Study Guide - Test 1 BIL343
Study Guide - Test 1 BIL343 BIL 343
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Helen May on Monday June 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIL 343 at University of Miami taught by Dr. DuBois in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 164 views. For similar materials see Animal Communication in Biology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 06/08/15
Exam 1 Study Guide Part 1 Introduction to Animal Communication Vocabulary Sense organs specialized body structures that receive or are sensitive to internal or external stimuli Information data or facts regarding some aspect of the signaler or the environment Cues assessable properties that are at least partly correlated with a condition of interest generated inadvertently or unconsciously Signals behavioral physiological or morphological characteristics fashioned or maintained by selection because they convey information to other organisms What is animal communication What conditions are necessary to conclude that communication is occurring 0 The action of or cue given by one organism is perceived and thus alters the probability pattern of behavior in another organism in a fashion adaptive to either one or both of the participants 0 Modality target reason Need to have senderreceiver elicit some change in behavior informational stimulustrigger and coding scheme What is the difference between proximate causation and ultimate causation What are some example questions one could ask to address proximate causation Ultimate causation o Proximate causation is an event that is closest to causing some observed result The ultimate causation is the real reason something occurred 0 Questions for proximate causation and development 0 Questions for ultimate function and evolution Animal Signals and Signal Evolution Vocabulary Sender sendsproduces signal Receiver monitors signal Interests what is to the bene tadvantage of an organism Reliability correlation between some characteristic of the signal and some attribute of the signaler or its environment that the receiver bene ts from knowing about Deception correlation between a signal characteristic and an external attribute is broken and the signaler bene ts from this breakdown Describe the process of ritualization How can a cue develop into a signal in this way Provide an example of how a signal evolves over time in an animal population through the process of ritualization o Ritualization is when behaviors with other functions may become exaggerated and ritualized Exam 1 Study Guide Part 1 o A cue can develop into a signal in this way through stereotypy changes from original movement and anatomical features to draw attention 0 Ex Bowerbirds Males decorate their nest with blue objects They will steal any blue object including pieces of paper plastic and glass This behavior began as nest building and has evolved to attract females 0 What is sensory exploitation What is an example of sensory exploitation What evidence supports that this signal evolved via sensory exploitation and not in some other way 0 Sensory exploitation is using sensory bias to gain a better reproductive success by changing behavior to be more attractive to a mate 0 Ex 0 Preferences evolved prior to sexually selected traits 0 Outline the logic behind Darwin s theory of evolution by natural selection Describe the evolution of an example trait behavioral or otherwise under natural selection 0 Natural selection individuals from a population that are best adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring than those less well adapted so that the characteristics of the population change over time o What is sexual selection 0 A mode of natural selection in which individuals have differential reproductive success based on competition for mates 0 What is an adaptation 0 Characteristic that confers higher inclusive tness to individuals than any other existing alternative exhibited by other individuals within the population 0 How are signals classi ed Given examples be able to classify signals based on 4 different classi cation schemes Le a prairie dog alarm call a male tungara frog calling 0 Modalitymedium light sound chemicals touch hydrodynamics or electricityair water solids 0 Information identity sex location dominance status 0 Honesty guarantee index signals handicap signals conventional signals proximity signals 0 Context aggressive signals mating signals social integration signals environmental signals 0 Describe the 7 steps of the signaling sequence 0 Sender Generation Modi cation l Coupling 0 Medium Propagation o Receiver Coupling l Modi cation l Classi cation Sound and Sound Signal Production Exam 1 Study Guide Part 1 What differences exist between gases liquids and solids What is the medium ambient pressure condensation rarefaction 0 Medium air water or solid 0 Ambient pressure the total force of molecular collisions with a surface divided by the area of that surface 0 Condensation regions of high molecular density air pressure greater than atmosphere 0 Rarefaction regions of low molecular density air pressure lower than atmosphere What is sound What is an impulse sound vs a periodic sound 0 Sound a radiating disturbance in the pressure of the medium 0 Impulse sound noise not de ned 0 Periodic sound readable de ned Describe the temporal properties of a sound period frequency phase as well as amplitude and sound pressure level 0 Period end of one wave to end of next 