Week 6 Monday Philip III (1598-1621) ● Philip III had little of his father’s spirit or talents. He inherited an Empire that was virtually intact, but also inherited a huge national debt. ● His reign was characterized by a successful peaceful foreign policy in western Europe and internally by the expulsion of the Moriscos. ● In spite of financial crisis, cIf you want to learn more check out What is the data type for an input file stream object?
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orrupt government, and loss of population, Spain attained its greatest prestige in Europe during these years. ● For a time Philip III attempted to be in charge of government, and signed a peace treaty with England (1604) and a truce with the Dutch (1609). But soon retired from direct rule, and began the tradition of ruling by select ministers (the validos). ● The first of such validos was the duke of Lerma, more interested in increasing his own wealth than in government itself Philip III: financial problems ● The war against the Dutch (before a truce was reached) helped to provoke the first financial crisis of the reign (1604) ● In 1607 a dramatic fall in silver coming from America forced the government to declare another bankruptcy. It would not be the last. ● Climate changes affected agriculture in the latter part of 16th C: ○ Spain dependent of grain imports ○ Harvest failure (mid 1590’s) ○ Famine (1591-9) ○ Plague (1596-1600) The “morisco problem” ● The only act of resolution under Philip III and Lerma was the expulsion of the moriscos. ● They felt that moriscos were impossible to assimilate, and represented a threat to Spain (France had made alliance with the Dutch and the Turks, and it was thought that they had the complicity of moriscos inside Spain) ● The mass deportation took place in 1609-14. Most of them headed to North Africa. ● Spain’s religious unity was achieved, but at a high price. ● Spain lost 300,000 productive citizens, just when it needed them most. ● The expulsion caused serious economic and demographic problems in certain areas. It would take centuries to overcome them. Philip III: final years ● Peace in Europe ended with the outbreak (1618) of the Thirty Years' War, with Philip giving his unconditional support to the Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand II and the Catholic German princes. Involvement in the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) increased the vulnerability of Spain ● Remote from his subjects, Philip spent huge sums on court entertainments and neglected Spain's growing economic problems, which were to reach crisis proportions in the following reign Literary activity ● The reign of Philip III was not especially successful in domestic and foreign policies, but contemplated an explosion of literary activity. ● Some of the most important names in Spanish literature wrote their production during the reigns of Philip III and Philip IV: Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina, Góngora, Quevedo… ● Under Philip III appeared the best known Spanish literary work: Don Quixote de La Mancha, by Miguel de Cervantes. A literary genius: Cervantes (1547- 1616) ● Born in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid. ● Fought in Italy ● Fought in Lepanto (1571). Was badly wounded in his left hand. He is known with the nickname "Manco de Lepanto" (Maimed of Lepanto). ● In 1575 his ship was captured by pirates. Seven years captive in Algiers. ● Later in Spain: debts, imprisonment A literary masterpiece: Don Quixote ● El ingenioso hidalgo don Quixote de la Mancha (1605 and 1615) ○ A parody of the novels of chivalry ○ Opposition: idealism and common sense ○ A study in the psychology of friendship and delusion ● Translated into English, French, and Italian within the next twenty years. ● The influence of Don Quixote on later literature has been enormous. ● Don Quixote has also become a symbol of extreme idealism. Some take him as a symbol of Spain itself. Stereotypes of Spaniards (16th-17th centuries) ● Spaniards are perceived in 16th and 17th centuries as: ○ extremely proud ○ religious ○ sober ○ resistant to adversities ○ grave, distant ○ reserved, taciturn ○ good soldiers, courageous, but cruel ○ lazy Some examples (16th and 17th C.) ● Francisco Guicciardini: “they don’t get involved in trading, because rich and poor consider themselves nobles, and perceive trading as a shame” ● Madame d’Aulnoy: “they prefer to be hungry better than to work, because they associate working with slavery” ● Thomas Middleton: “they are too proud to work, they better starve to death” ● Francis Willughby: “Everybody talks about their ridiculous pride, even in the most absolute poverty. If you ask them to do some work, they will recommend you to ask a French. In fact, French do almost all the work in Spain” Philip IV (1621-1665) ● The personality of the new king, Philip IV, was molded by the Count-Duke of Olivares, the new valido. ● The count of Olivares was probably the greatest statesman produced by Spain during its era as a world power. ● Olivares seek power to restore the reputación of the monarchy and the nation. ● He had a clear program of reforms, and was hard-working and energetic. Count-Duke of Olivares ● Wanted to transform Spain into a modern state ● Revolutionized government with reforms to minimize the tax burden of Castile ● Advocated the creation of a Central Bank ● Advocated a “Union of Arms” that would create a reserve army paid for by all the Spanish dominions (and not only Castile) ○ This measure was resisted because affected ancient liberties and local autonomy ● Olivares’s program had two parts: ○ political: to make Philip “truly king of Spain”, rather than the ruler of heterogeneous territories, each with certain privileges. ○ economical: he wanted to turn Spaniards into businessmen (like the Dutch and the English); and to substitute chaotic fiscal system by a single tax plan. ● By the mid 1620s progress had been made in all directions. Situation looked promising. Promising Beginnings: Success Abroad ● The early years of Philip IV saw spectacular series of victories: ○ In 1625 France was beaten in N. Italy ○ Same year: Breda, in Flanders, was captured ○ Dutch fishing fleet was destroyed, and Dutch invasion of Brazil was repelled ○ Anglo-Dutch invasion force in S. Spain was repelled ○ 1626-30: France and England sued for peace, and Dutch were considering major concessions to achieve peace. But Crisis at Home ● Success abroad was overshadowed by domestic crisis. In the mid-twenties Spain had to face: ○ Subsistence crisis in central regions ○ Famine and outbreak of virus diseases caused great mortality ● Spain had always been deficient in certain resources essential for a empire. It lacked: ○ enough fertile land for food production ○ forestry for shipbuilding ○ solid population base for labor and defense ● The crisis of 1627-31 depleted its reserves Crisis Grows ● In 1628 the Spanish suffered serious losses in fighting against the French in Italy. ● The same year a treasure fleet was lost (for the first time), taken by the Dutch. ● During the 1630s, new offensive. Began with great victories: Swedish army destroyed at Nordlingen, losing 20,000. This victory gave all S Germany to the Catholics. Only the intervention of France in 1635 would save the protestant cause. International and Internal Conflicts ● 1635: full-scale war with France: Spain’s attack on three different parts of France failed. ● 1639-40: naval defeats against the Dutch. No treasure fleet arrived in 1639. Increased financial problems. ● Olivares tried to collect additional money from other kingdoms (Castile was already too burdened). In 1640 two internal rebellions followed: in Catalonia and Portugal. ● Catalans placed themselves under French rule rather than surrender. French troops remained in Catalonia until 1659, when rebellion collapsed Independence of Portugal ● The union between Portugal and Spain was initially mutually convenient. ● Philip III offended the Portuguese by appointing Castilians to important posts in Lisbon. ● Portuguese discontent turned into rebellion in 1640 ● When Olivares demanded Portuguese money and troops to fight the Catalans, Portugal declared independence. ● War between Portugal and Spain lasted 30 years, but Portugal was able to maintain independence with help of French and English troops. ● Since then, England becomes firmest ally of Portugal Castile Exhausted ● Failure of Olivares’s policy meant disaster. ● Rebellion of Catalonia and Portugal, in addition to multiple war fronts in America, Africa, and Europe (France, Dutch, England, Germany) left Castile exhausted of men and money. ● Demographic decline caused by expulsion of moriscos, was made worse by a cycle of subsistence crises and epidemics (1647-52) ● In the 1640s Sicily and Naples also revolted. End of Spanish supremacy in Europe ● New offensive against France ended in disaster: the battle of Rocroi (1643) meant the end of Spanish military supremacy in Europe. ● 1648: the peace of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years War. Spain acknowledged