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LU / OTHER / OTH 201 / noetic structure

noetic structure

noetic structure

Description

School: Liberty University
Department: OTHER
Course: Philosophy and Contemporary Ideas
Professor: Smith
Term: Summer 2017
Tags: epistemology
Cost: 50
Name: PHIL 201: PHILOSOPHY AND CONTEMPORARY IDEAS
Description: BOOK: HOW DO WE KNOW? AN INTRODUCTION TO EPISTEMOLOGY BY JAMES K.DEW JR. AND MARK W. FOREMAN
Uploaded: 06/04/2017
7 Pages 309 Views 0 Unlocks
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PHIL 201 STUDY GUIDE: LESSON 13 Do We Need Justification? Lesson Overview From our previous lessons we arrived at a basic understanding of what philosophers mean by  “knowledge” and why they call for “justification” of beliefs. In this lesson we go further and ask, how does the structure of the mind relate to what should count as justification? And we ask, does one have an obligation to make sure that he/she has good reasons for holding whatever beliefs  he/she holds? Some say that if you believe something is true and can’t give a reason for  believing it then you cannot reasonably claim to know that belief is true. This view is called  internalism and it has a long and honored history in epistemology. In recent years, this view has  been challenged by externalists who claim that there are at least some beliefs that we are  reasonable to hold even though we don’t, and probably can’t, give a reason for holding them. Tasks View and take notes on the presentation, “An Overview of Issues in Contemporary Justification,  Part 1.” Be able to answer these questions: ∙ What is a noetic structure, in brief? ∙ What beliefs are included in one’s noetic structure? ∙ What does that have to do with a continuum of beliefs? ∙ What are the two main theories of how beliefs relate within ones noetic structure? ∙ How does foundationalism describe the relations of beliefs within a noetic structure? ∙ Exactly how do strong and moderate foundationalism differ? ∙ Know the criticisms of strong foundationalism. ∙ What is the moderate foundationalist view of the basing relation, in terms of “access?” ∙ What is coherentism’s view of the basing relation, in terms of the doxastic assumption? ∙ Know the criticisms of coherentism. View and take notes on the presentation, “An Overview of Issues in Contemporary Justification,  Part 2.” This presentation concentrates on the other question under the topic of justification:  epistemic obligations. Be able to answer these questions: ∙ What is the motivation that drives internalism? ∙ What is the motivation behind externalism? ∙ How does externalism answer the question of quality control? ∙ How does this presentation suggest bringing internalism and externalism together? Read and take notes of Chapter 7 of How Do We Know? “Do We Need Justification?” This  reading overlaps with material introduced in the presentations, but with some further details.  Make sure you understand the following points and questions: Page 1 of 3PHIL 201 Page 2 of 3PHIL 201 ∙ Explain what it means for a belief to be justified. ∙ Explain the distinction between a belief being justified and a belief being true. ∙ What is internal about internalism? Why is it called that? ∙ According to internalism, if a person does not have good reason for what he/she believes, does that mean the belief is not true? ∙ Does internalism claim one must be consciously aware of one’s reasons in order to be  justified for a belief? ∙ Explain Clifford’s brand of Evidentialism. ∙ What is the problem with Clifford’s version of Evidentialism? ∙ What is the problem with the statement “It is wrong always, everywhere and for anyone,  to believe anything upon insufficient evidence?” ∙ Why has internalism been so dominant? ∙ What is external about externalism? Why is it called that? ∙ Explain why it is difficult to justify the reliability of our memories. ∙ How does an externalist handle the question of the reliability of our memories? ∙ According to reliabilism, do I need to know that my cognitive processes are functioning  reliably to be warranted in holding a belief? ∙ What is the major criticism internalism raises against externalism? ∙ What is the major criticism externalism raises against internalism? ∙ What is Plantinga’s modest foundationalists/externalist warrant for believing in God? ∙ Compare the internalist and externalist justification for belief in God. ∙ Explain the balanced approach to resolving the conflict between externalism and  internalism suggested in this reading. Terms Make sure you fully understand the following terms and concepts: ∙ Justification ∙ Internalism ∙ Epistemic Deontology ∙ Evidentialism ∙ Externalism ∙ Defeater ∙ Reliabilism ∙ Cognitive Process ∙ Reformed Epistemology ∙ Sensus Divinitas ∙ High Accessibility Requirements ∙ Abduction ∙ Concurrence ∙ Warrant ∙ Rapprochement


In this lesson we go further and ask, how does the structure of the mind relate to what should count as justification?



