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CPP / Biology / Biology 151 / to apply parsimony to constructing a phylogenetic tree, _____.

to apply parsimony to constructing a phylogenetic tree, _____.

to apply parsimony to constructing a phylogenetic tree, _____.

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School: California State Polytechnic University - Pomona
Department: Biology
Course: General Biology
Professor: Laura schoepf
Term: Spring 2017
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Cost: 50
Description: Exam 1 - Fall 2015 Name________________Key________________ Biology 151 – General Biology II 150 Points Total Use your scantron sheet for questions #1-50
Uploaded: 06/01/2017
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Exam 1 - Fall 2015 Name________________Key________________ Biology 151 – General Biology II 150 Points Total Use your scantron sheet for questions #1-50. Multiple Choice – 2 points each 1) Life first evolved on Earth _______ years ago. A) more than 5 billion B) between 3 billion and 5 billion C) between 2 billion and 3 billion D) between 1 billion and 2 billion E) less than 1 billion 2) Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in the origin of life? I. formation of protobionts II. synthesis of organic monomers III. synthesis of organic polymers IV. formation of DNA-based genetic systems  A) II, III, IV, I  B) II, III, I, IV C) I, III, II, IV  D) I, II, III, IV 3) The Miller and Urey abiotic synthesis experiment (and subsequent, similar experiments) showed  that _____. A) the earliest life forms introduced large amounts of oxygen into the atmosphere B) simple organic molecules can form spontaneously under conditions like those thought to prevail  early in Earth's history C) the "concentration gap" probably prevented simple organic molecules from polymerizing D) long chains of DNA can form under abiotic conditions E) life can be created in a test tube 4) Cech and Altman (two scientists studying the chemical origin of life) have suggested that the first  self-replicating molecules were most likely _____. A) true proteins B) DNA C) viruses D) RNA E) phospholipids1 5) What is thought to be the correct sequence of these events, from earliest to most recent, in the  evolution of life on Earth? 1. origin of mitochondria 2. origin of multicellular eukaryotes 3. origin of chloroplasts 4. origin of cyanobacteria 5. origin of fungal-plant symbioses  A) 4, 1, 2, 3, 5  B) 4, 1, 3, 2, 5 C) 4, 3, 2, 1, 5  D) 4, 3, 1, 2, 5 6) The oxygen revolution changed Earth's environment dramatically. Which of the following took  advantage of the presence of free oxygen in the oceans and atmosphere?  A) the evolution of chloroplasts after early protists incorporated photosynthetic cyanobacteria  B) the persistence of some animal groups in anaerobic habitats  C) the evolution of multicellular eukaryotic colonies from communities of prokaryotes  D) the evolution of cellular respiration, which used oxygen to help harvest energy from organic  molecules E) the evolution of photosynthetic pigments that protected early algae from the corrosive effects of  oxygen 7) As compared to anaerobic metabolism, aerobic metabolism is advantageous to cells because it A) produces more ATP. B) is more efficient. C) permits the growth of larger, more complex cells. D) All of the above E) None of the above 8) The evolutionary relationship among organisms is known as A) taxonomy. B) phylogeny. C) paraphyly. D) synapomorphy. E) homoplasy. 9) The best classification system is that which most closely  A) reflects evolutionary history. B) reflects the basic separation of prokaryotes from eukaryotes.  C) unites organisms that possess similar morphologies.  D) conforms to traditional, Linnaean taxonomic practices. 10) The wasp genus Nasonia contains all of the descendants of the common ancestor of its  members. This genus therefore would be called A) a synapomorphy. B) a polyphyly. C) a clade. D) parsimonious. E) self-compatible.2 11) To apply parsimony to constructing a phylogenetic tree,  A) choose the tree that assumes all evolutionary changes are equally probable.  B) choose the tree in which the branch points are based on as many shared derived characters as  possible.  