independence of the Netherlands ● 1654: Loss of Jamaica to England. ● 1659: Treaty of Pyrenees meant official recognition of France as new hegemonic superpower. Charles II (the bewitched): 1665- 1700 ● Philip IV died in 1665. His successor, Charles II, was mentally and physically ill. ● Charles II had no children. Last king of the Austrian dynasty in Spain. ● After the tumultuous years of Philip IV, the reign of Charles II has a transitional character. ● The court was dominated by a morbid religious feeling, by a fatalistic sense of disillusion and failure. The feeble figure of the king symbolized the reality of the country Succession Problems ● The succession to the Spanish throne had two main candidates: Bourbons and Austrias. Both dynasties had similar rights. ● Charles II made the final decision to leave his empire to Philip of Anjou, a Bourbon. ● England, Austria, and the Netherlands didn’t accept the decision. Started War of the Spanish Succession. Spanish Decline: possible reasons ● Religious intolerance ○ Loss of population ○ No scientific or financial spirit (associated with the Jews). Foreigners in charge of economy ○ Made Spaniards unfit for modernity ● Endless wars in too many fronts: France, England, Netherlands, German protestants, Ottoman Empire, North and South America, North African pirates. ○ Lack of flexibility to make alliances ● Financial disaster: continuous bankruptcies. ● Sharp decline in population, from 9 million in 1600 to 6 million in 1700. Due to: ○ Expulsion of Jews and Muslims ○ Migration to America ○ Wars ○ Plagues. ○ Subsistence crisis ● Isolationism: in 1559, to avoid Protestant “contamination,” Philip II prohibited Spaniards to study in European universities. 17th C: An artistic Golden Age ● For all its problems and failures, the reigns of Philip III and Philip IV witnessed an astonishing artistic and literary activity that will have no equal in Spanish history. ● Later on, the so-called “Golden Age” of 16th and 17th centuries will be a necessary point of reference for all Spanish artists. ● Some of the most important authors: ○ Mateo Alemán continued the picaresque novel with his Guzmán de Alfarache (1599 and 1604): Pessimistic picture of the world; lack of moral values ● Luis de Góngora (1561-1627) ○ Culteranismo: crafty artificiality of language. Complex metaphors, syntactical twists and turns, classical allusions ● Francisco Quevedo (1580-1645). Devastating satires and criticism of Spanish society. ○ Conceptism: a way of dealing with ideas that involve the use of exaggerated wit. Golden Age: Spanish comedia ● Spanish comedia ○ Popular theater of intrigue, stereotyped situations, and primary emotions ○ “Cape and sword,” “Wife-killing,” “Honor” plays ● Lope de Vega (1562-1635) ○ Creator and best representative of Spanish comedia ○ Impressive literary output (over 1,000 plays) ○ Renews the genre in a more popular vein) ● Tirso de Molina (1571-1648): ○ Created the universal type of Don Juan in his play The Deceiver of Seville (1630). ● Calderón de la Barca (1600-1681) ○ Baroque language (linguistic contortions, symbols) ○ The poet of Catholicism (Autos sacramentales) ○ Life is a Dream (1637) Baroque Art ● The period in art history from about 1600 to about 1750. The term covers a wide range of styles and artists. ● In painting and sculpture there were three main forms of Baroque: ○ 1. Sumptuous display, a style associated with the Catholic Counter Reformation and the absolutist courts of Europe ○ 2. Dramatic realism (chiaroscuro) ○ 3. Everyday realism. A Golden Age in painting: Diego de Silva Velázquez ● Velázquez (1599-1660) is one of the most influential painters of all times. ● Born in Seville. Except for a brief visit to Italy, he lived in Madrid as court painter. ● His paintings include mythological and religious subjects, and scenes from common life. But most of them are portraits of monarchs and nobles (and also buffoons and dwarfs) A Golden Age in painting: Velázquez ● Master realist: it has been said that his men and women seem to breathe. Psychological analyses. ● Great skill in merging color, light, and space. ● Pictorial apprehension of the instant ● His most famous work is Las Meninas ● First female nude in Spanish painting A Golden Age in Painting: Other Painters ● Velázquez was the main figure of an extraordinary group of painters. Among them: ○ José de Ribera: 1591-1652 (associated with chiaroscuro) ○ Francisco de Zurbarán: 1598-1662. (ascetism and realism (still life paintings) ○ Bartolomé Esteban Murillo: 1618-1682 ○ Juan Valdés Leal: 1622-1690. ○ Claudio Coello: 1642-1693 Baroque style: architecture ● Baroque is perhaps Spain’s most distinctive architecture. Like the Renaissance architecture from which it derived, Baroque was born in Italy. ● In 17th and 18th centuries Baroque façades, portals and chapels were added to numerous churches and cathedrals such as Murcia and Sa ● ntiago. ● The term Baroque incarnates the spirit of the Counter Reformation. It is fundamentally a decorative style of elaborate and ornate forms. ● Buildings of the period are composed of great curving forms with undulating facades and rich ornamentation. ● An extreme reaction to the austere classical-ism of the Renaissance was the Churrigueresque style, very popular in Spain and Latin America. Spanish Baroque: Churrigueresque style ● Extremely ornamental. It is characterized by the play of light and shade, and by extravagant ornamentation. Visually frenetic, with undulating cornices, spirals, balustrades, stucco shells, and garlands. ● It was named after José Churriguera (1665– 1725) and the Churriguera family, who worked mainly around Salamanca. ● The most astonishing Churrigueresque creation was the Transparente (1721-32), in Toledo Cathedral by Narciso Tomé Week 6 Wednesday Spain in the Eighteenth Century Enlightened Despotism The Eighteenth Century ● Spain in 1700: “the skeleton of a giant” ● But at the beginning of the 18th C. Spain still had enormous possibilities and resources ● It had lost its status of European hegemonic country to France, but its Empire was still intact. ● Other European countries feared that Spain could still react and recover its previous position as a superpower. ● During the 18th C the Bourbons try to revitalize the country. ● Goal: to modernize Spain. ● The Eighteenth Century is called the “Age of Reason”: there is a general trend in Europe to accept only the authority of reason. ● Enlightenment: ○ Enlightenment questions superstitions and traditions (even religion). It had a difficult relationship with the Catholic Church. ○ Enlightenment challenges traditional social order (based on hierarchy of blood: Monarchy, aristocracy) ○ The idea of modernity (based in science and progress) is the foundation of the new spirit The Enlightenment ● Enlightenment: revolutionary. ● New ideas affected all areas of human life. ● French revolution and American constitution can be regarded as a result. ● The movement was shaped by an optimistic believe in the possibilities of reason to improve human life. – progress (based on science) will cause happiness. ● Motto: aude sapere “Dare to know” (I. Kant) Resistance to Enlightenment: conservatives and nationalists ● Enlightened ideas had to face a strong opposition all over Europe: church, aristocracy, conservative groups. ● In Spain the opposition was stronger, because Enlightenment was associated with France. ● Enlightened ideas were considered a threat to Spanish identity (regarded as Catholic) ● During 18th C (and later) those who try to modernize the country will have to face a defensive nationalism Questions of succession in Spain ● Spanish succession affected European balance of power. ● Two main candidates: Bourbons (France) and Habsburgs (Austria) ● England and the Netherlands wanted to prevent the union of Spain and France (or Austria) ● Charles decided in favor of Philip of Anjou (then Philip V of Spain): a Bourbon, grandson of the king of France. ○ France’s military strength and geographical proximity to Spain would prevent the breakup of Spanish European possessions War of the Spanish Succession (1701-13) ● When Philip V (1700-1746) was declared king, the Spanish aristocracy expected an alliance of equals ● But king’s camarilla (cabinet) took over government ● Castile loyal to king Philip. Catalonia favored the Allies (was afraid of Bourbon’s centralism) ● War of Spanish Succession was also a war between two different ideas of Spain: centralism vs. federalism. Bourbon Centralism ● With the Bourbon dynasty Spain becomes a centralized kingdom, similar to France. ○ a single official language, a single law. ○ Catalans viewed this homogeneity as a defeat (resentment). ● System of intendants (officers appointed to oversee the conduct of local officials) is established – Castilian functionaries move into municipal and local government Dynastic ambitions and the Mediterranean ● Spain and France signed the “Family Pact”: England, main enemy of Spain during 18th C. ● Disregarding terms of Peace of Utrecht, Philip tried to recover Italian territories. ● Spain conquered Sardinia and Sicily, but had to