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TEMPLE / Engineering / MIS 2101 / Where does enterprise resource planning system come from?

Where does enterprise resource planning system come from?

Where does enterprise resource planning system come from?


∙ How does CBI implement SAP?

∙ What are the elements of an ERP system?

∙ Where did ERP systems come from?

MIS Final Study Guide Chapter 6 – Supporting Processes with ERP Systems ∙ An ERP system solves Information Silo problems, where data is  isolated in separate information systems. Solutions to this problem are: 1) Enterprise Application  Integration (EAI), 2) Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). ∙ Where did ERP systems come from?  Grew out of manufacturing sWe also discuss several other topics like backyard professor
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Don't forget about the age old question of What is the synchronization of a firm’s processes with those of its suppliers and customers to match the flow of materials, service and information with customer demand?
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oftware MRP (Material Requirement Planning) —To efficiently  manage inventory, production & labor. MRP 2 —adds in: Financial tracking of manufacturing processes,  and ability to schedule capabilities. Other drivers of ERP systems  1) Y2K and 2) Sarbanes-Oxley  (SOX). ∙ JIT (Just-in-time) – Synchronizes manufacturing and supplying. ∙ What are the elements of an ERP system? - SCM (Supply Chain Management) – P2P (Person to person),  O2C (Order to Cash), inventory management, supplier  management - Manufacturing – scheduling, capacity planning, quality control,  BOM (Bill of Material – receipe for final product) - CRM – sales prospecting, customer management, marketing,  customer support, call center supportMIS Final Study Guide - Human Resources – payroll, time and attendance, HR  management, commission calculations, benefits admin - Accounting – General Ledger, Accounts receivable, Accounts  Payable, cash management, fixed-asset accounting ∙ Five components of an ERP system: 1) Software (configuration) 2) Hardware – ERP Hardware Dilemma 3) Data 4) Procedures (train the trainer (in-house training)) 5) People (users, analysts, consultants) ∙ ERP Hardware Dilemma: Should companies provide  smartphones for their employees in the company to use to  access and use the ERP system? – Because it increases  efficiency, but this will mean increased expenses for the  company. ∙ Information Silos occurs when data are isolated and replicated in  separated information systems (such as accounting, human  resource, sales, operations). ∙ The Sarbanes-Oxley Act is the federal law that required  companies to exercise greater control over their financial  processes.MIS Final Study Guide ∙ The major benefit of an EAI system is that it enables  organizations to use existing applications. ∙ CRM includes activities such as manufacturing scheduling,  capacity planning, quality control, and other related activities. ∙ Small organizations employ only one or two IT analysts who not only manage the ERP system, but also the entire IS  department. ∙ A developer writes additional code where necessary for  implementing ERP systems. ∙ AX and NAV are the ERP products offered by Microsoft that have the most capabilities. ∙ ABAP  A high-level application language of SAP that is used to  enhance the functionality of an SAP implementation. ∙ Benefits Administration is an activity that is included in human  resources. ∙ The inherent processes defined in an ERP solution are also known  as process blueprints.MIS Final Study Guide Chapter 7 – Supporting the Procurement Process with SAP ∙ The three fundamentals of the procurement process are: Order (purchasing manager)  Receive (warehouse manager)   Pay (accounting). ∙ Value chain  The network of value creating activities. These  include: inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, sales and marketing, and customer service. ∙ How does CBI implement SAP? CBI had to reexamine and refocus their strategy Involved three activities: 1) Determine industry structure 2) Commit to a specific competitive strategy 3) Develop objectives and measures for processes ∙ Benefits of SAP for CBI’s procurement process: - Single database - Shared information in real time - Reduction of errors - Improved financial controls - Increased responsiveness ∙ How can SAP improve the integration of supply chain processes at CBI? - Sharing dataMIS Final Study Guide - Increasing process synergy (interaction) - Other IS that improve supply chain processes ∙ Other IS that improve supply chain processes: - Augmented reality - REID (Radio Frequency Identification, eg. Easy Pass) - Sensors (eg. Tire sensors in tires; weather sensors; light sensors;  gas tank gauge) - Robotics – helps build stuff, move stuff around, etc. - 3D Printing – make prototypes RFID vs. Barcodes  You have to SEE the barcode to scan it. RFID tags  can be inside the box and you can still scan them. RFID tags can hold  more information than barcodes. Though RFID tags are a bit more  expensive. Both RFID tags and barcoses are types of sensors. ∙ How does the use of SAP change CBI? - New skills are needed - Process focus – Processes are now much more computerized and automated than ever before. - More data sharing - Outsourcing ∙ SRM (Supplier Relationship Management)  It automates,  simplifies and accelerates supply chain processes.MIS Final Study Guide ∙ Bullwhip effect  It occurs when companies order more supply  than needed due to sudden change in demand. ∙ Addictive manufacturing  Objects are manufactured through  the deposition of successive layer of material. Chapter 8 – Supporting the Sales Process with SAP Chapter 8 – Improving Supply Chains and Strengthening Customer Relationships Using Enterprise Information Systems ∙ Potential benefits of supply chains: - Process innovations  - Just-In-Time production (JIT) – Raw materials arrive just  when needed. - Vendor-Managed Inventory (VMI) – Keeping pre-established MIS Final Study Guide service/inventory level between supplier and manufacturer  (retailer). Benefits include: cost savings, minimized stock-out  situations, accurate forecasts, reduced errors, prioritized goods  shipments.  ∙ Potential problems (with primitive supply chains): - Distorted information - Excessive inventories - Inaccurate capacity plans - Missed product schedules ∙ Functions that optimize the supply network: Demand planning and forecasting- forecast and plan anticipated  demand for products ∙ Safety stock planning- Assign optimal safety stock and target  stock levels in all inventories in the supply network ∙ Distribution planning- Optimize the allocation of available  supply to meet demand ∙ Supply network collaboration- Work with partners across the  supply network to improve accuracy of demand forecasts, reduce  inventory buffers, increase the velocity of materials and improve  customer service ∙ Materials management- Ensure that the materials required for  production are available where needed when needed ∙ Manufacturing execution- Support production processes taking  into account capacity and material constraintsMIS Final Study Guide ∙ Order promising- Provide answer to customer relationship  management queries regarding product availability, costs, and  delivery times ∙ Transportation execution- Manage logistics between a company  locations or from company to customers, taking into account  transportation modes and constraints ∙ Warehouse management- Support receiving, storing, and picking of goods in a warehouse ∙ Supply chain analytics- monitor key performance indicators to  assess performance across the supply chain. ∙ Supply Chain Management (SCM)  Improves the coordination  of suppliers, product or service production, and distribution:  main objectives are to accelerate product development and  innovation and to reduce costs. ∙ SCM is used to improve business processes that span  organizational boundaries. ∙ SCM uses data about customer orders (from CRM) and payments  (from ERP). ∙ SCM Architecture: SCM modules support two functions: 1) Supply chain planning (SCP) – development of resource  plans to support effective and efficient production of goods MIS Final Study Guide and services. (Steps: 1) demand planning and forecasting, 2)  distribution planning, 3) product scheduling, 4) inventory and  safety stock planning.) 2) Supply chain execution (SCE) – putting SCM into motion.  Efficient flow of products, information, and financing. ∙ Supply Chain Visibility – The ability to track products as they  move through the supply chain but also to foresee external  events. ∙ Supply chain analytics – The use of key performance indicators  to monitor performance of the entire supply chain, including  sourcing, planning, production, and distribution. ∙ Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)  Scanning can be done from greater distance than barcodes. Passive tags – inexpensive, range of few feet. Active tags – more expensive, range of hundreds of feets. ∙ Developing CRM strategy: 1) Organizing policies and  procedures to reflect customer-focused culture. 2) Customer  Service Changes for quality and satisfaction as well as process  changes to enhance the customer experience. 3) Employee training changes for customer satisfaction. 4) Data collection, analysis and  sharing changes (should be tracked, analyzed and shared to  optimize the benefits of CRM).MIS Final Study Guide ∙ Architecture of a CRM system: 1) Operational CRM- System for automating the fundamental  business processes- marketing, sales, and support- for  interacting with the customers. a. Sales Force Automation (SFA)- support for day-to-day  sales activities of an organization (order processing and  tracking, account and contact management, sales  management, customer history and preferences, sales  forcasting) b. Customer services and support (CSS)- system that  automates service requests (complaints, product returns,  and information requests) c. Enterprise marketing management (EMM)- help a  company in the execution of the CRM by improving the  management of promotional campaigns. 2) Analytical CRM- System for analyzing customer behavior and perceptions (e.g. quality, price, and overall satisfaction) in order to provide business intelligence 3) Collaborative CRM- System for providing effective and  efficient communication with the customer from the entire  organization. (Greater customer focus- understanding  customer’s needs, lower communication barriers- have  complete information, increased information integration). Chapter 9 – Developing and Acquiring Information SystemsMIS Final Study Guide ∙ Productivity paradox – Not using information systems to  its full potential. a) Measurement problems – company focusing on system  efficiency more than effectiveness. b) Time lags – Benefit may not come until years later. c) Redistribution – new innovation may only improve a piece  of a pie rather than make the pie bigger. d) Mismanagement – when the system has not been  implemented and managed well. ∙ Arguments based on faith should be clearly described in  the firm’s mission and objective. ∙ Arguments based on fear is that if the system is not  implemented, the firm will lose out to the competition or,  worse, go out of business ∙ Arguments based on fact are backed up on solid data,  quantitative analysis, and/or indisputable factors ∙ Total cost of ownership (TCO)- focuses on understanding  