C) choose the tree that represents the fewest evolutionary changes, either in DNA sequences or  morphology. D) base phylogenetic trees only on the fossil record, as this provides the simplest explanation for  evolution.  E) choose the tree with the fewest branch points.  12) The common ancestor of all of the species displayed in a phylogenetic tree lies at the _______ of  the tree. A) node B) root C) tip D) taxon E) None of the above 13) The common ancestor of humans and the other “great apes” walked on all fours, while humans  are bipeds. Bipedalism is thus the _______ trait. A) ancestral B) homoplasic C) synapomorphic D) derived E) monophyletic 14) Which of the following represents a correct size ranking of taxonomic categories, from the  smallest (least inclusive) to the largest (most inclusive)? A) Domain, genus, kingdom, species B) Species, genus, kingdom, domain C) Species, genus, domain, kingdom D) Genus, species, kingdom, domain E) None of the above 15) If organisms A, B, and C belong to the same class but to different orders and if organisms D, E,  and F belong to the same order but to different families, which of the following pairs of organisms  would be expected to show the greatest degree of structural homology?  A) A and B  B) A and C  C) B and D  D) C and F  E) D and F3 16) The common ancestors of birds and mammals were very early (stem) reptiles, which almost  certainly possessed three-chambered hearts (two atria, one ventricle). Birds and mammals, however,  are alike in having four-chambered hearts (two atria, two ventricles). The four-chambered hearts of  birds and mammals are best described as  A) homoplasies. B) the result of shared ancestry.  C) molecular homologies.  D) structural homologies.  E) vestiges.  17) The lakes of northern Minnesota are home to many similar species of damselflies of the genus  Enallagma that have apparently undergone speciation from ancestral stock since the last glacial  retreat about 10,000 years ago. Sequencing which of the following would probably be most useful in  sorting out evolutionary relationships among these closely related species?  A) nuclear DNA  B) ribosomal RNA  C) small nuclear RNA  D) mitochondrial DNA E) amino acids in proteins  18) The common ancestor of all three domains of life probably had A) membrane-bound organelles. B) a DNA chromosome. C) a Golgi apparatus. D) introns. E) a nucleus. 19) Carl Woese and collaborators identified two major branches of prokaryotic evolution. What was  the basis for dividing prokaryotes into two domains?  A) metabolic characteristics such as chemoautotrophy and photosynthesis  B) metabolic characteristics such as the production of methane gas  C) genetic characteristics such as ribosomal RNA sequences D) microscopic examination of staining characteristics of the cell wall  E) ecological characteristics such as the ability to survive in extreme environments  20) Though plants, fungi, and prokaryotes all have cell walls, we place them in different taxa. Which  of these observations comes closest to explaining the basis for placing these organisms in different  taxa, well before relevant data from molecular systematics became available?  A) Their cell walls are composed of very different biochemicals. B) Some have cell walls only to control osmotic balance.  C) Some closely resemble animals, which lack cell walls.  D) Some have cell walls only for support.  E) Some have cell walls only for protection from herbivores.  21) Which of the following statements about Archaea is false? A) They live in harsh environments. B) Their cell walls lack peptidoglycan. C) It is sometimes difficult to tell Bacteria and Archaea cells apart D) There are similarities in their base sequences of ribosomal RNAs. E) They are not related to Domain Bacteria.4 22) In light, purple sulfur bacteria use H2S instead of H2O as a reducing agent to utilize CO2 as a  carbon source and release pure sulfur as a waste product. They are examples of A) photoautotrophs. B) photoheterotrophs. C) chemolithotrophs. D) chemoheterotrophs. E) deep-sea, volcanic vent bacteria. 23) Prokaryotes reproduce by means of ______.  