confront England (superiority of British navy) ● Intents to build strong army and navy ● War activity continued to condition the economy and the military (although not as prolonged, intensive or extensive: allowed for some recovery). Economic Recovery ● Abolition of Mesta privileges places more land under cultivation ● Diversified crops (rice, corn, citrus) ● 1720 Spain achieves self-sufficiency in foodstuffs for the first time in a century ● Spain’s most dynamic areas are not Castile and Andalusia anymore, but the coastal areas of North and East (especially Basque country, Catalonia, and Valencia): small farms, growing industries and open ports. ● Abolition of internal customs barriers fosters a market economy Modernization of Spain ● Spain’s recovery during the 18th C. due to combined effort of Bourbon monarchs and parts of the aristocracy. ● Bourbon administration reproduces French administration (ministers dealing with different fields) ● People with Enlightened ideas, a minority, but very active. ○ Sociedades de Amigos del País (Societies of Friends of the Country): concerned with practical matters ○ Feijoo Enlightened Despotism ● A form of government during the second part of the 18th century characterized by the adoption and implementation of Enlightened reforms (to modernize and improve the country) ● Elitist in nature: “Everything for the people, but nothing by the people” ● Reformist, not revolutionary (unlike the Enlightenment). Tries to maintain the old power structure. ● Evolves from the absolutism of 17th-C monarchs Spanish Prosperity, mid-18th C ● By 1750 Spain’s population exceeded its previous peak in the late 16th C. ● Investment in shipbuilding put Spanish navy back among the best in Europe. ● Improvements in communication: Roads, bridges, canals. ● But: organization of the treasury did not improved tax system ● Northwest minifundia could not adequately sustain the families who worked the land. • Southern latifundia inefficiently managed by absentee landowners (crop failures, high rent) Power Struggles ● Two factions fighting for political power ○ Highly conservative old nobility ■ Educated but not intellectual ■ Family alliances ■ Influenced by the powerful Jesuit order ○ Liberal Nueva Planta fresh hidalgos ■ Bourgeois background (Ensenada) ■ Opposed to corporate or private privilege ■ See Church (and especially Jesuits) as custodians of an obsolete order Charles III (1759-88) ● Enlightened Despot. Paternalistic. Puritan. ● King of Two Sicilies (1734) before King of Spain ● An experienced ruler ○ Granted concession to Catalonia and Aragon ○ Long-term confidence in competent chief ministers ○ Converted Madrid in a modern city (new buildings, new sewage system, street lighting, fountains) ○ Enlightened public works took precedence over church building for the first time: roads, state buildings, channels… Charles III: Squillace Riots ● Riots in Madrid (March 1766) ○ Squillace Riots. Causes: ○ Inflationary pressures ○ High cost of bread ○ Against law by minister Squillace declaring illegal traditional hats and capes (to fight criminality) ○ Effectively suppressed by a combination of improvement in the food supply, and negotiation (law against traditional dress was removed) Squillace Riots (1766): Nationalism ● French influence caused chauvinistic reaction in Spain ○ Among common people ○ Among members of the aristocracy ● Nationalistic attitudes are different from conservative attitudes. ● Some members of the old nobility who opposed changes (modernization) created alliance with low and marginal classes. ● Identified “true Spanish” with “non-French” Nationalism and the Birth of a new Spanish Stereotype ● Popular reaction against French traditions and values: ○ Carlos III banned bullfight except for charity, but popularity of bullfighting grew ○ Popular songs against French and “afrancesados” ○ Adoption of the majo style of dressing instead of the French style ● Some members of the Spanish aristocracy appropriated these popular cultural expressions as a nationalistic stance against French taste. The birth of a new Spanish stereotype ● The new stereotype is built over a desire not to be French: the more opposed to French something is, the more Spanish (reversed influence). Identifies as truly Spanish: ○ Andalusia (the least “European” region of Spain) ○ Gypsies (marginal group originally from India) ○ Flamenco (associated originally with outlaws, prisons, and bordellos) ○ Bullfighting (Spanish medieval tradition that Europeans considered cruel and barbarian) Gypsies, Flamenco ● Gypsies: first recorded in Spain in 1425. ● Originally from North India. They were called “egipcianos” (gitanos) because people thought that came from Egypt. ● Most marginal group in Spain for centuries ● Series of laws forcing them to choose between adaptation or expulsion ● flamenco: born in the 18th C. Associated with the gypsies (and with marginal groups in general: criminal, jails, prostitution). ● First mention in literature at the end of 18th C. Bullfighting ● Documented in the Iberian Peninsula since the Middle Ages: gentlemen fought bulls to prove bravery. ● Very popular in the 17th C. with members of the aristocracy: bullfighting was done on horseback. ● In 18th C., with the Bourbons, this kind of bullfighting almost disappeared. Kings did not like it. ● Around mid-18th C. starts bullfighting as we know it now: ○ Done by people on foot (who expect to be paid) ○ Strict rules. ○ First bullrings are built. ○ Bullfighters: at the beginning associated with ferocious criminals (as opposed to “effeminate” French-like petimetres) Charles III (1759-88): Expulsion of the Jesuits ● The Squillace riots provided Charles III an excuse to expel the Jesuits from the kingdom (1767) ○ Suspect of undermining the prerogatives of absolutism (obedience to the Pope) ○ Opposed to Enlightened reforms (allies of conservative old nobility) ○ Over 2,000 Jesuits had to leave Spain and Spanish dominions ● Vatican abolished the order in 1773 Carlos III (1759-88): Public Works, Innovations ● Revenues from Jesuits holdings are funneled towards educational reform ○ Teaching of modern languages replaces Latin ○ French becomes the language of the court ○ Libraries, laboratories, schools, museums ● Development in military and civil engineering ● Medicine (stagnant since Philip II) ○ Study of Botany as a source of knowledge in the field ○ Botanical Gardens (Paseo del Prado) Spanish Colonial Empire ● The Sp. Empire in Europe disappears, but in America experiences significant growth. ● Spanish Empire reaches its biggest extension during the 18th C. ● Colonization of California. Expeditions to Alaska to halt Russian expansion in North America. ● Fighting for the control of Florida and Louisiana ● Spain and France helped the American revolution 18 C.-Spanish Colonial Empire Problems ● War of the Ear of Jenkins (1739-48)- Fought against Great Britain to control the Americas ● Most significant action: Battle of Cartagena de Indias (Blas de Lezo)- Worst British Naval Defeat ● Tupac Amaru Rebellion-Perú (1780-1) Uprising of Native and Mestizo Peasants Against Spanish Rule Spanish Colonial Empire ● Spanish-American colonies created a strong market for goods ● Growth of domestic industries ● Royal factories (Castile) provide domestic substitutes for foreign luxury goods ● Cádiz replaces Seville as the seat of the Casa de Contratación, which controls shipments to America ● Cádiz flourishes as the major port for colonial trade with a well-to-do international community of merchants 18th C.: Centralized Culture ● During the 18th C. the government in Madrid tried to centralize Spanish culture: ○ Royal Spanish Academy (1713) ○ National Library (1712) ○ Prado Museum (Charles III wanted to create a single art collection under one roof). It would not be open until 1819 ○ Royal Academy of History (1735) ○ Spanish Academy of Fine Arts (1752) Modernization of Spain: a difficult task ● The modernization of Spain in the 18th C. had to confront powerful foes: ○ Conservative forces ■ Church ■ Old nobility ○ Nationalistic forces: defensive reaction against overwhelming French influence: ■ Members of the aristocracy allied with low classes ■ Modern ideas (Enlightenment) are presented as a threat for Spanish identity18th C. Architecture: Neoclassicism ● In architecture, neoclassicism was the dominant style in Europe during 1750s-1850s. Marked by the imitation of Greco-Roman forms. ● Neoclassical artists sought to replace the sensuality and exuberance of baroque architecture with a style that was logical and geometrical: ○ Royal Palace (1764) ○ Puerta Alcalá (1774) ○ Prado Museum (1785) ○ Cibeles and Neptune Fountains (1781-2) Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (by Goya) ● Symbol of Spanish Enlightenment. Major of Madrid under Charles III, and minister under Charles IV. ● He also spent several years in prison. ● Writer, reformist, educator. ● French invaders offered him a position as minister, but he rejected. ● Died in 1811, fleeing French troops Week 7 Monday: Charles IV and the Napoleonic Invasion The French Revolution (1789) ● Ended