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Page 3 of 3PHIL 201 STUDY GUIDE: LESSON 14 The Intellectual Virtues Lesson Overview In the lesson, we introduce a highly two important issues in epistemology: intellectual virtues  and virtue epistemology. We first introduce virtue itself and then go on the show how they can  be applied to our intellectual pursuits. After this, we show how specific intellectual virtues like  humility, honesty, courage, and carefulness helps us gain an accurate understanding of reality. Tasks Read Chapter 8 of How Do We Know: An Introduction to Epistemology. As you do, consider the  following questions and points: ∙ Aside from Epistemology, which area of philosophy do discussions of virtues and vices  arise? ∙ How was Aristotle’s understanding of happiness different from hedonistic understandings of it? ∙ How should we define virtue? ∙ What is a vice and how does it compare to virtue? ∙ Describe Aristotle’s understanding of the Golden Mean. ∙ What are the two kinds of vices that Aristotle mentions? ∙ How did Aristotle say that virtue develops in a person? ∙ What is an Intellectual Virtue? ∙ According to Aquinas, what is the relationship between moral and intellectual virtues? ∙ What are the 5 ways that Wood says moral and intellectual virtues are parallel to each  other? ∙ Describe the way each of the intellectual virtues work towards helping us find the truth. ∙ How might virtue epistemology help us with the Gettier Problem? Terms Make sure you can explain the following terms and concepts: ∙ Virtue ∙ Vice ∙ Moral Virtues ∙ Intellectual Virtues ∙ Virtue Epistemology ∙ Eudaimonia ∙ Hedonism ∙ Golden Mean ∙ Vices of Excess ∙ Vices of Deficiency ∙ Studiousness ∙ Humility ∙ Honesty ∙ Courage ∙ Carefulness


And we ask, does one have an obligation to make sure that he/she has good reasons for holding whatever beliefs he/she holds?



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PHIL 201PHIL 201 STUDY GUIDE: LESSON 15 Skepticism and Certainty Lesson Overview Throughout the history of western society, people have been on a search for certain knowledge  about things. Many philosophers have given up hope for finding certainty and therefore, have  taken the view that one can never really claim to know anything. This view is called skepticism  and it comes in many shapes and varieties. Yet the question may be asked, “Is certainty  necessary for knowledge?” Can we say we know and yet be less than absolutely certain? This  lesson examines the polar opposite views of skepticism and certainty, and attempts to answer the  question of where does knowledge fit in this scheme. Tasks View and take notes of the presentation, “The Challenge of Skepticism.” ∙ Much of this is repeated in the reading, but note the list of problems with skepticism on  the last slide, especially the question “Is certainty necessary for knowledge?” Read Chapter 10 of How Do We Know? “How Certain Can We Be?” As you do, make sure you  understand the following points and questions: ∙ Why is common sense skepticism actually epistemically healthy? ∙ Explain the difference between a global and local skeptic. ∙ Contrast and compare the different forms of skepticisms. ∙ What kind of skeptic was Pyhrro of Ellis? ∙ Why did Sextus Empiricus adopt skepticism? ∙ How did Descartes employ skepticism to arrive at certain knowledge? ∙ Explain Descartes’ evil demon hypothesis. ∙ What kind of skeptic was Hume? ∙ Explain the process by which Hume denied the principle of causality. ∙ What did Kant’s skepticism cause him to deny that we could know on the basis of pure  reason? ∙ On what basis did Kant believe we were justified in believing in God? ∙ Explain 3 causes of skepticism. ∙ What is 1 benefit of philosophical skepticism? ∙ Explain 4 problems with skepticism. ∙ What are some reasons why certainty is so elusive? ∙ Is certainty necessary for knowledge? ∙ What causes the different variations of certainty? Page 1 of 2PHIL 201 Terms Make sure you can explain the following terms and concepts: ∙ Skepticism ∙ Common Sense Skepticism ∙ Global Skepticism ∙ Local Skepticism ∙ Mitigated Skepticism ∙ Unmitigated Skepticism ∙ Methodological Skepticism ∙ Metaphysical Skepticism ∙ Pyhrronian Skepticism ∙ Systematic Doubt ∙ Principle of Causality ∙ Epistemic Humility ∙ Logical/Absolute Certainty ∙ Probabilistic Certainty ∙ Sufficient Certainty ∙ Defeasibility


∙ What is a noetic structure, in brief?



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