behavior, environment, and personal characteristics; beliefs about personal capabilities; learning through observation and models; and guiding your own learning through self-regulation. Contextual Theories: Vygotsky and Bronfenbrenner ● Vygotsky believed that human activities take place in cultural settings and cannot be understood apart from those settings. ● One of his key ideas was that our specific mental structures and processes can be traced to our interactions with others. ● The social interactions are more than simple influences on cognitive development – they actually create out cognitive structures and thinking processes. ● Urie Bronfenbrenner developed a framework to map the many interacting social contexts that affect development. ● He called his theory a bioecological model of development ● The bio aspect of the model recognizes that people bring their biological selves to the developmental process. ● The ecological aspect recognizes that the social contexts in which we develop ae ecosystems because they are in constant interaction and influence each other. ● Bronfenbrenner suggested that every person lives, learns, and develops within a set of nested systems from the immediate family to neighborhoods and schools, to the community and society. Chapter 6 Notes: Behavioral Views of Learning Understanding Learning ● Learning happens at all stages of life and is not limited to school settings● Not all learning is intentional ● Learning occurs when experience causes a relatively permanent change in an individual's knowledge or behavior ● To qualify as learning the change must be brought about by experience - by the interaction of a person with his environment ● Changes caused by maturation (growing) are not considered learning ● Temporary changes (sickness, fatigue, impairment) are also not considered learning ● Cognitive psychologists believe learning is an internal mental activity that cannot be observed directly ○ Study thinking, remembering and problem solving ● Behavioral psychologists assume the outcomes of learning are changes in behavior ○ Emphasizes the effects of external events on the individual ○ J.B. Watson claimed thinking and other internal mental events cannot be studied and therefore should not be an explanation of learning Neuroscience of Behavioral Learning ● Researchers have discovered quite a bit about the parts of the brain through animal studies ○ Parts of the cerebellum are involved in reflex learning ● Other lines of research ask why animals and people will behave in certain ways to gain stimulations or reinforcers ○ The same brain systems are associated with the pleasure people experience from many things Learning is Not Always as it Seems ● Elizabeth ○ First lesson taught under the surveillance of her cooperating teacher, college professor comes in unexpectedly to observe ○ Elizabeth plays a word association game with her students ○ The game starts out well but the students quickly get out of hand ○ Angry, Elizabeth passes out a worksheet claiming it to be a test ○ Students claim they will report her for abusing their rights ○ She allows the students to treat the paper as a worksheet but due to their behavior, they no longer are allowed to work together ● Although it would appear very little learning was happening, Elizabeth had some good ideas ● Students were able to associate certain words with her prompts ● Elizabeth was nervous when her professor walked in which is a learned reaction ● One student continued to interrupt with inappropriate responses after his first had gotten a reaction ● The students laughed when Elizabeth laughed ● These four learning responses are known as contiguity, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learningEarly Explanations of Learning: Contiguity and Classical Conditioning ● Aristotle said that we remember things together when they are similar, when they contrast, and when they are contiguous ● Contiguous learning includes all explanations of learning by association ● The principle of contiguity states that whenever two or more sensations occurs, the other will be remembered too ● Classical conditioning focuses on the learning of involuntary emotional or physiological responses such as fear, muscle tension, salivating, or sweating ● Through classical conditioning, humans and animals can be trained to react involuntarily to a stimulus that previously had no effect ● Classical conditioning was discovered in the 1920’s by Ivan Pavlov through his experimenting with his dogs ○ Pavlov began by striking a tuning fork and recording his dogs’ reactions ○ The sound of the tuning for was a neutral stimulus because it didn’t cause salivation ○ The Pavlov fed the dogs, the food is an unconditioned stimulus because no prior training was needed to establish the natural connection between food and salivation ○ The salivation is the unconditioned response because it came about automatically ○ Using the food, tuning fork, and salivation, Pavlov demonstrated that a dog could be conditioned to salivate after hearing the tuning fork ○ By continuously pairing the tuning fork with the presentation of food, Pavlov was able to condition the dogs to respond to the tuning fork with salivation ○ The sound of the tuning fork was now a conditioned stimulus, and the salivation was a conditioned response ● It is possible that many of our emotional reactions to various situations are learned in part through classical conditioning ● Sometimes emotional learning can interfere with academic learning so providing procedures based on classical conditioning can be used to help people learn more adaptive emotional responses Operant Conditioning: Trying New Responses ● Not all human learning is unintentional, deliberate actions are called operants ● Operant behavior is called operant conditioning because we learn to behave in certain ways as we operate on the environment ● B.F. Skinner is thought to be responsible for the concept of operant conditioning ○ Began with belief that the principles of classical conditioning account for very small portions of learning ○ Many human behaviors are operants instead of respondents ● We may think of behavior as sandwiched between two sets of environmental influences○ Those that precede it and those that follow it ● Consequences determine whether a person will repeat the behavior it follows ● A reinforcer is any consequence that strengthens a behavior ● Reinforced behaviors increase in frequency or duration ● There are two types of reinforcement ○ Positive reinforcement occurs when a behavior produces a new stimulus ○ Negative