Old Regime in France ● Effects of the Revolution directly affected Spain: Bourbons were the ruling dynasty in France (Spanish-French alliance under “The Family Pact”) ● Louis XVI is executed in 1792 ● Terror until 1795 ● Napoleon Bonaparte leads a moderate-backed military coup and creates the Consulate (1799) Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) ● Defeats Austria and Britain (1801-2) ● Emperor (1804-1814) ○ By 1807 in control of most of Europe ● Continental blockade ○ La Grande Armée is defeated in the Russian front (1812) ○ The French army is defeated in Germany and Spain (1813) ● Abdication and Exile in Elba (1815) ● In power for 100 days after ousting Louis XVIII ● Final defeat in Waterloo (June 16, 1815). Exile in St. Helena The End of an Era: Charles IV (1788-1808) ● Under Charles III Spain improved in many different areas (Enlightened Despot) ● Charles IV radically changed the progressive orientation of his father. ● His reign was directly affected: ○ By his lack of political aptitude ○ By the intrigues and affairs of the Queen, Maria Luisa of Parma ○ By the developments of the French Revolution ● French Revolution: National Assembly rejects royal authority and aristocracy ● Floridablanca, the old minister of Charles III, regrets his old reformist attitude and reacts conservatively: ○ Discourages the activities of the Amigos del País ○ Stops publication of periodical journals ○ Removes Campomanes and Jovellanos from key positions ● Death of Louis XVI forces Spain to declare war on France (end of Family Pact), 1793 ● Manuel Godoy, lover of Queen María Luisa, Prime Minister (1792-1798, and 1801-8): ○ Last valido. Hated by people and aristocracy. ○ Spain allies with the French Republic (1796) and declares war to Britain ○ British blockade of Spanish trade routes ○ Stagnation of cotton industry in Catalonia ○ Cadiz merchants in dire straits ● Manuel Godoy, Primer Minister: ○ War against Britain continues after a brief peace (1802-04) ○ Defeat at Trafalgar (1805) ● Destruction of Spanish naval fleet. Spain will never recover ● American Colonies at risk due to lack of defenses ○ Yellow fever (1800) ○ Crop destruction (1803-04) ● Manuel Godoy took measures to modernize Spain, but he was hated by most Spaniards. ● Opposition to Manuel Godoy ○ Ferdinand, Prince of Asturias, plots against Godoy and smears his mother’s reputation in order to secure power ○ Conservative clergy initiate a campaign against Godoy ○ Negative effects on Charles IV’s image: presented as an incompetent cuckold ● In 1806 Godoy signs a treaty with France to partition Portugal: France, backed by Spain, invaded Portugal, 1807. But French troops do not leave Spain. ● Godoy under suspicion to have brought the French as a betrayal to the royal family. ● French troops in Madrid. ● Riots in Aranjuez, 17 March 1808. Godoy arrested. ● Abdication of Charles IV to his son. End of the Old Regime. War of Independence (1808-1814) ● Spanish Bourbons abdicate in favor of José Bonaparte (José I) ● Spanish royal family kept in France ● Spaniards (and American colonies) organized in local Juntas ● The Supreme Central Junta takes charge of the national government ● Organize the war effort ● Raise funds and armies ● Conservative spirit ● 2 May 1808: popular uprising in Madrid. French surprised by popular resistance ● After Spanish victory at Bailén in July, 1808, Napoleon launches an offensive 300,000 strong. ● Popular resistance at Zaragoza. Fierce fighting. ● Madrid falls to Napoleon, December 1808 ● Central Junta flees to Seville ○ Encourages the first guerilla-type warfare in modern times ○ Wants to convoke the Cortes (revival of a medieval form of representation that had been weakened by Habsburg absolutism)● Napoleon had control of most of Europe by 1811 ● He controlled Spain (although not effectively), with the exception of Cadiz. ● José I of Spain (brother of Napoleon) favored changes to modernize the country (according to Enlightened ideas) ○ Many Spanish liberal shared same ideas, but were against French occupation ○ Spanish “afrancesados” collaborated with the French ● Guerilla warfare and British-Portuguese support weakened French occupation in the Iberian Peninsula ● By 1813 French were out of Spain Consequences of the War of Independence ● Most important consequence: identification of Enlightened ideas with France (intensification of an attitude already present in 18th C Spain): ○ Since French government took measures to modernize the country, anti French feelings increased anti-modern attitudes: Nationalism and Traditionalism will work together against modernization ○ During all the 19th C. there will be a tendency to associate Liberals with Afrancesados (this will be used by the Conservatives to strengthen their positions) ● All this made very difficult to modernize the country ● National spirit associated not with Spain’s elites, but with the common and marginal people (continuation of a tendency that started in the 18th C.) ○ Parts of the elite supported French invasion (they saw it as an opportunity to modernize the country) ○ War against the invaders was done mostly by low-class people ● Lack of a strong ruling elite ○ Unrest, civil wars, local independence ○ Strengthened spirit of independence in American colonies. ○ Independence wars in Spanish America (1810-24) ended Spanish rule in most of the continent. ○ End of Spain as a major international and economic superpower ● Strengthened 18th C change of image (but now from a foreign point of view): ○ The Romantic image constructed by foreigners associate Spaniards with: ■ Passion ■ Primitivism ■ Freedom and anarchy lovers ■ Association with Gypsies and North Africans ○ Backwardness, unorganized, tribal (local organization) ○ Reinforced inability of Spain to modernize Pendular Politics (1808-1833): Liberals ● During French occupation, Spanish government in Cadiz (the Central Junta) called the meeting of “Cortes generales” (Parliament) with Spanish and Spanish American representation. ● This Cortes elaborated a liberal Constitution that would serve as a model for all liberal governments during the 19th C: the Constitution of 1812 ○ Sovereignty resides in the Nation (all Spaniards in both hemispheres) ○ Freedom of the press in political matters ○ Unicameral Cortes elected by broad male suffrage ○ Monarchy is hereditary and inviolable ● Ferdinand abolishes the Cortes and declares the Constitution null and void (4 May, 1814) ● Liberals go into exile or are made prisoners and sent to military prisons in North Africa ○ The progressive intelligentsia is practically erased from the political and geographical landscape ● Restoration of Old Regime Institutions and privileges ○ Inquisition ○ Jesuits are welcome back ● At the end of the War of Independence starts a power struggle between conservative and liberal forces that will mark 19th C Spanish history. Opposing forces: ○ Ferdinand VII, backed by the Spanish Church, conservative aristocracy, and a majority of the Spanish people ● “¡Vivan las cadenas!” (preferred the old system to French rule) ○ Sons of the Enlightenment, who are now identified as liberals or afrancesados ○ Modernization ○ Suppression of old privileges ● American colonies do not welcome Ferdinand back. After enjoying local government they do not want to go back to absolutism. ● Wars of Independence start. Most Spanish American countries became independent between 1816-1824: ○ Argentina, 9 July 1816 ○ Chile, 18 September 1818 ○ Peru, 1821 ○ México, 24 August, 1821 Francisco de Goya (1746-1828) ● Born in Fuendetodos (Aragon). One of the most important artists of all times. Considered to be "the Father of Modern Art” ● Witnessed and recorded all major events and figures in Spain from Charles III to Fernando VII. Crucial to the understanding of Spain at that time. ● In 1792 he was ill and went completely deaf. This changed him. The gaiety disappeared from his painting; the colors darkened ● Under Ferdinand VII, Goya left Spain and settled in Southern France where he died. Goya: Tapestry Cartoons ● Painted in the late 1780s and early 1790s. ● Revolutionized the tapestry industry, which, until that time, had reproduced the Flemish genre scenes of 17th-century. ● Rejected customary mythological scenes ● Views of everyday Spanish life: majos and majas, common people, aristocracy. ● He offered an optimistic view of 18th C. Spanish society. Used warm colors. Goya ● Goya set the pattern for the art of the 19th century, the century of romanticism and realism. ● After becoming deaf, Goya’s paintings changed ● His highly original technique, which reached its zenith in the "black paintings", was taken up by the Impressionists and Expressionist of the 19th and 20th C. ● Goya's choice of subject matter was not restricted by tradition. In fact the right of the painter to record his inner visions, even if they led him into nightmare, was claimed by Goya for the first time and its possibilities have not yet been exhausted. Goya and the Napoleonic War ● The horrors suffered by the Spanish people during the Napoleonic invasion filled Goya with a profound