Exam 2 – Fall 15 Name_________Key_____________ Biology 151 – General Biology II 150 Points Total Use your scantron sheet for questions #1-50. Multiple Choice – 2 points each 1) Which of the following are the epidermal cell projections found on roots that increase the surface areaWe also discuss several other topics like potentiometery
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? A) cotyledons B) mesophyll C) nodes D) internodes E) root hairs 2) Which structure is incorrectly paired with its tissue system? A) companion cell - ground tissue B) guard cell - dermal tissue C) palisade parenchyma - ground tissue D) tracheid - vascular tissue E) root hair - dermal tissue 3) Unlike fibrous root systems, taproot systems A) maximize surface area. B) are used as food storage organs. C) anchor the plant. D) hold soil well. E) transport water and minerals to the stem. 4) One function of the ground tissue in a plant is A) photosynthesis. B) to protect the plant. C) to anchor the plant. D) water conduction. E) sugar conduction. 5) One important difference between the anatomy of roots and the anatomy of leaves is that A) only leaves have phloem and only roots have xylem. B) leaves have epidermal tissue but roots do not. C) a waxy cuticle covers leaves but is absent from roots. D) vascular tissue is found in roots but is absent from leaves. E) root cells have cell walls and leaf cells do not 6) The Casparian strip is A) a layer of endodermal cells. B) a layer of epidermal cells. C) the apoplast. D) the symplast. E) the waxy region of the endodermal cell walls.1 7) Which structure of the leaf minimizes water loss? A) Cortex B) Epidermis C) Cuticle D) Phloem E) Xylem 8) Plants contain meristems whose major function is to A) produce flowers. B) photosynthesize. C) produce more cells. D) attract pollinators. E) absorb ions. 9) A water molecule could move all the way through a plant from soil to root to leaf to air and pass through a living cell only once. This living cell would be a part of which structure? A) the Casparian strip B) the endodermis C) a guard cell D) the root cortex E) the root epidermis 10) What drives the flow of water through the xylem? A) active transport by sieve-tube elements B) the number of companion cells in the phloem C) the evaporation of water from the leaves D) passive transport by the endodermis E) active transport by tracheid and vessel elements 11) What would happen if the soil around a tall tree were contaminated by salt? A) The tree would continue to grow just as it had before the salt contamination. B) The tree would become stronger because of the increase of minerals in the soil. C) The tree would require less water to maintain a water potential gradient. D) The tree could die because the soil water potential would be lower than that of the root. E) The tree would create more xylem to accommodate the extra mineral load. 12) The pressure flow model of translocation depends entirely on the existence of mechanisms for loading sugars into phloem at the _______ regions and for unloading them at the _______ regions. A) sink; sink B) sink; source C) source; source D) source; sink E) source; source or sink 13) Sugars move from the sieve tubes into the plant’s tissue A) by diffusion. B) via the apoplast. C) by active transport. D) by osmosis. E) via translocation.2 14) According to the pressure flow model for translocation, A) sugar concentration is highest near the sink area. B) water enters the sieve tube by osmosis. C) sugar is transported out of the sieve tubes near the source area. D) osmosis accomplishes the bulk flow of water and nutrients. E) little ATP expenditure is required. 15) Almost all of the major animal body plans seen today appeared in the fossil record over 500 million years ago during the A) Ediacaran explosion. B) Carboniferous explosion. C) Cambrian explosion. D) Cretaceous explosion. E) Permian explosion. 16) The last common ancestor of all animals was probably a A) unicellular chytrid. B) unicellular yeast. C) multicellular fungus. D) flagellated protist. E) multicellular algae. 17) In the text you studied two phylogenetic hypotheses regarding the relationships of the animal phyla. The tree that is based on molecular evidence differs from the tree based on morphological evidence in that it _____. A) divides protostomes into two groups B) depicts sponges as basal animals C) depicts cnidarians as basal eumetazoans D) places the chordates and echinoderms in the deuterostome group E) suggests that the animal clade is polyphyletic 18) Which of the following are not eumetazoans based on the two phylogenetic hypotheses depicted in your textbook? A) Ctenophores B) Sponges C) Cnidarians D) Bilateria E) Protostomes 19) Bilaterally symmetrical animals can be divided into two major groups that separated during the Cambrian. These two lineages differ fundamentally in their A) modes of reproduction. B) early embryological development. C) mode of obtaining and storing energy. D) environmental requirements. E) metabolism.3 20) Which of the following is (are) unique to animals? A) cells that have mitochondria B) the structural carbohydrate, chitin C) heterotrophy D) nervous conduction and muscular movement E) Two of these responses are correct. 21) An adult animal that possesses bilateral symmetry is most certainly also A) eucoelomate. B) highly cephalized. C) triploblastic. D) a deuterostome. E) sponge. 22) You are trying to identify an organism. It is an animal, but it does not have nerve or muscle tissue. It is neither diploblastic nor triploblastic. It is probably a A) chordate. B) sponge. C) jelly. D) flatworm. E) nematode. 