A) mitosis  B) budding  C) meiosis  D) binary fission E) the cell cycle  24) Mitochondria are thought to be the descendants of certain alpha proteobacteria. They are,  however, no longer able to lead independent lives because most genes originally present on their  chromosome have moved to the nuclear genome. Which phenomenon accounts for the movement of  these genes?  A) plasmolysis  B) endocytosis  C) conjugation  D) horizontal gene transfer E) translation  25) In the soil, some ______ convert nitrogen to a form that can be used by plants.  A) prokaryotes B) protists  C) fungi  D) animals  E) protozoans  26) Bacteria participate in A) digestion in animals. B) processing nitrogen and sulfur in soils. C) decomposition in all ecosystems. D) many industrial and commercial processes. E) All of the above 27) According to the theory of endosymbiosis, which organelles evolved from small prokaryotes that  established residence within other, larger prokaryotes?  A) nucleoli and chromosomes  B) mitochondria and chloroplasts C) Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum  D) vacuoles and lysosomes  E) centrioles and ribosomes 5 28) Which of these observations gives the most support to the endosymbiotic theory for the origin of  eukaryotic cells?  A) the similarity in size between the cytosolic ribosomes of prokaryotes and the ribosomes within  mitochondria and chloroplasts B) the observation that some eukaryotic cells lack mitochondria  C) the size disparity between most prokaryotic cells and most eukaryotic cells  D) the existence of structural and molecular differences between the plasma membranes of  prokaryotes and the internal membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts  29) Biologists suspect that endosymbiosis gave rise to mitochondria before plastids partly because  A) mitochondrial proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes, whereas plastids utilize their own  ribosomes.  B) mitochondrial DNA is less similar to prokaryotic DNA than is plastid DNA.  C) the products of photosynthesis could not be metabolized without mitochondrial enzymes.  D) all eukaryotes have mitochondria (or their remnants), whereas many eukaryotes do not have  plastids. E) without mitochondrial CO2 production, photosynthesis could not occur.  30) The many organisms designated as “protists” are A) all unicellular. B) all microscopic. C) highly diverse and not necessarily closely related to one another. D) closely related to the bacteria. E) all photosynthetic. 31) You discover a unicellular organism that moves by what appear to be pseudopodia. You  conclude that this organism is ______. A) a type of bacterium B) a type of amoeba C) a type of pathogen D) a type of alga E) either a type of ciliate, or a type of amoeba, or a type of flagellate, or a type of apicomplexan 32) In terms of their mode of nutrition, protists are A) absorptive heterotrophs. B) ingestive heterotrophs. C) autotrophs. D) Both a and b E) All of the above 33) Which pair of alternatives is highlighted by the life cycle of the cellular slime molds, such as  Dictyostelium? A) plant or animal B) unicellular or multicellular C) prokaryotic or eukaryotic D) diploid or haploid E) autotroph or heterotroph6 34) Which of the following pairs of protists and their characteristics is mismatched?  A) apicomplexans–internal parasites  B) entamoebas–ingestive heterotrophs  C) ciliates–red tide organisms D) golden algae–planktonic producers  E) euglenozoans–unicellular flagellates  35) A large seaweed that floats freely on the surface of deep bodies of water would be expected to  lack which of the following?  A) gel-forming polysaccharides  B) holdfasts C) bladders  D) thalli  36) What accounts for the similarity between seaweeds and plants?  A) Both evolved from brown algae. B) Seaweeds are the ancestors of plants.  C) Seaweeds are aquatic plants.  D) Convergent evolution caused their similarity. E) Plants are the ancestors of seaweeds.  37) Which of the following is not one of the evolutionary adaptations to land shared by all land plants? A) Waxy protective coverings B) Alternation of generations C) A means of taking up water from the soil D) Protective structures for the new sporophyte E) Water transport by xylem 38) Which of the following is not evidence that charophytes are the closest algal relatives of plants?  