bitterness. ● Between the years 1810 and 1814 he produced his famous series of etchings —"The Disasters of War" and his two masterpieces—"The Second of May, 1808" and "The Third of May, 1808". ● These paintings represent a revolutionary advance in the whole conception of the purpose of painting. For the first time war was depicted as horrific and inglorious and for the first time there were no heroes, only killers and victims. ● Goya has been called the first war reporter. Goya: Black Paintings ● During the latter part of his life, before he moved to France, where he died, Goya covered the walls of his “Quinta del Sordo” (Deaf Man's House) with his famous "black paintings” ● The last and most weird products of his strange genius. ● Some of his visions seem to go deep into the darkest areas of the mind: macabre caricatures of the irrational bestiality of human behavior ● They are some of the most horrifying pictures ever painted. Wednesday: Portugal Overview ● Portugal has its origin as a county of the kingdom of León. Alfonso VI of León named Henry of Burgundy (the husband of his daughter Teresa) count of Portugal. ● 1139: Their son, Count Afonso Henriques founds the Burgundian dynasty (which lasts until 1383) and the kingdom of Portugal. He pushed the frontier south of the Tagus river. ● 1249-50: Conquest of the Algarve. Portugal ended its share of the Reconquest. ● Approximately one-fifth of the Iberian Peninsula. ● Current population: approx. eleven million. Who speaks Portuguese? ● Over 220 million people around the world claim Portuguese as their native language. ● Portuguese is the sixth most spoken language in the world today, well ahead of German, French, and Italian. ● Spoken in Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Guiné- Bissau, Mozambique (Moçambique), Cape Verde (Cabo Verde), and São Tomé e Príncipe in Africa. Also spoken in some Atlantic islands, notably the Azores (Açores) and Madeira, and is the language of some chief ports in the Orient, such as East Timor (Timor do Leste). Portuguese Colonial Empire ● Started by Henry the Navigator (first half of the 15th C). He tried to reach India going around Africa to control European market of spices, specially after the Ottoman’s Conquest of Constantinople (1453) ● In 1498, Vasco da Gama reached India. For 100 years, Portugal will monopolize sea route to Asia ● In 1500, Pedro Alvares Cabral discovered Brazil Iberian Union and Restoration War ● In 1578, King Sebastian was defeated and killed at the Battle of Alcacer Quibir ● 1580: Philip II of Spain became King of Portugal with the support of much of the Portugal’s elite ● 1640: revolt against Spain, Portugal became independent with France and England’s support ● Portugal wasn’t powerful enough to defend its large colonial Empire against enemies England, France and Holland. As a result, looked for the protection of England. Methuen Treaty (1703) ● In 17th C, Portuguese emigrated in large numbers to Brazil Portugal in the Eighteenth Century ● Discovery of gold in Brazil at the end of 17th C helped to create the impression of wealth in Portugal. ● John V: 1706-50. Period characterized by extravagant spending, including the famous Convent of Mafra. Created financial problems ● John V was succeeded by his son José I who left the day-to-day administration of government largely in the hands of Marquis of Pombal. Pombal was made chief minister in 1755, making his power nearly absolute. Marquis of Pombal. Portugal’s Enlightened Despotism ● Best known for his program to rebuild Lisbon after devastating earthquake and tsunami, November 1755: 30-40,000 deaths. ● 1761: Abolished slavery in Portugal and Port. colonies in India ● Tried to modernize the country. Reorganized the education system, published a new code of laws, reorganized the army, and kept the nobility in line. He had powerful enemies in Portugal’s high nobility. ● 1758-Assassination attempt on the life of Jose I. Pombal implicates the Jesuits and the nobility. The Jesuits were expelled in 1759 and their immense wealth was confiscated. ● Pombal’s career ended with the death of King José in 1777. He was brought to trial, declared guilty of abuse of power, and banished from the court. The Great Lisbon Earthquake of 1755 ● In 1755, an earthquake struck on the morning of 1 November. Contemporary reports state that the earthquake lasted between 3.5 and 6 minutes, causing fissures 15 feet wide to open in the city centre. ● The earthquake was followed by a tsunami of about 65 feet that destroyed the lower part of the city, and by a fire that lasted 5 days. In Lisbon alone, about 60.000 people died. The earthquake affected other regions of Portugal, Morocco, and even in New York there were reports of its impact. ● The city was rebuilt by Pombal, with neoclassical architecture and a modern design (wider streets). Portugal since 1800 ● 1807: French under Napoleon (with Spanish help) invade Portugal. The royal family flees to Brazil. Defense against the French effort was begun under the command of the English general Beresford, who was left in charge of Portugal. ● February 1809: A second French invasion begins under Marshal Soult, but he was driven back by English and Portuguese forces in May of that year. ● 1810: Anglo-Portuguese treaty ○ Allows British direct access to Brazilian trade. Brazilian independence and new Colonial Empire in Africa ● 1822: Brazilian independence ● Prince Pedro becomes the first emperor of Brazil. ● 1880: Portugal 3rd attempt to create an Empire, this time in Africa: Angola and Mozambique. ● Portuguese trading posts existed in Africa for centuries, but the creation of inland colonies is new. Existing creole communities helped. ● 1890: Portugal tried to connect Angola and Mozambique, but this project created a conflict with Great Britain. Interfered with Great Britain’s project to connect Egypt with South Africa. Ultimatum forced Portugal to retreat military forces from current Zimbabwe and Zambia. Generation of the 1870’s ● Group of writers committed to social and artistic reforms. Highly critical of society. ● Focus on urban life. ● Key writer: Eça de Queiroz - introduced naturalism and realism to Portuguese literature. ● His best known novel, O Crime do Padre Amaro (1875), was based on his experiences as a municipal official in the province of Leiria. The Republic 1910-1926 ● On October 3 1910 units from the Lisbon garrison supported by armed civilians and navy warships in the harbor revolted and joined the Republican cause. ● Manuel II abdicated and went to England in exile. ● The Republican constitution of 1911 provided for a four year presidency and a bicameral legislature consisting of a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies. ● Manuel José de Arriaga became the first elected president of the Portuguese Republic. ● 1911: Women win the right to vote. ● Republican government was unable to modernize the economy and increase standard of living Fernando Pessoa ● Considered Portugal’s greatest poet (along with Luís de Camões, author of Os Lusíadas). ● Modernist poet of 20’s and 30’s. ● Over 60 heteronyms (poetic authors who have own distinctive style and concerns). • Most famous heteronyms: ● Ricardo Reis - Classicist ● Alberto Caeiro – He presents a primal vision of reality ● Álvaro de Campos - Scandalous ● Bernardo Soares – author of the diary or novel O Livro do Desassossego (the Book of Restlessness) José Saramago (1922-2010) ● He didn’t achieve widespread recognition until the publication of Baltasar and Blimunda (Memorial do convento) in 1982 ● 1998: Winner of the Nobel prize of literature ● The Year of the Death of Ricardo Reis. (The story centers on the poet returning to Portugal after sixteen years in Brazil) Fado ● Music said to express the Portuguese soul. ● Word fado comes from the Latin word fatum meaning fate. ● Traditional themes: Saudade, love, portugalidade, and fado itself. ● Amalia Rodrigues is considered the greatest fadista of all-time. ● 1939: Amalia’s debut at Retiro da Severa, the first official fado house in Lisbon. Antonio Oliveira Salazar ● Was born on April 28th of 1889. He graduated in law in 1914 and eventually became a lecturer in economics at Coimbra. ● General Antonio Carmona led a military coup in Portugal 1926. He became prime minister with dictatorial powers. ● In 1928 he was elected president for life by plebiscite. Salazar worked as Carmona's minister of finance. ● In 1932 Carmona passed his power to Salazar. The New State Dictatorship (1933- 1968) ● In 1933 Salazar introduced a new constitution that contained similarities to the fascist system that existed in Germany and Italy. ● Salazar's state was established on the principles of traditional Roman Catholicism, with an emphasis on order, discipline, and authority. Class relations were supposed to be based on harmony rather than the Marxist concept of conflict. The family, the parish, and Christianity were said to be the foundations of the state. ● Reintroduces the power of the church. ● Divorce is illegal. ● Very repressive to Women. For example: Women are not allowed to hold passports. PIDE (Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado) ● Mechanism of control. ● Bans all strikes. ● Censors press. ● Police brutality. Torture. Specific repression of the Portuguese Communist Party. ● Unsupported allegations were sufficient to convict. Oliveira de Salazar: Paternalism, and Patriotism ● Paternalism: Nation as a large family. Promotes the idea of Portuguese as children (passive). ● All need to sacrifice for the nation. ● Measures in favor of private monopolies around a few wealthy families. Prohibited the creation of any new factories or industries without government approval. Salazar used the law to encourage certain large private enterprises that, in turn, gave him total support for his domestic and colonial policies. ● Portugal becomes the poorest country in Europe and the least industrialized. Numerous villages lacked electricity and one-third of adults remained illiterate. Contributes to the image of Portugal as “backward.”