Exam 3 – Fall 2015 Name_____________Key_____________ Biology 151 – General Biology II 150 Points Total Use your scantron sheet for questions #1-50. Multiple Choice – 2 points each 1) Anatomical structure in animals is organized at hierarchical levels. Which ofDon't forget about the age old question of temple mis
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the following choices lists several of these, from least inclusive to most inclusive? A) cell, organ system, tissue, organ, organism B) cell, organ, organ system, tissue, organism C) cell, organism, organ, organ system, tissue D) tissue, cell, organ system, organ, organism E) cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism 2) Although there are many kinds of specialized cell types, there are only _______ kinds of tissues. A) 1 B) 14 C) 4 D) 3 E) 6 3) Which one of the following types of tissue stores fat in the body? A) cartilage B) fibrous connective tissue C) adipose tissue D) blood E) bone 4) Which type of tissue is responsible for secreting digestive enzymes? A) Connective B) Epithelial C) Matrix D) Muscle E) Nervous 5) Which of the following organ systems is not involved in the maintenance of homeostasis in humans? A) Respiratory B) Digestive C) Muscle D) Circulatory E) All of the above organ systems are involved in maintaining homeostasis. 6) Which of the following is true of a typical skeletal muscle? A) It is only found in heart tissue. B) Contraction is involuntary. C) It is found in the walls of organs such as the digestive tract. D) It can be enlarged by exercise. E) Its fibers do not have a striped appearance under the microscope. 1 7) The body's automatic tendency to maintain a constant internal environment is termed A) physiological chance. B) estivation. C) homeostasis. D) static equilibrium. E) balanced equilibrium. 8) Endothermy A) involves production of heat through metabolism. B) is a term equivalent to "cold-blooded." C) is a characteristic of most animals. D) is only seen in insects. E) is only seen in mammals. 9) The hypothalamus serves in part as an integrated thermoregulatory center defining an organism’s response to changes in its thermal environment. Because the hypothalamus normally serves to produce metabolic responses that reverse the direction of environmental temperature change, the control it exerts is termed A) positive feedback. B) metabolic compensation. C) negative feedback. D) feedforward. E) None of the above 10) Which of the following physiological control mechanisms is a response to a rise in body temperature? A) Slower heart rate B) Increased blood flow to the skin C) Constriction of blood vessels in the skin D) Contraction of muscles E) Retention of water 11) The energy content of food is described in terms of calories because A) the amount of energy in food depends on the temperature. B) food heats up as it is being digested. C) the energy in food ultimately becomes heat. D) heat is the main product of digestion. E) heat is the main product of respiration. 12) Vitamins are essential nutrients for cells because they A) are required for making protein. B) must be obtained from food. C) are universally needed by all animals. D) are essential as an energy source. E) are required for making nucleic acids.2 13) Which of the following best describes the relationship of insulin to glucagon? A) High levels of insulin inhibit pancreatic secretion of glucagon. B) Insulin works oppositely to glucagon. C) Diabetes is caused by deficiency in glucagon. D) They work together for homeostatic control of thermoregulation. E) Both insulin and glucagon are secreted by the liver. 14) Which of the following statements about the tubular digestive tract of animals is false? A) Food is digested extracellularly. B) There are two openings to the digestive tract. C) Food must always be broken into smaller pieces before ingestion. D) All digestion occurs inside the digestive tract. E) The digestive tract has specialized segments. 15) The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth. What is the name given to the starch digesting enzyme secreted by salivary glands? A) bile salts B) amylase C) pepsin D) lipase E) trypsin 16) The inactive form of stomach enzymes is activated by A) enterokinase. B) ATP. C) low pH. D) the appropriate substrate molecule. E) the presence of water. 17) In the human digestive system where does most of the digestion and absorption happen? A) Pancreas B) Stomach C) Large intestine D) Small Intestine E) Liver 18) The major function of the colon, or large intestine, is the A) digestive breakdown of foods. B) absorption of nutrients from foods. C) housing of parasitic bacteria. D) secretion of bile and enzymes. E) reabsorption of water. 19) A cardiovascular system is not necessary in the hydra because the hydra A) is an aquatic animal. B) has no skeleton. C) is only two cells thick. D) has tentacles to move water. E) does not move rapidly.3 20) In an open circulatory system, A) there is no heart. B) there is a gastrovascular cavity. C) there are no blood vessels. D) blood flows out of the body. E) there is no distinction between blood and tissue fluid. 