A) genetic similarities in chloroplasts  B) similarities in proteins that synthesize cellulose  C) similarities in cell wall formation during cell division  D) the presence of chloroplasts E) similar sperm structure  39) In plants, which of the following are produced by meiosis?  A) haploid sporophytes  B) haploid gametes  C) diploid spores  D) diploid gametes  E) haploid spores 40) A botanist discovers a new species of plant in a tropical rain forest. After observing its anatomy  and life cycle, he notes the following characteristics: flagellated sperm, xylem with tracheids, separate  gametophyte and sporophyte generations with the sporophyte dominant, and no seeds. This plant is  probably most closely related to  A) charophytes.  B) gymnosperms.  C) mosses.  D) ferns. E) flowering plants. 7 41) Beginning with the germination of a moss spore, what is the sequence of structures that develop  after germination? 1. embryo 2. gametes 3. sporophyte 4. protonema 5. gametophore  A) 4 → 3 → 5 → 2 → 1  B) 3 → 4 → 5 → 2 → 1  C) 4 → 5 → 2 → 1 → 3 D) 4 →1 → 3 → 5 → 2  E) 3 → 1 → 4 → 5 → 2  42) Why are ferns considered incompletely adapted to the terrestrial environment?  A) They lack gametangia. B) They lack vascular tissue. C) Their sperm are flagellated. D) The gametophyte generation is dominant.  E) They lack flowers.  43) Arrange the following in the correct sequence, from earliest to most recent, in which these plant  traits originated. 1. sporophyte dominance, gametophyte independence 2. sporophyte dominance, gametophyte dependence 3. gametophyte dominance, sporophyte dependence  A) 1 → 2 → 3  B) 3 → 1 → 2 C) 2 → 1 → 3  D) 3 → 2 → 1  E) 2 → 3 → 1  44) In a heterosporous life cycle, the microspore develops into the _______ gametophyte, and the  megaspore develops into the _______ gametophyte. A) female; male B) male; female C) diploid; haploid D) haploid; diploid E) None of the above 45) In addition to seeds, which of the following characteristics are unique to the seed-producing  plants?  A) lignin present in cell walls  B) pollen C) use of air currents as a dispersal agent  D) sporopollenin  E) megaphylls 8 46) Why are gymnosperms called "naked seed" plants? A) They do not produce seeds; they only produce spores. B) Their seeds develop on the surface of sporophytes. C) Their seeds are not protected. D) They do not produce fruit. E) Their seeds lack vascular tissue. 47) A researcher has developed two stains for use with seed plants. One stains sporophyte tissue  blue; the other stains gametophyte tissue red. If the researcher exposes pollen grains to both stains,  and then rinses away the excess stain, what should occur?  A) The pollen grains will have red interiors and blue exteriors. B) The pollen grains will be pure red.  C) The pollen grains will be pure blue.  D) Insofar as the pollen grains are independent of the plant that produced them, they will not absorb  either stain.  E) The pollen grains will have blue interiors and red exteriors.  48) In angiosperms, double fertilization results in the development of A) two embryos. B) two embryos, but only one survives. C) the embryo and the endosperm. D) the embryo and the seed coat. E) the embryo and the megagametophyte. 49) How have fruits contributed to the success of angiosperms?  A) by producing triploid cells via double fertilization  B) by attracting insects to the pollen inside  C) by facilitating dispersal of seeds D) by producing sperm and eggs inside a protective coat  E) by nourishing the plants that make them  50) In angiosperms, pollen is transferred from the _______ to the _______. A) anther; style B) filament; ovary C) anther; stigma D) filament; stigma E) anther; ovule9 Answer directly on the exam for questions #51 – 53 Short Answer Essay Questions: For questions 51 – 53 provide a short answer to the questions (1+  complete sentences where appropriate). You may use drawings as part of your answer. 51. (15 points total) Phylogeny Cladistics is a method for building phylogenetic trees based on ancestral and derived traits. The  following table provides information about the distribution of traits between five taxa groups labeled A  to E.  