0 Frequency distance between waves 0 Phase fraction of wave cycle that has elapsed relative to origin 0 Amplitude height of wave 0 Sound pressure level What occurs when two waves are summed that are in phase out of phase 0 In phase positive interference waves 0 Out of phase negative interference straight line What are beats Describe how beats are produced 0 Beat interference between two sounds of slightly different frequencies perceived as periodic variations in volume whose rate is the difference between two frequencies 0 Beats are produced by the interference of two waves in the same point and space What is the main idea behind Fourier analysis 0 Study of the way general functions are represented or approximated by sums of simple trigonometric functions What aspects of sound are depicted in a waveform What are the axes What about a spectrogram A power spectrum 0 X axis is time y axis is amplitude o Spectrogram visual representation of the spectrum of frequencies in a sound of other signal as they vary with time or some other variable 0 Power spectrum PSD describes how the power of a signal or time series is distributed over the different frequencies What properties of the medium affect the speed of sound How In what media do sounds travel fastest Slowest o The density of the medium the stiffness of the medium and other factors affect the speed of sound Exam 1 Study Guide Part 1 0 Sound travels fastest in high stiffness and high density mediums How does the speed of sound affect wavelength 0 Higher speed high frequency Lower speed low frequency What is the difference between the near eld and the far eld 0 Near eld has no simple relationship between sound level and distance and the sound pressure does not obey the inverse square law 0 Far eld is a region in free space at a much greater distance from the sound source than the linear dimensions of the source itself Sound waves can be considered planar and the sound pressure obeys the inverse square law What are spreading losses Heat losses 0 Spreading loss the signal diminishes as it spreads to the entire organism 0 Heat loss What is acoustic impedance How will the acoustic impedance of two media affect a sound traveling across the boundary between those two media in terms of re ection and refraction 0 Acoustic impedance is resistance of the medium to having its behavior altered 0 Initial medium when it hits the second medium can either be a re ected to the initial medium b refracted into the second medium but at a lower angle or c refracted into the second medium at a higher angle What is diffraction What is scattering How might these be important for communicating animals in a natural environment 0 Diffraction is a phenomenon by which a sound wave is changed in direction by an obstacle or other heterogeneity in the medium 0 Scattering is the irregular diffraction and re ection of a sound wave in many directions Sound Generation What are the four types of movement categories that animals use to produce sounds For each be able to describe basic types ie Moving a body part across a solid can occur through percussion stridulation or buckling For mechanisms that are in the book that I did not discuss I will not hold you responsible o 1 Move a solid body part across another solid object Percussion drumming rattle bill clack Stridulation scorpion Rhopalurus Buckling cicada song 0 2 Move a body part to create surface waves at a boundary layer between media water strider ripples Exam 1 Study Guide Part 1 o 3 Move a body part to produce waves within a uid medium Pulsation cat sh oyster toad sh Fanning waggle dance of bees Fluid compression 0 4 Move a uid medium against a body part Aerodynamic sounds hissing in reptiles Vocalizations terrestrial vertebrates Describe the process of vocalization What is the general layout of the vertebrate respiratory system 0 PROCESS IDK o Nostrils I nasal cavities l mouth l pharyngeal cavities l larynx l trachea l syrinx birds l bronchus l lung How do different types of terrestrial vertebrates eg frogs birds mammals breathe How might this affect their vocalizations o Frog inspiration through nostrils buccal cavity expands nostrils close glottis opens buccal cavity contracts lungs expand Expiration when buccal cavity expands lungs contract nostrils open glottis closes and buccal cavity contracts 0 Bird nasal and pharyngeal cavities l trachea l series of air sacs clavicular cervicular anterior thoracic posterior thoracic and abdominal and lungs o Humans use diaphragm Describe the mammalian larynx How is sound generated 0 Nostrils nasal cavities mouth pharyngeal cavity larynx trachea syrinx birds bronchus lung 0 The thyroid has thyroid cartilage arytenoid cartilage cricoid cartilage and a vocal cord ligament The muscles are cricorarytenoid opens cords thyroarytenoid puts tension on cords cricothyroid stretches cord and interarytenoid closes cords o Humans have elastic ligaments called vocal cords attached to the bones in the throat When air is passed over these cords they vibrate and make sound The sound can be modi ed in intensity and by using the tongue teeth and lips in vocalization How does the avian syrinx differ from the mammalian larynx What special abilities does this give to birds in terms of vocalization o It has lateral labium medial labium and medial tympaniform membrane No vocal cord 0 Lateralization of bird song is possible and some can produce more than one sound at a time What is resonance What is ltering What determines