23) Which sponge cell type is specialized for creating the currents that draw food particles into the sponge? A) Spicule B) Pore cell C) Osculum D) Choanocyte E) Nematocyst 24) In what way is a sponge similar to a cnidarian? A) Both are bilateral. B) Both have a sessile polyp form and a mobile medusa form. C) Both have a saclike body plan. D) Both use stinging cells to trap prey. E) Neither has true tissues. 25) Which of the following is true of members of the phylum Cnidaria? A) They are not capable of locomotion because they lack true muscle tissue. B) They may use a gastrovascular cavity as a hydrostatic skeleton. C) They have either, or both, of two body forms: mobile polyps and sessile medusae. D) They are primarily filter feeders. E) They are the simplest organisms with a complete alimentary canal (two openings). 26) Which characteristic is shared by both cnidarians and flatworms? A) radial symmetry B) a digestive system with a single opening C) bilateral symmetry D) stinging tentacles E) both A and D4 27) Which of the following statements about the flatworms is false? A) Some are parasitic. B) They possess a mouth but no anus. C) They are diploblastic. D) They possess some degree of cephalization. E) Some possess complex life cycles. 28) Which of the following animals have complete digestive tracts? A) Planaria B) Tapeworms C) Cnidarians D) Annelids E) None of the above 29) Which of the following is a characteristic of nematodes? A) They have only longitudinal muscles. B) They have a gastrovascular cavity. C) They have a true coelom. D) Many species are diploblastic. E) All species can be characterized as scavengers. 30) Which of the following is not associated with the rotifers? A) A pseudocoelom B) A complete gut C) Conspicuous feeding organs D) Radial symmetry E) Movement by beating cilia 31) Among the invertebrate phyla, phylum Arthropoda is unique in possessing members that have A) open circulation. B) segmented bodies. C) wings. D) a cuticle. E) a ventral nerve cord. 32) The firm exoskeleton of insects has protective and supportive advantages, but it poses which of the following problems? A) The animal must consume large amounts of food to support the growth of the exoskeleton. B) The exoskeleton prevents the animal from moving rapidly. C) The exoskeleton cannot grow as the animal body inside it grows. D) The exoskeleton attracts predators. E) All of the above 33) Which of the following combinations of phylum and description is incorrect? A) Echinodermata–bilateral symmetry as a larva, coelom present B) Platyhelminthes–flatworms, gastrovascular cavity, acoelomate C) Nematoda–roundworms, pseudocoelomate D) Porifera–gastrovascular cavity, coelom present E) Cnidaria–radial symmetry, polyp and medusa body forms5 34) In a tide pool, a student encounters an organism with a hard outer covering that contains much calcium carbonate, an open circulatory system, and gills. The organism could potentially be a crab, a shrimp, a barnacle, or a bivalve. The presence of which of the following structures would allow for the most certain identification of the organism? A) eyes B) a mantle C) a filter-feeding apparatus D) a heart E) a body cavity 35) What is characteristic of all ecdysozoans? A) radial symmetry B) the deuterostome condition C) the diploblastic condition D) some kind of exoskeleton that is shed as the organism grows E) a pseudocoelom 36) Which of these are ecdysozoan animals that have a complete digestive tract and a pseudocoelom. A) cnidarians B) platyhelminthes C) annelids D) arthropods E) roundworms 37) A(n) ______ is an example of a cephalopod. A) octopus B) clam C) slug D) oyster E) snail 38) Which of the following groups contains the largest number of species? A) Rotifers B) Arthropods C) Annelids D) Phoronids E) Polychaetes 39) Which of the following are characteristics of arthropods? 1. protostome development 2. bilateral symmetry 3. a pseudocoelom 4. three embryonic germ layers 5. backbone A) 1, 2, and 4 B) 3, 4, and 5 C) 2 and 3 D) 2, 3, and 5 E) 1 and 2 6 40) Chordate pharyngeal slits appear to have functioned first as A) gill slits for respiration. B) the digestive system's opening. C) components of the jaw. D) portions of the inner ear. E) suspension-feeding devices. 41) Which of the following features is not found in the chordate lineage? A) Bilateral symmetry B) A dorsal hollow nerve cord C) An external skeleton D) Pharyngeal slits at some stage during development E) A notochord at some stage during development 42) Evolution of jaws first occurred in the group of fishes known as the A) ostracoderms. B) gnathostomes. C) cartilaginous fishes. D) coelacanths. E) ray-finned fishes. 43) What do all craniates have that earlier chordates did not have? A) bone B) vertebrae C) partial or complete skull D) brain E) cartilaginous pipe surrounding notochord 44) Which group most likely gave rise to amphibians? A) jawless fishes B) starfishes C) lobe-finned fishes D) ray-finned fishes E) cartilaginous fishes 45) Which of these are amniotes? A) egg-laying mammals B) placental mammals C) fishes D) amphibians E) More than one of these is correct. 46) The feature present in reptiles and absent in amphibians that freed reptiles from dependence on water for reproduction is ______. A) the lateral line system B) cephalization C) the amniotic egg D) metamorphosis E) notochord 7 47) During chordate evolution, what is the sequence (from earliest to most recent) in which the following structures arose? 