21) In the human heart, blood is pumped from the left ventricle into the A) right ventricle. B) left atrium. C) right atrium. D) pulmonary circuit. E) systemic circuit. 22) All arteries carry ______. A) interstitial fluid B) oxygen-rich blood C) oxygen-poor blood D) blood away from the heart E) blood toward the heart 23) Which of these carry(ies) oxygen-poor blood? A) left atrium B) pulmonary arteries C) left ventricle D) pulmonary veins E) aorta 24) In the cardiac cycle, blood pressure is at its maximum when the _______ are _______ during _______. A) atria; contracting; systole B) atria; contracting; diastole C) ventricles; contracting; systole D) ventricles; relaxing; systole E) ventricles; relaxing; diastole 25) The function of leukocytes is to A) destroy foreign cells or to produce antibodies. B) transport respiratory gases. C) stimulate blood clotting. D) distribute nutrients to tissues. E) produce the different types of blood cells. 26) Which of these blood components are responsible for initiating the clotting process? A) erythrocytes B) red blood cells C) white blood cells D) platelets E) leukocytes 4 27) The movement of blood in the veins toward the heart is caused by A) gravity. B) the contraction of venous walls. C) cilia lining the veins. D) the contraction of nearby muscles. E) venous capacitance. 28) Blockage of a coronary artery can cause A) a heart attack. B) stroke. C) fainting. D) edema. E) anemia. 29) Gas exchange in animals always involves A) cellular respiration. B) breathing movements. C) neural control. D) diffusion of gases between internal body fluids and the outside medium. E) active transport of gases. 30) The respiratory system of insects consists of A) branched air tubes called spiracles that supply capillaries. B) branched air tubes called tracheae that supply capillaries. C) branching gill systems that end in openings called tracheae. D) branching gill systems that end in openings called spiracles. E) extensive layers of gas exchange tissue just under the exoskeleton. 31) In the human respiratory system, gas exchange occurs across the cells of the ______. A) diaphragm B) alveoli C) bronchi D) trachea E) pharynx 32) Most carbon dioxide in blood ______. A) binds together leukocytes B) reacts to form bicarbonate C) reacts with hemoglobin D) is dissolved in the plasma E) is carried by platelets 33) Hemoglobin delivers O2 to body cells from the red blood cells A) until the hemoglobin is depleted of O2. B) until the partial pressures of O2 in the two different cells are equivalent. C) although the hemoglobin is never completely saturated. D) by releasing O2 to cells with a higher partial pressure of oxygen. E) until the fluid pressure in the red blood cells is lower5 34) Marine invertebrates in which the salinity of body fluids changes with the osmotic potential of their environments are known as A) osmoconformers. B) osmoregulators. C) osmoexcretors. D) hypotonic. E) hypertonic. 35) Which of the following operates by filtering fluids into a tube, and then secreting or reabsorbing specific substances? A) Flame cells of flatworms B) Metanephridia of annelid worms C) Malpighian tubules of insects D) Vertebrate nephrons E) All of the above 36) Ammonia and urea are waste products derived from the metabolic breakdown of A) carbohydrates. B) lipids. C) sugars. D) proteins. E) salts. 37) The process of filtration from the capillaries into the glomerulus is driven by A) active transport. B) arterial blood pressure. C) venous blood pressure. D) osmotic pressure. E) secretion. 38) During filtration, which of the following does not enter Bowman’s capsule from the bloodstream? A) Water B) Glucose C) Ions D) Amino acids E) Plasma proteins 39) Reabsorption is the movement of substances from the ______ to the ______. A) liver . . . blood B) urinary bladder . . . outside C) filtrate . . . blood D) blood . . . filtrate E) kidney . . . urinary bladder 40) Valuable molecules such as glucose, amino acids, and vitamins are returned to the blood at which location in the nephron? A) Bowman’s capsule B) Collecting duct C) Glomerulus D) Loop of Henle E) Proximal convoluted tubule6 41) A sperm cell's acrosome ______. A) contains enzymes that are released when the sperm encounters an egg and dissolves a hole in the jellylike matrix that surrounds the egg B) contains the fuel that powers the sperm C) contains the sperm's mitochondria D) fuses with the plasma membrane of the egg cell E) contains the sperm's nucleus and is the part of the sperm that enters the egg during fertilization 42) In a sea urchin egg, the ______ blocks entry of additional sperm once fertilization has occurred. A) nuclear membrane B) fertilization membrane C) sperm membrane D) follicle cell layer E) molecular layer 43) The gray crescent is the region of the egg A) that is opposite the site of sperm penetration. B) where gastrulation begins. C) that was pigmented before cytoplasmic rearrangement. D) where the dorsal lip of the blastopore develops. E) All of the above 44) During cleavage, the cytoplasm of new cells in a developing frog embryo A) comes from the egg cytoplasm. B) is synthesized by the blastomeres. C) does not contain any yolk. D) is the vegetal pole. E) undergoes mitosis. 