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AU / Biology / BIOL 3000 / What is the function of cell division?

What is the function of cell division?

What is the function of cell division?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: Biology
Course: GENETICS
Professor: Miller milller
Term: Summer 2017
Tags: Chromosomes, Cell, and cycle
Cost: 25
Name: Genetics intro
Description: Chromosomes, cell cycle, cell division, structures of chromosomes
Uploaded: 05/22/2017
6 Pages 144 Views 1 Unlocks
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Cells, chromosomes and cell divisionWe also discuss several other topics like What role do decomposers play in the n cycle?

Eukaryotic cells

  • Undergo cell division by mitosis or meiosis - sexual reproduction
  • Genetic material in nucleus clone
  • Other membrane bound compartments with other genetic material

  • Have nuclear genome - composed of a larger linear set of chromosomes.

* # of chromosomes depends on organism If you want to learn more check out How do you contact someone after a long time?

Cell division (Eukaryotes)

  • Use mitosis to produce identical daughter cells (asexcual reproduction) - used for growth and repair
  • Involves cytoskeleton

  • Use meiosis to produce gametes for sexual reproduction.
  • Similar to mitosis but diff. In detail and resulting cells are different from each other.
  • Replicate once and set 4 daughter cells.

If you want to learn more check out What does "burn the ships" mean in the bible?

* Both are nuclear divisions (division of genetic material)

  • Division of cytoplasm: cytokinesis - not always equal

We also discuss several other topics like How would a person plan and develop a budget for your school?

Think about development, we have a zygote and if cells start dividing to make embryos and they produce identical daughter cells instead of the usual division (parts of embryo cells develop differently cytokinesis divides cells in diff. sizes) it would just be able a blob of the same material. The cytokinesis division gives all info to be determined (what traits show up later).We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of legislative fact assumption?

Cell cycle

Mitotic (M) phase alternates with much larger interphase

If you want to learn more check out Name some ocean ridges.

                                                *histones & double helix is considered in G,                                                         S & G2 phase.

                                                * able to see chromosome when histones

                                                        Combine.

“G” - gap synthesis of DNA (replication of genetic material)

Interphase is composed of G1, G2, S

Order: M - I alternating

G0 = cells that don’t divide again } interphase cycle

*know diff. Places for cell cycle*

Know order and how it works

Chromosomes

  • DNA molecules are packaged into chromosomes

Ex: if a cell has defective mitochondria and it undergoes cytokinesis then each cell will have diff mitochondria

Nuclear chromosomes represents single linear genes with proteins.

  • Each eukaryotic species has a specific number of chromosomes in the nucleus..
  • Each eukaryotic chromosome is a single, linear DNA molecule.
  • Each chromosome: contains 1,000’s of genes, the units that specify an organism's traits.
  • DNA is associated with proteins to maintain structure and control gene activity

*chromosome 1 in humans is the biggest!

*diameter of the nucleus = <1/10 of a mm.

  • Proteins in DNA is complex; chromatin, its organized into long thin fibers.

                                     

                                Controls function of genome

Ex: take skin cells and muscle cells; look at the nucleus & the chromosomes will  be diff. since each performs diff. Function.

  • Chromatin: complex of DNA and protein.

Basic unit of chromatin: nucleosome.

  • DNA coiled around histone protein

Nucleosome - spool with thread around it

*wave length determines how by an object looks.

*wavelength of visible light - 200-700

Diameter of DNA molecule - 2nm.

Chromosomes diameter - 1,400 nm - visible only during cell division.

As cell prepares to undergo mitosis and meiosis they form a kinetochore.

                                                                        

                                Specialized proteins that attach to centromere.

                                (helps pull chromatid to each side of cell)

What would happen to a chromosome without a centromere?

Microtubules/kinetochore can’t attach to it and it would not divide and wouldn’t be included in nucleus. They will be lost.

Diff. size chromosomes shows the diff. genes/genetic material

Why would it be bad to have 2 centromeres? What would happen in cell division?

DNA would have to break to separate.

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