reinforcement occurs when a behavior leads to a stimulus being removed ● Both types of reinforcement are meant to strengthen a behavior ● Punishment involves weakening a behavior by decreasing or suppressing it ● Presentation punishment (type 1) occurs when the appearance of a stimulus following the behavior suppresses or decreases the behavior ● Removal punishment (type 2) involves removing a stimulus Reinforcement Schedules ● People will learn a behavior faster if they are reinforced for every correct response, known as a continuous reinforcement schedule ● Once the behavior is mastered they will maintain it best if they are reinforced intermittently, known as intermittent reinforcement ● There are two basic types of intermittent reinforcement schedules ○ Interval schedule is the amount of time that passes between reinforcements ○ Ratio schedule is based on the number of responses learners give between reinforcers ○ May be fixed or variable ● Reinforcement schedules influence how persistently we will respond when reinforcement is withheld ● Extinction is when the conditioned stimulus appears but the conditioned response does not follow ● Removal of reinforcement altogether will lead to extinction Antecedents and Behavior Change ● Antecedents are the events preceding behaviors ● In operant conditioning antecedents provide information about which behaviors will lead to positive consequences and which will lead to unpleasant ones ● Skinner’s pigeons learned to peck for food when the light was on, but not to bother when the light was off since there would be no food with the light off ● They learned to use the antecedent light as a cue to discriminate the likely consequence of pecking ● Effective instruction delivery (EID) has found instructions that are concise, clear and specific, and that communicate an expected result are more effective than vague directions ● Cueing is the act of providing an antecedent stimulus just before a specific behavior is supposed to take place● Cueing is useful in setting the stage for behaviors that must occur at a given time, but are easily forgotten ● Some students need help learning to respond to a cue in an appropriate way so the cue becomes a discriminative stimulus ○ Provide an additional cue called a prompt which follows the first cue Applied Behavior Analysis ● Applied behavior is the application of behavioral learning principles to change behavior (sometimes called behavioral modification) ● ABA requires specification of the behavior to be changed, careful measurement of the behavior, analysis of the antecedents and reinforcers that might be maintaining inappropriate or undesirable behavior, interventions based on behavioral principles to change the behavior, and careful measurement of changes Methods Encouraging Behavior ● Reinforcing with Teacher Attention is to praise students for good behavior, while ignoring misbehavior ● Differential reinforcement is ignoring inappropriate behavior, while reinforcing appropriate behaviors as soon as they occur ● To be effective praise must: ○ Be contingent on the behavior being reinforced ○ Specify clearly the behavior being reinforced ○ Be believable ● By making rewards, such as feeding classroom animals, contingent on learning, you are more likely to achieve your desired result ● Shaping (successive approximations) involves reinforcing progress instead of waiting for perfection ● In order to use shaping, the final behavior must be broken down into smaller steps ● A task analysis gives a picture of the logical sequence of steps leading toward the final goal ● In positive practice, students replace one behavior with another ○ Appropriate for dealing with academic errors Handling Undesirable Behavior ● When positive reinforcement fails, negative reinforcement, reprimands,response cost, and social isolation all offer possible solutions ● Teachers can make sure that unpleasant situations improve when student behavior improves ● The teacher strengthens the behaviors by removing something aversive as soon as the desired behaviors occur ● Negative reinforcement also gives students a chance to exercise control ○ Missing recess is an unpleasant situation, but as soon as the student performs the appropriate behavior, the unpleasant situation ends● Calm, soft, private reprimands are more effective than loud, public reprimands in decreasing disruptive behavior ● For certain infractions of the rules, people must lose some reinforcer (money, time or privileges) which is known as response cost ● Social isolation is one of the most controversial behavioral methods for decreasing undesirable behavior ○ Involves removing a highly disruptive student from the classroom for 5-10 minutes ○ Students who are placed in a room alone will be more affected than a student sent to a time out corner or the principal's office ● Many studies have shown that punishment alone doesn’t work ○ Children learn what NOT to do, but not WHAT to do ● Punishment must be a two part attack ○ Carry Out the punishment to suppress undesirable behavior ○ Make clear what the student should be doing and provide reinforcement for desirable actions Behavioral Approaches to Teaching and Management ● Practicing accurate behaviors makes permanent changes ● A teacher can base reinforcement for the class on the behavior of selected students ● The class could also earn rewards based on a collective behavior of everyone in the class ● Group consequences can also be used, however, the whole group should not suffer for the misbehavior of one person Contingency Contracts and Token Reinforcement ● In a contingency program, the teacher draws up an individual contract with each student, describing exactly what the student must do to earn a particular privilege ● When students are involved with setting the goals, they are more likely to abide by the contract ● A token reinforcement system can help solve issues regarding students who deserve positive consequences when others do not ● Students earn tokens for both academic work and positive behavior ● Periodically, students exchange the tokens for a desired award (school store, time on electronics) ● Token reward systems are complicated and time consuming and should be limited to: ○ Motivating students who are in no way interested in their work ○ Encourage students who have failed to make academic progress ○ Deal with a class that is out of control Functional Behavioral Assessment and Positive Behavior Supports ● Ask yourself “What are students getting out of their problem behaviors - what functions do these behaviors serve?”