whether a particular frequency component of a sound will be ampli ed by resonance or reduced in amplitude by ltering 0 Resonance o Filtering Exam 1 Study Guide Part 1 o If wavelengths of a given frequency component t in dimensions of object incomingre ected waves will be in phase l amplitude increased by resonance o If wavelengthobject dimension ratio don t quot tquot incomingre ected waves out of phase l amplitude decreased by ltering 0 Why does the difference in acoustic impedance in different media affect an animal s ability to couple sound to the propagating medium What are impedancematching devices and how do they help 0 The efficiency of coupling depends on size of radiating organ larger radiators produce more intense sounds how the organ moves and the acoustic impedance of organmedium in terrestrial great impedance differences 0 Impedance matching devices adjust the source impedance of an electrical load to maximize power transfer or minimize signal re ection 0 Can present an apparent load to the source to do complex conjugate matching complex impedance matching avoiding echoes or bring sound resistance close to zero 0 What are some examples of strategies animals use to balance ampli cation and coupling it to the propagating medium 0 Mole crickets funneling tunnel and staying in a bulb underground 0 Elongating the trachea in ducks 0 Beak movements in uence the resonance properties of the vocal tract by varying its physical dimensions 0 Larynx position farther from the mouth increases the dimensions of the vocal tract cavity like in moose Sound Reception o What design constraints affect hearing organs in coupling sounds from the propagating medium 0 All sound receptors are derived from general mechanoreceptors o A receiver s ability to detect sounds depends on the relative acoustic impedances of receiver medium 0 How do animals couple sounds in the near eld How do they solve the problems of design constraints on hearing organs 0 Use tidal movements of molecules to detect sound but must move one body part differently from another body part to do so 0 Small hairs on the exoskeleton and plumose antennae of arthropods move more easily in a near eld than does the rest of the body This differential movement provides the necessary coupling for near eld sounds In other species the internal sensory hairs are covered by heavy objects statoliths in crustaceans and otoliths in sh These masses accelerate more slowly in near elds than do the hairs and other soft tissues and Exam 1 Study Guide Part 1 this differential movement bends the hairs and stimulates the sensory cells 0 What is a tympanum What are the two types How does a tympanum couple far eld sounds to the receiver in air 0 O 0 Thin membrane used in terrestrial animals to couple airborne sounds Pressure detector Eustachian tube pharynx sensory cells linkage tympanum cavity Pressure differential detector air sac sensory cells tympanum pharynx Eustachian tube interaural canal In mammals and moths the tympana are stretched over closed cavities The resulting pressure detectors compare external sound pressures to the reference pressure in the closed cavity The tympana of grasshoppers cicadas crickets katydids frogs lizards and birds compare sounds sampled at two different locations in the far eld and thus serve as pressure differential detectors All use the exterior of a tympanum as one sample point Crickets and katydids use tracheal tubes to convey a second sample taken outside their thorax to the other side of the tympanum In grasshoppers cicadas and all terrestrial vertebrates except mammals the insides of the two tympana are connected by an airspace or air lled sacs The second sample is thus taken outside the tympanum of the opposite ear 0 What problems do aquatic animals face in coupling waterborne sounds What are some ways they solve these problems 0 O O Swim bladder and inner ear in sh The ears of whales have air spaces to receive underwater sounds In water a number of sh use swim bladders or accessory air sacs the way terrestrial animals use tympana to capture far eld sounds and convert them into oscillations of the cavity wall Swim bladder movements are conveyed to the ears by small bones or intervening tissues Toothed whales use fat lled jawbones to convey far eld sounds to a thin bone in the ear that converts the pressure variations into vibrational motion Baleen whales and true seals appear to capture sounds in various parts of their skeletons and convey them to ears that respond to bone conducted sounds How do animals sense surfacepropagated sounds O Boundarypropagated sounds are usually coupled into receiver bodies through their legs Tension and posture can be varied to improve resonance of the body relative to frequencies of interest Spiders use slits and insects use pits in the exoskeleton that are then compressed and expanded as a result of the coupled vibrations These arthropods also use stretch receptors and blood Exam 1 Study Guide Part 1 movement detectors to monitor leg and body vibrations Frogs absorb seismic signals through their bodies and convey them through a specialized muscle to their ears 0 What are the main ways that animals modify captured sounds Give examples of structures animals use to modify sound and explain how sounds are modi ed OOOOO Ampli cation Filtering Impedance matching Horn devices amplify sound and match impedances bats Membranes that decrease in size and articulated chains of bones terrestrial animals Terrestrial