● Patriotism: Emphasis on national pride and celebration of Portugal’s glorious past and current power abroad (African colonies) ● Construction of monuments and murals. ● Grandiose projects: Bridge over the Tagus river (Lisbon) Transition to Democracy ● Salazar gave up power in 1968 due to a stroke and subsequent ill health. Antonio Salazar died in Lisbon on 27th July, 1970. ● Marcelo Caetano, a more moderate leader took over the power as prime minister, being overthrown on the 25th of April 1974. He later died in exile in Brazil. April 25th 1974 The Carnation Revolution ● On the morning of 25 April 1974, troops loyal to the Armed Forces Movement (MFA - Movimento das Forças Armadas) overthrew the 48 year old Portuguese dictatorship. ● Inspired by Spinola's ideas, a few hundred army officers organized a peaceful overthrow of the government. Led by Francisco da Costa Gomes, Otelo Saraiva do Carvalho, and others, the soldiers took control in late April. Soldiers were seen in the streets with red carnations in the muzzles of their tanks and rifles. ● Revolution takes less than 24 hours. ● Peaceful revolution with only four casualties. Caetano surrenders. Antonio Ribeiro de Spinola ● Military governor of Guinea. ● Very critical of colonial continuity. ● 1973: publishes Portugal e o Futuro, an influential study calling for immediate end of colonial rule The End of the Colonies ● 1961: India annexes Portuguese colonies of Goa, Damão, and Diu. ● 60s-70’s: Independence movements in Angola, Mozambique, and Guinea Bissau. ● 1974-75: Independence for all Portuguese colonies except Macau that became a Chinese territory under Portuguese administration, reverted to China on December 20th,1999. ● 1975: Portugal withdraws from East Timor, which is then occupied by Indonesia until 1999. Consolidation of Democracy ● Immediately after the coup, power was exercised by a military ‘National Junta’ presided over by Spinola, who was nominated president of the Republic on May 15th 1974. ● In 1976 first free elections in fifty years. ● General Ramalho Eanes became president. Mário Soares (Socialist) becomes Prime Minister. ● 1986: Soares becomes first civilian president since the 20s. Contemporary Portugal ● Madeira and the Azores are “autonomies” with their own governments and legislatures. ● Current president is Anibal Cavaco Silva (since March 9th 2006). ● 1986: Portugal joined European Union. ● January 2002: Euro replaces escudo as official currency. Portugal has since become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy. Over the past two decades, successive governments have privatized many state- controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. ● Since 1995, Portugal belongs to the Schengen Area. A group of European countries (Spain among them) that have eliminated border controls among them. ● In 1996, Portugal was a co-founder of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Sao Tomé and Principe, and East Timor) ● Portugal greatly benefited from joining the European Union, although recently it has experienced some major economic problems ● Dramatic changes: Modernization and urbanization. ● 1998: European Expo held in Lisbon. Week 8 Monday The Nineteenth Century: Liberalism and Traditionalism. Civil Wars. Loss of Imperial Status 19th Century Spain ● Very problematic century for Spain: ○ Civil wars: “guerras carlistas” ○ Loss of colonies: at the end of the 19th C. Spain is not a colonial power anymore ○ Endless confrontation of conservatives and liberals ○ Intervention of the army in political matters: continuous pronunciamientos (coups d’etat) ○ Failure to modernize the country: “Africa starts south of the Pyrenees” Ferdinand VII (1814-1833) ● 1814: Ferdinand restored to his throne. Abolished liberal constitution and restored absolutism. ● 1820: Spanish liberals successfully revolted and forced the king to reinstate 1812 constitution. ● The Holy Alliance (reactionary nations in Europe) intervened. Ferdinand, backed by French arms, revoked the constitution. Ruthless repression followed. ● Liberals in exile, 1823-33: most intellectuals and writers had to leave Spain to avoid repression. Starts long 19th and 20th C tradition Liberals: Building of a New Spanish Identity and History ● At the beginning of the 19th C, after French invasion, Liberals are accused of collaborating with Napoleon (treason) ● They react, creating a new Spanish identity and offering a new interpretation of Spanish History: according to them “true Spanish character” was destroyed in the 16th C by a foreign dynasty (Habsburgs). It truly must be associated with: ○ a. Democracy: Medieval fueros ○ b. Tolerance: Al-Andalus ○ c. Freedom: Comuneros Isabella II (1833-1868) ● 1830: Birth of Isabella. End of Salic Law. ● Isabella II: Authoritarian, childish, religious. Numerous love-affairs. ● Her alliance with the military and the chaos of her reign - ○ sixty different governments ○ helped bring about the Revolution of 1868 that exiled her to Paris. ● She abdicated in 1870 in favor of her son, Alfonso XII, who ruled beginning in 1874. Carlist Wars ● Carlist Wars: 1833-1839, and 1872-76 ○ Succession (Isabella or Carlos) ○ Ideology: Liberal vs. Conservatives ○ Rural Spain vs. Urban Spain ○ Fought mainly in the North (Basque country, Navarre, and Aragon) ● Association of Carlists with Religious fanaticism, and sell of Church properties (especially land) by the government to finance the war, starts association of Liberalism with Anti-Clericalism Consequences of First Carlist War (1833-1839) ● Radicalization of liberalism ○ Reinstatement of the Constitution of 1812 ○ Anticlericalism ● Progressives in power ● Juan Mendizábal, prime minister, in 1835 suppressed all the monasteries in Spain. All their land and properties were confiscated ○ Tried to make land more productive ○ Money from sell intended to finance the war ○ A revolutionary measure without substantial changes in the social structure (existing landowners would acquire more land) Political and Social Reforms ● The goal was to centralize and rationalize (administration, trade, communications). ● Tried to eliminate old regional privileges and isolation: ○ Removal of internal customs barriers ○ Decimal system ○ Standardized tax system ○ Historical regions replaced by 50 uniformly sized provinces ○ Compulsory elementary education (1857), but still high percentage of illiteracy by 1890s Moroccan War: 1859-1860 ● The 19th century is the age of European colonial expansion (in Asia and Africa) ● Colonial expansion was a consequence of the industrial revolution (need of raw materials, and creation of new markets). ● In 19th C. Spain, main problem was lack of industrialization (or modernization), but tried to create new colonies: ○ To replace the lost ones in America ○ To emulate colonial expansion of other European countries ● Immediate cause of the war was Spanish jealously of contemporary French ventures in Algeria. ● Perhaps even more fundamental: the Spanish belief that fighting the Moors was a sacred duty; and their desire to extend south of the strait. ● Grew out of a minor border incident at Ceuta. ● Resulted in Spanish victory (conquest of Tetouan) ● But Spain was not strong enough to create Empire in Africa. Lack of resources The First Republic (1873-75): Civil War, and Cantonalism ● First Spanish Republic was characterized by revolts and civil war. ● Most of Northern Spain fell to the Carlists (Second Carlist war, 1872-6, fought mainly in Navarre) ● Many cities in Southern Spain ○ partisans of a far-going federalism ○ broke with the central government and became "independent cantons“: Cartagena, Granada, Malaga, Seville… ● Most of them lasted only a few weeks, but Cartagena resisted until early 1874. ● Military intervention suppressed the cantons, and in 1875 restored Monarchy: Alfonso XII, son of Isabella II ● The First Republic reflected major patterns of 19th and 20th C. Spanish history: ○ Progressives associated with anti-clericalism (churches burnt in the south: a common practice until the 1936 civil war) ○ Struggle btw. centralism and federalism (or, taken to the extreme, between union and separatism) ○ Intervention of the