1. amniotic egg 2. skull 3. jaws 4. swim bladder 5. four-chambered heart A) 2, 1, 4, 3, 5 B) 3, 2, 4, 1, 5 C) 2, 4, 3, 1, 5 D) 2, 3, 4, 1, 5 E) 3, 2, 1, 4, 5 48) Which of these primate groups is most closely related to hominins? A) lorises B) Old World monkeys C) New World monkeys D) lemurs E) apes 49) The oldest fossil remains of members of our genus, Homo, suggest that early relatives of humans lived A) near China, where food is plentiful throughout the year. B) near Siberia, in an area where they were protected from predation. C) in the midwestern United States, where there is some of the most fertile soil in the world. D) in the American tropics, where there are long growing seasons and many species of fruits and berries. E) in dry African savannas, where they ate roots, bulbs, tubers, and animals. 50) Which of these species was the first to have some members migrate out of Africa? A) H. habilis B) Australopithecus garhi C) H. sapiens D) H. erectus E) H. ergaster8 Answer directly on the exam for questions #51 – 56 Short Answer Essays: For questions 51 – 54 provide a short answer to the question (1+ complete sentences). Single word or short phrase answers will not receive full credit. You may use drawings as part of your answer. 51. (10 points total) Water Transport in Plants a. (5 points) How do water’s properties of adhesion and cohesion help maintain the flow of water in the xylem of a plant? Cohesion is the connection of water molecules to one another through hydrogen bonds between positively charged hydrogen atoms and negatively charged oxygen atoms in every water molecule. Cohesion maintains an unbroken stream of water extending through the whole xylem tube. Adhesion is created by hydrogen bonds between the polar water molecules and charged or polar molecules in the xylem tubes. Adhesion attaches the stream of water to the tubes holding it in place against the force of gravity. b. (5 points) If water flows from a region of more positive (higher) water potential to a region of more negative (lower) water potential, how must the water potential in the root compare to that in the soil outside the root? Explain. The water potential must be higher in the soil than in the root for water to flow into the xylem tubes. If the water potential gradient is in the opposite direction or there is no water potential gradient then the water will no flow into the xylem tubes. 52. (16 points total) Animal Phylogeny and Classification a. (8 points) Why is animal evolution during the early Cambrian period referred to as an “explosion”? In the fossil record from this period it is clear that a great diversity of animals evolved over a very short period of time in the oceans. During this “explosion” we see the first examples of most if not all of the animal phyla representing the last common ancestors of these important groups. b. (8 points) Why are sponges considered to be animals, even though they lack the complex body structure found among most other animal groups? Unlike their protists ancestors the sponges are multicellular and have several different types of specialized cells. One of the fundamental distinctions between protists and animals is multicellularity.9 53. (24 points total) Animal Phyla a. (8 points) Compare and contrast the tissue level and cell specialization level of organization and indicate how sponges and Cnidarians exhibit these phenomena. Cell specialization creates different cell types in a multicellular organism. For instance, in the sponges the evolution of cell specialization has created choancyte cells with flagella that maintain water flow through the sponge body and mechanically digest materials, amboecytes ingest the diest food particles, and pore cells create channels for water flow. However, these cells do not form extended structures together to carry out their function. Tissue level organization involves the development of tissues types (often during gastrulation) that are made of several cells connected to one another and working in unison to perform a task. Cnidarians are diploblastic and have two tissue layers that carry out body level functions. b. (8 points) Compare and contrast the type of body support found in an annelid, arthropod, and echinoderm animal. Annelids have segmentation that creates segmentally repeated muscles. These repeated muscles constrain the body fluid and create a hydrostatic pressure that supports the body. Arthropods have an exoskeleton of chitin that the muscles attach to. The exoskeleton cannot growth with the arthropod but it does provide protection and support. The echinoderms have an endoskeleton that support the structure of the body. The muscles of the echinoderm connect to the endoskeleton and the endoskeleton can grow wit the animal. c. (8 points) Compare and contrast the digestive systems of free living flatworms (planaria), parasitic flatworms (tapeworms), and free living roundworms (Ascaris)? Planaria have a gastrovascular cavity with one opening. This cavity is both for digestion and gas exchange for the internal cells of the animal. Parasitic tapeworms live in the digestive tract of larger animals and receive pre-digested molecules that they use to live. Because of this lifestyle tapeworms have lost their digestive tract altogether. Free living roundworms have two openings for their digestive tract (mouth and anus) this alimentary canal allows them to digest their food more thoroughly and allows for the separation of gas exchange and digestion.10