not only the cost of acquisition, but also all costs associated  with ongoing use and maintenance of a system  (nonrecurring costs and recurring costs; tangible costs and  intangible costs)MIS Final Study Guide Systems development life cycle (SDLC) 1) Systems planning and selection 2) Systems analysis 3) Systems designing 4) Systems implementation and operations 5) Systems maintenance ∙ Phase 1: System Planning and Selection a) There is a limit on the number of projects that can be worked on based on time and resources. Organizations differ in how  they identify, plan, and select critical projects ∙ Phase 2: System Analysis a) Purpose is for the designers to gain a thorough  understanding of an organization’s current way of doing  things in the area for which the new information system will  be constructed. b) Requirements collection- process of gathering and  organizing information from users, managers, customers,  business processes, and documents to understand how a  proposed information system should function i. Interview- operations and issues ii. Questionnaires- administer survey to gather  opoinions iii. Observations- observe workers t selected times  to see how data are handled iv. Document Analysis- discover issues, polocies,  and rulesMIS Final Study Guide v. Joint Application Design (JAD)- group meeting  based process for requirements collection c) Data flows represent the movement of data through an  organization or with in an IS. ∙ Phase 3: System Design a) Human-Computer Interface (HCI)- point of contact  between a system and user (amazon.com) b) Databases and Files- analyst must have a thorough  understanding of an organization’s data and informational  needs c) Processing and Logic- transforms raw data inputs into new  modified information ∙ Phase 4: System Implementation and Operation a) Software programming and testing- transforming the  system design into a working computer system. b) Conversion, Documentation, Training, and Support Conversion: the process of decommissioning the current way of doing things (automated or manual) and installing the new system in the organization.  a. Parallel- old and new systems are used at the same  time b. Direct- old system is discontinued on one day, new is  used on the next c. Phased- part of the new system are implemented over  time d. Pilot (single location)- Entire system is used in one  location.MIS Final Study Guide ∙ Phase 5: System Maintenance - tested before initial development of the IS. a) Adaptive maintenance- evolve its functionality to  accommodate changing business needs b) Perfective maintenance- making enhancements to improve  processing performance c) Preventive maintenance- reduce the chance of future system  failure d) Corrective maintenance- repair flaws in the design, coding,  or implementation e) Patch management systems- check for available patches  and updates. f) Prototyping- uses a trial-and-error approach for discovering how a system should operate. g) End-user development- build complex and useful  application to improve day-to-day decision-making.  (Possibly be inefficient for nonprofessionals) ∙ Steps in External Acquisition- Competitive bid process find the best system for lowest possible price ∙ Development of a request for proposal- a document that is  used to tell vendors what your requirements are and to invite them to provide information about how they might be able to meet those requirements. (Summary of existing systems and  application, system performance and features, reliability  backup and service requirements, evaluation criteria,  timetable, budget)MIS Final Study Guide ∙ Proposal Evaluation- include viewing system  demonstrations, evaluating the performance of those  systems, and examining criteria important to the  organization and judging how the proposed system “stack up” to those criteria  System benchmarking- use of standardized  performance tests to facilitate comparison  between systems. ∙ Vendor Selection- some “fit” are better than others. ∙ Application Service Providers (ASP)- problems: managing the software infrastructure is a complex task, high operating  costs, scalability issue ∙ ASPs provide software as a service (SaaS)- reduce need to  maintain or upgrade software, variable fee based on actual  use of services, ability to rely on a provider’s expertise ∙ Outsourcing Systems Development- Turning over  responsibility for some or all of an organization’s IS  development and operating to an outside firm ∙ Why Outsourcing?:  Cost and quality concern (higher quality at lower cost)  Problem in IS performance (unmet standards)  Supplier pressure (aggressive sales force)  Simplifying, downsizing, and reengineering  Financial factors (liquidation of assets)  Organizational culture (devoid of political ties)  Internal irritants (external IS group may be better  accepted by other organizational users)MIS Final Study Guide ∙ Outsourcing relationships: no longer just a legal contract.  Strategic, mutually beneficial partnership. ∙ Managing the IS Outsourcing Relationship- ongoing  management of an outsourcing alliance is needed (strong  active CIO and staff, clear realistic performance  measurement of the system, multiple levels of interface  between customer and outsourcer) ∙ Shrink-wrap licenses and click-wrap licenses- accompany software and are used for generic, off-the-shelf application  and systems software. ∙ Enterprise license (aka volume license)- contain  limitations of liability and warranty disclaimers that protect  the software vendor from being sued if their software does  not operate as expected. ∙ Software asset management helps organizations to avoid  negative consequences from non use of licenses

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