army to solve political problems (given the fragmentation of the governing classes, the army was by far the strongest power in Spain) First Cuban War (1868-78): The Ten-Years War ● The Ten-Years War (1868-78) is considered the first Cuban liberation war. ○ At the beginning there was a demand for autonomy (not independence) ○ Cubans resented the fact that most of the power was in hand of peninsulares (people from Spain) ○ Economic ties with the United States ○ Savage guerrilla warfare with high human cost ● The rebels (some 40,000 by the early 1870s) included free and slave Afro-Cuban, and whites of all classes except the Peninsulares (Spanish- born people living in Cuba). ● They proclaimed a manifesto in support of gradual emancipation of slaves, with indemnification for their owners (looked for support of slaves and slave-owners). ● In 1878 agreed to the treaty of Zanjón with Spain. Spain guaranteed no persecution. ● Slavery abolished in 1884 Restoration (1875-1923) ● Alfonso XII (1875-1902) ● Turno pacífico: conservatives and liberals alternate in power ● Universal male suffrage (1892) ● Not a true parliamentary system ○ Caciquismo ○ Electoral corruption Week 8 Wednesday Spain in the Romantic Era ● Romanticism presents Spain as the Romantic country par excellence: ○ primitive and picturesque ○ passions, lack of control – fiestas and siestas: a different concept of life and the use of time ○ bullfighting ○ gypsies, guitars, flamenco dancing ○ bandits: violence, lack of “bourgeois” security ○ Spain becomes favorite destination of northern travelers: Andalusia is the “truest” Spain ● Lord Byron, 1809 ○ Don Juan (1819-21): a reinterpretation of Tirso’s drama ● Prosper Merimée went to Spain in 1830 ○ Carmen (1845), the novel ● Georges Bizet ○ Carmen (1875), the opera ○ Perpetuation of popular clichés of Andalusian life ● Richard Ford’s Handbook for Travellers in Spain (1845) ○ Widely read notes and sketches about Spain Spanish Romanticism: revival of Catalan and Galician literatures ● Rosalía de Castro (1837-1885) ○ Wrote in galego ○ Revival of Galician literature ● Lyrics considered “traditional” songs ● Aribau’s La Pàtria, Barcelona, 1833 ○ Marks the renaissance of Catalan language and literature UCL Realism in Spain: 1870-1900 ● Literary movement that followed (and reacted against) Romanticism: ○ Based on observation and analyses of contemporary society (mainly urban) ○ Represents everyday life ○ Middle class characters ○ Detailed descriptions ○ Action dominated by cause/effect (no chance) Spanish Realism: Authors ● Benito Pérez Galdós: most important Spanish novelist after Cervantes. Very prolific. Born in the Canary Islands, but lived in Madrid. ○ Fortunata y Jacinta ● Emilia Pardo Bazán: early Spanish feminist. Controversial writer. – ○ Los Pazos de Ulloa ● Clarín: writer and critic. ○ La Regenta Joaquín Sorolla: 1863-1923 ● Influenced by 17th-C. Spanish realism, especially Velazquez and Ribera. ○ he was interested particularly in Velázquez’s treatment of light. ● Master in the use of light and color. ● Combined Realism with Impressionism ● Combined contemporary approaches with traditional approaches. ● Created a very personal style: light and movement (outside painting, always with human figures). Mediterranean luminosity 1898-1923: International Context ● Mexican Revolution (1910) ● Russian Revolution (1917) ● Massive industrialization in Europe ○ Development of workers’ movement ● World War I ● Emergence of Fascism ○ Mussolini, 1922 Review: Restoration (1875-1923) ● Turno pacífico (Conservatives and Liberals alternate in power) ● Caciquismo (political clientelism) ● Fraude electoral (election-rigging) ● Liberals fight Church influence in education Change Frustrated (1898-1923): Spain ● Themes ○ Urban Sprawl and emigration ○ 1.5 M, 10% of total pop. moves to cities or America) ○ Uneven modernization ○ Anti-clericalism ○ Growth of regional nationalisms ○ Colonial Losses and Colonial Dreams ○ The Workers’ Movement Spanish Migration (1880-1920) ● Economic hardship in Spain force massive migration to America (mainly to Argentina and Cuba) ● More than one million Spaniards migrate to Argentina between 1880 and 1920 ● Some 800,000 Spaniards migrate to Cuba in the same period Themes: Anti-Clericalism ● Church still very powerful ○ Controls education (Jesuits) ○ Controls 1/3 of wealth ● Significant proliferation of religious orders ○ Female orders trebled ○ Male orders grew tenfold ● Reactionary; anti-reform ● Does not connect to the new urban proletariat: ○ Church burnings during the Tragic Week of 1909 Themes: Growth of Regional Nationalisms Lliga Regionalista ● (Catalan) Regionalist League ● Founded in 1901 by local business interests ○ Two centuries of extensive self-government up until 1714 ○ Home rule for Catalonia within a federal Spain ○ Use of Catalan language in daily life and in literature (Renaixença) ○ Should not have to carry the heavy tax burden to support the rest of a backward country ○ Strong business interest alienated the masses and weakened popular support Themes: Growth of Regional Nationalisms Partido Nacionalista Vasco ● Founded in 1895 by Sabino Arana ● Aims for self-government ● Reactionary political philosophy against change ○ Rural hinterland transformed into a large-scale heavy industry center in 20 years ● Conservative Catholicism ● Racial exclusivism: Euskadi as homeland ○ Rejection of immigrants to the region ● A flawed national mythology ○ Minimal literary tradition of euskera ○ Historically not an administrative unit but based on provincial localism Colonial Losses: Regenerationists ● Modernism/Generation of 1898 ○ A literary and philosophical strand of regenerationist thinking ○ Common preoccupations ■ How to help Spain out of its backwardness (atraso) ■ How to define Spanish identity ○ Members: Miguel de Unamuno, Ramón Valle-Inclán, Antonio Machado, Joan Maragall Colonial Dreams: North Africa ● Increasing economic and scientific interest in the area ○ Spanish Society of Africanists and Colonialists (1883) ○ Spanish Chamber of Commerce in Tangiers (1886) ○ Spanish Colonial Bank ○ Spanish Africanist League (1913) ○ Interest in mining Colonial Dreams: Spanish Protectorate (1912-1956) ● Viability of the Protectorate compromised by local resistance from 1909 until 1927 ○ 1909 Melilla War ● The Massacre of Barranco del Lobo ● Barcelona’s Tragic Week ○ 1921 Abd el Krim’s insurrection ○ 1925 Alhucemas: Consolidation of the Spanish Protectorate Themes: The Workers’ Movement ● PSOE (Partido Socialista Obrero Español) Spanish Socialist Party ○ Founded in 1879 ○ Cautious approach to social revolution ● Industrialization and political reform ● Socialism a matter of obrerismo, the working class ○ Strongholds in Madrid, Asturias and Basque Country ● UGT (Unión General de Trabajadores), General Workers’ Union ○ Sister trade union of the PSOE – It radicalized during the Second Republic ● Anarchism ○ Rejection of all forms of imposed authority ○ Revolutionary utopia ○ Propaganda by violence ● Acts of terrorism against institutions ● National Labor Confederation (CNT) ○ Founded in 1911 ○ Political representation of the anarchist movement ○ Mass support during the Civil War Catalan Modernism ● Spanish expression of Art Nouveau ● Architectural and decorative movement ○ Asymmetry ○ Curves ○ Organic forms ● Antonio Gaudí (1852-1926) Change Imposed (1923-1931) ● Primo de Rivera´s Dictatorship ○ A welcome pronunciamiento amidst a spate of general strikes and civil unrest ○ Spanish essence as Castilian, Catholic, Conservative ○ “The Iron Surgeon” ○ Wants to implement regenerationist reforms ● Framework: military dictatorship ● Crushes the radical wing of Catalan regionalism ● Successfully ends the war in North Africa ○ Victory at Alhucemas (1925) ● Reduced the level of industrial conflict ○ UGT cooperation ● Successful development projects ○ Roads, dams, irrigation schemes, electricity to rural areas ○ Economic improvement (1923-28) ● Too many grievances from too many groups ○ Alienates intellectuals after banishing Unamuno from the University ○ Dissatisfied Catalan business community ○ Outrages landowners at his proposed land reforms ● Recession caused by inflation (1928) ● Growth of opposition ○ 1931 Elections ○ Proclamation of Spanish Second Republic ○ Royal Family leaves Spain Avant-Garde and Generation of 1927 ● Artistic and Literary Movement ○ Pablo Picasso ■ Blue period ■ Cubist period ○ Salvador Dalí ■ Surrealism ○ Federico García Lorca, Gypsy Ballads ■ Luis Buñuel (Film Director) Federico García Lorca (1898-1936) ● Most famous Spanish poet and dramatist ○ Gypsy Ballads (1928) ○ House of Bernarda Alba (1936) ● The spirit and folklore of his native Andalusia combined with Surrealism ● Republican sympathies ○ Art should be for the masses ● Executed by Franco 18 August, 1936 Wednesday week 9 Spain: 1931-1975 Second Republic Civil War Franco’s Dictatorship Second Republic (1931-36) ● Jubilation ○ First truly representative democracy ○ Promises modernity and social justice ○ Recognition of regional autonomy ○ Lay education ● Trepidation ○ Menace to Spanish unity ○ Foreign