45) Which of the following cells develops into a human embryo? A) Trophoblast B) Extraembryonic membrane C) Inner cell mass D) Cumulus E) All of the above 46) The structure in birds and mammals that is most analogous to the dorsal lip of the frog blastopore is A) the primitive streak. B) the archenteron. C) the yolk plug. D) Hensen’s node. E) the notochord. 47) Gastrulation ______. A) changes a zygote into a hollow blastocyst B) changes a gastrula into a blastocyst C) stimulates labor D) changes the hollow blastula into an embryo that has several organs E) changes the hollow blastula into an embryo that has three tissue layers7 48) The muscles, heart, and bones come from ______. A) ectoderm B) endoderm C) mesoderm D) neural crest cells E) noctoderm 49) Once development has proceeded to the point that three germ layers are in place within the embryo, the next phase of development, called _______, can begin. A) organogenesis B) gastrulation C) hypoblasty D) epiblasty E) transcription 50) The neural tube develops into the ______. A) kidneys B) vertebral column C) muscle system D) heart and circulatory system E) brain and spinal cord Answer directly on the exam for questions #51 – 53 Short Answer Essays: For questions 51 – 53 provide a short answer to the question (1+ complete sentences). Single word or short phrase answers will not receive full credit. You may use drawings as part of your answer. 51. (16 points total) Digestive System a. (8 points) The mammalian digestive tract has been called an extension of the outside world that you enclose in your body. What does this statement mean? Consider what would happen if you swallowed a marble. Is the marble ever “inside your body”? If you swallowed a marble, it could pass through your entire digestive tract and never once cross a cell membrane. Technically, it was never “inside your body.” The lumen or space within the digestive tract can be considered an extension of the external environment.8 b. (8 points) At what point in the digestive process is food officially inside the body? Food is not officially “inside the body” until it has crossed a cell membrane. Only after a food subunit (for example, an amino acid) crosses the membrane of a villus (in the small intestine) is the food officially inside the body 52. (22 points total) Circulatory and Respiratory Systems a. (10 points) The degree of musculature differs in these chambers of the heart: atria, right ventricle, left ventricle. Explain why the differences in musculature might exist by explaining the normal functions of each chamber. The walls of the atria, both right and left, are fairly thin, indicating little musculature. Blood flows through the atria into the ventricles. When the atria contract, they push the blood they contain only a few centimeters into the ventricles. This overfills the ventricles and helps initiate the ventricular contraction. The right ventricle pumps its contents to the lungs. The left ventricle pumps its contents out the aorta and to the rest of the body. The difference in musculature of the two ventricles is correlated with the amount of effort required to move the blood through the circulatory pathway associated with each ventricle. b. (6 points) While in utero, the wall between the two atria of the human fetal heart is not complete. An opening, the foramen ovale, allows blood from the two atria to mix. Normally, at birth, this hole seals over and the two atria are separated from each other. What would be the consequences to the infant if this hole did not seal over at birth? If the foramen ovale did not seal at birth, oxygenated blood from the lungs (left atrium) would mix with deoxygenated blood from the body (right atrium). This condition is called “blue baby syndrome.” The blood going to the body carries less oxygen than normal. As a result, the baby turns blue during times of higher metabolic activity, which require greater amounts of oxygen input per unit time.9 c. (6 points) What is the major reason land-dwelling mammals have evolved lungs rather than gills as a primary respiratory organ? Protecting gas-exchange surfaces from desiccation is difficult in terrestrial environments. 53. (12 points total) Developmental Biology a. (6 points) Predict what would happen if you injected Ca2+ into an unfertilized sea urchin egg. The increased Ca2+ would mimic real fertilization causing the egg to form a fertilization envelope. This would prevent a sperm from fertilizing the egg. The Ca2+ wave would also initiate the cleavage division but development would end prematurely because the embryo only has genetic information from the mother and not the father. b. (6 points) A frog zygote and a frog blastula are nearly the same size. Explain this observation. During cleavage in frogs and many other animals the cell cycle is modified to skip the G1 and G2 growth phases. As a result, the zygote’s cytoplasm is divided into smaller and smaller cells and the embryo’s overall size stays the same.10