animals use horns articulated chains of bones or successive membranes of decreasing size to modify captured sounds and reduce impedance mismatches between the ambient medium and their bodies While these devices can increase the sound energy delivered to inner ears they usually have their own resonant properties that may constrain the animal s auditory range and resolution 0 What are the main types of sensory cells in the vertebrate ear How do they work 0 0 Hair cells bend to transform mechanical energy of sound waves into electrical signals Have nerves cuticular plate stereocillia and kinocillium What is place theory Describe how animals decode frequency information in the sounds that they hear 0 0 Place theory our perception of sound depends on where each component frequency produces vibrations along the basilar membrane A diaphragm Stapes oval window scala vestibule basilar membrane The basilar membrane varies in width and thickness along its length Sound waves of different frequencies vibrate the basilar membrane maximally at different points Organization of hair cells along basilar membrane of cochlea allows speci c hair cells to respond to speci c frequencies The spatial coding of frequency information maintained pathways to auditory cortex 0 How do animals extract directional information from sound 0 O 0 Changing azimuth on horizontal plane for behindahead Changing altitude on median plate Animals can use any of four different kinds of information to identify the azimuth and altitude of a sound source In near elds hearing organs can often use the direction of molecular motion in the medium to estimate both azimuth and altitude Exam 1 Study Guide Part 1 Time delays in the arrival of a far eld sound at two or more hearing organs are often used either behaviorally by rotating until the delay is zero or computationally by the brain to identify the source azimuth This cue becomes decreasineg useful as receiver size gets smaller Amplitude differences provide a third type of far eld cue and azimuth can again be identi ed using turning or brain computation Animals larger than relevant wavelengths rely on diffraction to create amplitude differences at two or more hearing organs animals smaller than relevant wavelengths use one or more pressure differential organs that are inherently directional The fourth cue changes in far eld frequency spectra at the ear as a function of source angle is used by many mammals and by some birds to estimate the altitude of a sound source Sound Discussion of Literature Articles What are some of the differences between urban and forest habitats What is the difference in terms of ambient noise 0 Urban habitats homogenize animal communities More noise in urban communities and forest communities are also more open From quotCities changequot What are some of the major differences between urban and forest song How are these changes interpreted with respect to potential bene ts to singers in urban habitats 0 Urban songs are shorter and sung faster than forest song and higher minimum frequencies so that they are actually heard 0 Phenotypic plasticity could potentially accelerate genotypic divergence and open up the evolutionary pathway toward urban speciation From quotCities changequot What are some of the ways population differences might arise between urban and forest populations think of the timescale of song changes How did the authors interpret the differences they found between urban and forest birds What is the mechanism by which great tits differ their songs in urban environments 0 Phenotypic variation may re ect evolved genotypic variation but may also re ect a plastic response to current or recent environmental conditions 0 Noisy conditions may affect social in uences on repertoire in the breeding territory after dispersal o Nonsocial auditory feedback mechanism causes selective attrition based on variation in songtypetonoise ratio Lombard effect singing louder when background noise is louder Exam 1 Study Guide Part 1 0 From quotExperimental evidencequot What is the major methodological difference between this paper and the rst paper 0 The rst paper recorded in real time in urban and forest environments whereas the second paper was just adjusting noise level from a device 0 From quotExperimental evidencequot How did the researchers address the question of differing songs in noisy environments 0 Experimentally tested if house nches can modulate the minimum frequency of their songs in response to different noise levels 0 From quotExperimental evidencequot What were the results of the experiment How can we interpret the differences found by the researchers How do house nches achieve changes in response to high noise conditions 0 Conclusion is that house nches modify their songs in several ways in response to urban noise thus providing evidence of a short term acoustic adaptation 0 Results signi cant increase in minimum frequency from low to high and a decrement from high to low treatments W o What is electromagnetic radiation 0 Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that unlike sound can travel in a vacuum It consists of an oscillating electric eld and a magnetic eld at right angles to each other and to the direction of travel Electromagnetic radiation exhibits the wave properties of re ection refraction diffraction spreading loss and attenuation Its frequency is inversely proportional to its wavelength but it can also be viewed as a rapid stream of tiny energy