Taxa

A B C D E stiarT Wings Present Present Absent Present Absent Legs Absent Present Absent Absent Absent Eyes Present Present Present Present Absent Ears Absent Present Absent Present Absent


What was the basis for dividing prokaryotes into two domains?




15) If organisms A, B, and C belong to the same class but to different orders and if organisms D, E, and F belong to the same order but to different families, which of the following pairs of organisms would be expected to show the greatest degree of structural homology?




5) What is thought to be the correct sequence of these events, from earliest to most recent, in the evolution of life on Earth?



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a. (10 points) Using cladistics, build a phylogenetic tree for the five taxa (A to E) in the table above. Also, indicate the following in your tree: • outgroup(s) • shared ancestral character(s) • shared derived trait(s) The tree should look like the one below where O the outgroup is E, Eyes (1) is the shared ancestral  character, and wings (3), legs (4), and ears (2) are all shared derived traits b. (5 points) How are fossils used to identify ancestral and derived traits of organisms? Fossils are the only way we can see what extinct ancestor organisms looked like. If the fossils have a  trait that it is most likely ancestral because it has been around for a while whereas if the fossils do not  have a trait then it is most likely a new adaptation for only a certain group of species making it a  derived trait.10 52. (18 points total) Origin of Eukaryotes and Protists a. (6 points) Why was the evolution of a flexible plasma membrane that can fold inward and form  vesicles a key event in eukaryotic cell origin? A flexible plasma membrane allowed folded inward and elaborated internal organelles like the  nucleus and endomembrane system. Lastly, bits of the membrane can engulf large chunks of  material from the environment that gave rise to endocytosis as a new more efficient mode of feeding. Endocytosis of whole bacteria cells lead to the acquisition of the mitochondria and chloroplast.  The three protist supergroups Chromalveolata (includes the diatoms), Excavata (includes the  euglenids), and the Archaeplastida (includes the green algae) all include organisms that are  unicellular, eukaryotic, and photosynthetic. b. (6 points) Describe what modern evidence was used to create the three separate protist  supergroups above when it is clear that the organisms in the supergroups share several traits like  photosynthesis. Molecular systematics has been used to create the supergroups of protists. It is not easily possible to  group them correctly using morphological characteristics below but comparisons of genes between  the different species is a much more sensitive and reliable way of clarifying the phylogeny of the  protists. Phylogenetic analysis has clearly and consistently shown that many of the groups that fall  under the rubric “protists” are in fact not closely related to one another, but are paraphyletic. c. (6 points) All of the evidence we have so far indicates that there was only one endosymbiosis event  that created the chloroplast in the ancestor of the Archeaplastida supergroup. Given this, how do  modern biologists explain the origin of the chloroplasts in other supergroups such as Chromalveolata and Excavata? Explain. Primary endosymbiosis in the Archeaplastida supergroup gave rise to the original choloroplast when  a larger eukaryotic cell engulfed a smaller cyanobacterium capable of performing photosynthesis.  Primary endosymbiosis gave rise to the green algae and red algae lineages. Secondary  endosymbiosis occurred when a green or red algae was engulfed by a different type of eukaryote like  several of the organisms in the Chromalveolata and Excavata supergroups. This second eukaryote  retained the chloroplast of the original algae but eventually lost the rest of the cellular constituents.11 54. (12 points) Seed Plants a. (6 points) Explain the importance of pollen in freeing seed plants from dependence on liquid water. Pollen travels through the air or can be carried by animals from one plant to another. Pollen is the  male gametophyte of seed plants that carries the sperm to the female recipient plant for fertilization to  occur. In older seedless plant lineages the male gametophyte created motile sperm that traveled to  the egg on their own using flagella for locomotion. These flagellated sperm required water to get from  on plant to another which restricted the dispersal of the genetic material between populations of the  same species. The flagellated sperm are also much more sensitive to environmental stress because  they are less protected than pollen grains. b. (6 points) Explain the difference between pollination and fertilization. Pollination is the arrival of the pollen grain (male gametophyte) on the appropriate landing point close  to the female gametophyte on the sporophyte of the same species. A pollen grain that reaches this  point develops further. It produces a slender pollen tube that elongates and digests its way toward the  female gametophyte. When the tip of the pollen tube reaches the female gametophyte the sperm are  released from the pollen tube and fertilization can occur.12
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