● Students act out to: ○ Receive attention ○ Escape from an unpleasant situation ○ Get a desired item or activity ○ Meet sensory needs, such as stimulation for ADHD and Autism ● If the reason for behavior is known, the teacher can devise ways of supporting positive behaviors ● The process of understanding the “why” of a problem behavior is known as functional behavioral assessment (FBA) ● By using the A-B-C’s (antecedents, behaviors, and consequences) of a situation, teachers are able to identify the reason for the behavior ● The same behaviors may serve different functions for different students so it is important t vo use the A-B-C’s in observation of each individual child ● The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act requires positive behavior support for students with disabilities ● Positive behavior supports can help students succeed in inclusion in their classrooms ● Problem behavior supports are interventions designed to replace problem behavior with new actions that serve the same purpose for the student ● Teachers are encouraged to use preventative strategies such as pre correction which involves: ○ Identifying the context for a student’s missed behavior ○ Clearly specifying the alternative expected behavior ○ Modifying the situation to make the problem behavior less likely ● Positive behavior supports also can be part of a school-wide program. ● At the school level, the teachers and administrators can: ○ Agree on a common approach for supporting positive behaviors and correcting Problems. ○ Develop a few positively stated, specific behavioral expectations and procedures for teaching these expectations to all students. ○ Identify a continuum of ways (from small and simple, to more complex and stronger) to acknowledge appropriate behaviors and correct behavioral errors. ○ Integrate the positive behavior support procedures with the school's discipline policy. Challenges to Behavior Views: Thinking About Behavior ● Learning theorists have expanded their view of learning to include the study of cognitive processes that cannot be directly observed, such as expectations, thoughts, mental maps, and beliefs Social Learning Theory ● Albert Bandur’s early work on learning was grounded in the behavioral principles of reinforcement and punishment, but he added a focus on learning from observing others○ labeled social leaming theory, it was considered a neo behavioral approach ● Bandura distinguished between the acquisition of knowledge (learning) and the observable performance based on that knowledge (behavior) ● Even though learning may have occurred, it may not be demonstrated until the situation is appropriate or there are incentives to perform ● In his later work, Bandura focused on cognitive factors such as beliefs, self-perceptions, and expectations, so his theory is now called a social cognitive theory ● Social cognitive theory distinguishes between enactive and vicarious learning ● Enactive learning is learning by doing and experiencing the consequences of your actions ● The difference between enactive learning and operant conditioning is the role of the consequences ○ Proponents of operant conditioning believe that consequences strengthen or weaken behaviors ○ In enactive learning, consequences are seen as providing information ● Vicarious learning is learning by observing others (also called observational learning) ● To learn by watching people must be focusing their attention, constructing images, remembering, analyzing, and making decisions that affect learning Elements of Observational Learning ● Through observational learning, we learn not only how to perform a behavior but also what will happen to us in specific situations if we do perform it ● Learning includes four elements: ○ Paying attention ○ Retaliating information or impressions ○ Producing behaviors ○ Being motivated to repeat the behaviors ● In teaching, you will have to ensure students' attention to the critical features of the lesson by making clear presentations and highlighting important points ● Retention can be improved by mental rehearsal (imagining imitating the behavior) or by actual practice ● In the retention phase of observational learning, practice helps us remember the elements of the desired behavior, such as the sequence of steps ● We need a great deal of practice, feedback, and coaching about subtle points before we can reproduce the behavior of the model ● We may acquire a new skill or behavior through observation, but we may not perform that behavior until there is some motivation or incentive to do so ● Bandura identifies three forms of reinforcement that can encourage observational Learning ○ the observer may reproduce the behaviors of the model and receive direct reinforcement ○ The observer may simply see others reinforced for a particular behavior and then increase his or her production of that behavior○ self-reinforcement, or controlling your own reinforcers when it comes to education means students must learn to manage their own lives, set their own goals, and provide their own reinforcement Self Management ● Responsibility and the ability to learn rest within the student ● Students must be active learners, no one can learn for them ● Students may be involved in any or all of the steps in a basic behavior change program ○ They may help set goals, observe their own work, keep records of it, and evaluate their own performance ● Setting specific goals and making them public may be the critical elements of self-management programs ● Student-set goals have a tendency to reflect increasingly lower expectations ● Teachers can help students maintain high standards by monitoring the goals set and reinforcing high standards ● Behaviors that are appropriate for self-monitoring are the number of assignments completed, time spent practicing a skill, number of books read, number of problems correct, and time taken to run a mile ● Tasks that must be accomplished without teacher supervision, such as homework or private study, are good candidates for self monitoring ● Self-evaluation is somewhat more difficult than simple self-recording because it involves making a judgment about quality. ● One key to accurate self-evaluation seems to be for the teacher to periodically check students' assessments and give reinforcement for accurate judgments ● Some psychologists believe that setting goals and monitoring progress alone are sufficient and that self-reinforcement adds nothing to the effects ● Rewarding yourself for a job well done can lead to higher levels of performance than simply setting goals and keeping track of progres