packets How is light like a wave What wave properties can be ascribed to light 0 Varies in frequency colors can vary in intensity attenuates with distance is directional and travels different speeds in different media 0 Frequency f wavelength speed of light c o Oscillates o How is light like a stream of owing massless particles What properties are of interest 0 Particles are packets of energy quanta l visible light is made up of photons o The amount of energy depends on frequency of radiation high frequency l greater ux of energy Exam 1 Study Guide Part 1 What is the electromagnetic spectrum What sort of information is portrayed by a graph of the electromagnetic spectrum How do different types of electromagnetic radiation differ along this spectrum 0 Light discussed in terms of wavelength Shows the type of EM radiation wavelength and interaction with matter Cosmic rays gamma rays and xrays destroy bonds UV and visible light increase electron energy Infrared light increases vibrational energy Radar and microwave increases rotational energy 0 Radio TV cell phone and slow EM waves absorbed by ions What kind of molecular oscillations are produced by light What determines whether a passing light wave will transfer energy to a molecule 0 Transitional movements rotational movements vibration of bonds and electron rearrangement o Molecules absorb energy if equal to amount needed to move to higher oscillatory state Energy is proportional to frequency Only certain frequencies can be absorbed by particular molecules resonance frequencies Different frequencies of EMR will cause different oscillations What factors affect the speed of light in a medium What is a medium s index of refraction o The speed of light is affected by the medium and by resonance frequencies of molecules Fastest in vacuum then air then watersolids low high refraction index 0 Index of refraction ratio of speed of light in a particular medium to speed in a vacuum What is scattering o Molecules will absorb energy from a light beam and subsequently reradiate that energy 0 Depends on frequency of incoming light resonance frequency of molecules size density and spatial arrangement of scattering molecules What is re ection Refraction Under what conditions do these processes occur 0 At a boundary light is either absorbed re ected or refracted depending on the mediumangle o If the medium molecules do not possess a resonance frequency close to the frequency of the light waves and are uniformly arrayed the waves will be mostly transmitted through the medium layer in a series of reradiations but travel speed will be slowed Such a medium like water or glass is transparent If the medium molecules have a resonance frequency in the visible light range these frequencies will be absorbed the energy will be dissipated as heat and neither transmission nor OOOO Exam 1 Study Guide Part 1 re ection will occur If the medium is very heterogeneous in density light waves will be scattered and re ected at the discontinuous boundaries 0 What is brightness Hue Saturation Be able to describe a given light signal in these terms based on a re ectance spectrum 0 Brightness overall intensity 0 Hue dominant wavelength 0 Saturation purity of dominant wavelength 0 The higher the re ectance the higher the saturation Visual Signal Generation 0 What are pigments How are pigmentbased colors produced For each of the major categories of pigment describe the range of colors produced and any particular costs or bene ts of maintaining signals using that pigment o Pigments are organic compounds with chains or networks of conjugated double bonds They selectively absorb some wavelengths while scattering others 0 Carotenoids re ect yellow orange red and pink Must be obtained through diet and may play role in maintaining health 0 Melanins eumelanin is black gray brown Pheomelanin is reddish brown Synthesized in special cells Production regulated by genes and hormones Provide health structural and thermoregulatory bene ts 0 Porphyrins re ect pinks reds bluegreens browns Provide health bene ts and can be synthesized o Pteridines re ect red orange yellow white Occur as crystals 0 What are structural colors How are structural colors produced What are some examples of structural colors 0 Structural colors selectively re ect certain wavelengths using nanometer scale structures 0 Produce most ultraviolet violet and blue colors 0 Produced using thinlayer interference l iridescence There are two re ections one primary and one secondary and then a transmitted beam Diffraction grating Multidimensional arrays in bird feathers What is bioluminescence How do animals achieve bioluminescent signals What are some uses of bioluminescent visual signals 0 Bioluminescence production of light via biochemical processes 0 Luciferin enzyme luciferase releases C02 and H20 oxyluciferin and photon What are the 4 basic ways that animals modify their visual signals Examples Exam 1 Study Guide Part 1 o Combining structural and pigmentary mechanisms bird feather coloring 0 Creating color patterns markings on fur in variety of animals 0 Changing colors chromatophors camou age o Postures and movements lifting leg warning signs etc o What is a chromatophore How does it work What does it do 0 Pigment containing and light re ecting cells in amphibians sh reptiles crustaceans cephalopods and bacteria 0 Generates skin and eye color in cold blooded animals 0 Can be used in camou age
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