influences ○ Atheism ● Reforms ○ Civil liberties ■ Women are given the right to vote ■ Divorce laws ○ Separation of Church and State ○ Agrarian reform ● Obstacles to reform ○ Worldwide recession and budget deficit ○ Political fragmentation of the left (center-left Republicans, Socialists, and Communists) ○ Absence of a culture of consensus Second Republic (Jan-Jul, 1936) ● In 1936, a government of the FAR LEFT led by Azaña wins the elections: ○ Popular Front (Frente Popular), a merging of many leftist parties ● Growing opposition of the FAR RIGHT ○ National Front (Carlists, Monarchists, Falangists) ○ Falange (José Antonio Primo de Rivera) ● Civil disorder ○ Peasant strikes and land occupation ○ Polarization of fears ■ Right: social revolution is imminent ■ Left: an army coup is imminent ○ Assassination of Calvo Sotelo, 13 July, 1936 • Alzamiento (Uprising), 18 July, 1936 Civil War: The Sides ● Republican Army: The Loyalist Army ○ España (Zona) Republicana (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, other eastern and northern cities) ● The Rebel Army: The “National” Army ○ España (Zona) Nacional (the south, rural areas, Galicia, Canary Islands) Civil War: Political Divisions ● Loyalists ○ Republicans and left-wing parties ○ Some sectors of the peninsular army ● Rebels ○ Monarchists, Carlists, Falangists, Civil Guard, Spanish colonial army in Morocco, Foreign Legion Civil War: Violence ● Loyalist Zone (20-50 K political killings) ○ Upper-class elites ○ Church leaders ● National Zone (50 K political killings) ○ Members of Leftist Parties The Issues of War ● Rebel Side ○ Territorial integrity vs. regional separatism – ○ Catholicism vs. godless Communism and Anarchism ○ “True” Spain vs. “Foreign” Spain of Marxists and freemasons ○ Insurgency was seen as a Crusade that would give back to Spain her glorious imperial past ● Republicans ○ Liberal democracy vs. conservative privileges ○ Redistribution of land ○ Catalan and Basque Nationalisms ● Problem: ○ Revolution over war: internal divisions ■ Fails to build a centralized popular army Civil War: Foreign Support ● Loyalists ○ Soviet Union – ○ International Brigades: Idealistic volunteers from Europe and the Americas. Lincoln Battalion ○ “Let’s make Madrid the tomb of fascism” ○ 35 K men ● Nationalists ○ Fascist Italy (50K troops) ○ Nazi Germany (Condor Legion) ○ Guernica, April 1937 Key Offensives: Madrid ● Battle of Madrid ○ Strong popular resistance defends Madrid until 1939 ○ The siege of the Alcázar, Toledo ■ An enduring symbol of the Cruzada ■ “The Alcázar will not surrender” ○ Barcelona falls in January, 1939 ○ Madrid falls in April 1939 ■ 600 K killed during the war ■ Hundreds of thousand flee to France, USSR, America (Argentina, Mexico, United States) Causes of Nationalist Victory ● Discipline and armament of the National Army ● Centralization of the command ● Foreign Aid ● National Movement ○ Spain would be totalitarian, unitary, anti-capitalist, anti-Marxist, and of course, Catholic Causes of Republican Defeat ● • Politically divided fighting units ○ – Popular militias, anarchists, republicans, Catalan and Basque nationalists ● Lack of coordination ● Lack of support of other democracies Francisco Franco Bahamonde (1892-1975) ● Born in Galicia ● Entered the Army at 18 years old ● Made his name in North Africa as a respected and feared leader in the Spanish Foreign Legion ● Participated in the violent repression of the October Revolution in Asturias, 1934 ● Values: discipline, unity of the Spanish nation, distrust of politicians ● Chosen as Commander in Chief of the rebel army (Burgos, 21 September, 1936) The Dictatorship (1940’s) ● No forgiveness for the defeated ○ The War continues until Spain rids herself of her enemies ■ Democracy ■ Atheism ■ Capitalism ● Large-scale repression ○ 40 K killed (executions until 1944) ○ Hundreds of thousands imprisoned ● Conservative and authoritarian regime ○ Dios, Patria, Rey ○ Anachronistic ○ Supported by the Church, the Army, Landowners, and Fascists ● Fascist symbols prominently displayed ● Law of Succession (1947) ○ A Catholic monarchy without a monarch ○ Franco as Regent will reserve the right to choose the next king ● Paradox: ○ During the Franco regime Spain becomes an industrial and modern nation Final Review ● Most important milestones in Spanish History ● A society dominated by fanatical groups○ We saw that with the Christians expelling the Jews, Muslims, then trying to do so with the progressive people ○ Self-destructive for society ● Now, Spanish society going in the opposite direction, including people, is a very positive change ● 1978 Spaniards, the different groups, right v left, decided to solve the problem with dialogue not with violence ○ Something totally new in Spanish history ○ Constitution of 1978 is a result of the good attitude of dialogue ● Most important is the fact that national identities take shape as a consequence of history ○ People are the way they are because of theri countries history and how they grow up not because they are born that way ○ So when a country makes teh right decisions you can see positive results ● Roman Invasion ○ Before the roman invasion we dont kno whow many tribes there were ○ We know that there were probably a lot, speaking different dialects of Celtic languages or Iberian language ○ Not united, probably fought ○ When the romans invaded they had to face many different enemies and that is why it was so difficult for them to conquer the whole peninsula ○ With the romans for hte first timethe whole iberian peninsula was united under one religion (after christianity was declared the official religion), language, law, culture ● Visigoths ○ Not important bc of what they did ○ We dont know what they did. If we tried to find the remains of the Visigoths in the peninsula, you only have a few churches ○ Important on a symbolic level ● Muslim invasion in 711 ○ Lots of kingdoms, fighting against the muslims ● 1492 ○ You dont have any muslims, religious fanatacism from catholic monarchs ○ Inquisition and Columbus’ expedition ○ Very negative for the country ○ Columbus opened the possibility of a huge colonial emprie ○ As a consequence, the national identity of hte spaniards was associated with pride being sober distant cold etc. ● For 150 years spain was a hegemonic country. In 1640 as a consequence of the fact that they expelled the jews muslims and were involved in manyd ifferent wars on many different fronts, they didn thave the flexibility to make allies, there was a huge crisis ○ Spanish and portuguese populations declined by 30% ● In 1700 ○ Change of dynasty to the Bourbons ○ Came from france ○ The new king spoke french and introduced all the french customs ● Napoleonic invasion, around 1808 ○ Conservatives tried to expell the progressive people○ If you want to be a spaniard you have to be conservative and be a good catholic ○ This was based on how they understood spanish ● Fight for two different ideas between the history and national identity of the country ○ Culmination of this huge confrontation is the spanish civil war of 1936-1939 ○ Huge tragedy where even today we can experience the consequences of it 711, 1212, 1492, 1640, 1700, 1808, 1898, 1936-39, 1975, 1986 BOLD MEANS VERY IMPORTANT FOR EXAMS People Places Events When we speak about traders, have a vague idea that some trade from the eastern part of the Mediterranean came also to the Iberian peninsula. ● The Phoenicians: first colonizers in the Iberian Peninsula (in the South) from an identified civilization ○ Spoke a semitic language ○ Founded Gadir (circa 1,100 BC the oldest city in Europe) and Malaka ● Greeks: reaches spain c. 600 b.c. ○ Founded colonies in the east part of the iberian peninsula: Emporion, Lucentum ○ Wanted to spread their trade into different countries so they build small enclaves on the coasts ● Carthage ○ Founded by phoenicians when phoenicia was destroyed, it became independent ○ Heirs of phoenicians hegemony in mediterranean ○ All part of the Punic WArs in 264 BC ○ Part of north africa and spread into the mediterranean islands, fighting with roman republican allies over this region ○ One of the most important confrontations because as a consequence the romans were able to build a very large empire. If the carthaginians had won, the history of europe would have been very different ● Second Punic War ○ Hannibal crosses the alps and invaded rome with an army built in iveria ○ Defeats roman army several times ○ Rome decided to fight the carthaginians in iveria ○ First time iberia has central role in mediterranean history ○ Expulsion of the carthaginians from hispania. Beginning of roman conquest and colonization in 201 Bc BECAUSE OF THE RESULT OF THIS WAR Summary: Traces of Pre-Roman times in spain and portugal ● Population: base of spanish and portuguese populations are already there before roman colonization ● Vocabulary: a few words remain in spanish ○ Pre-romans of unknown origin: barro, perro, charco, galapago ○ Iberians: barranco, carrasca, nava ○ Celts: paramo, alamo, losa, puerco, braga, calzon, toro, cerveza ○ Basques: izquierdo, pisarra, chaparro○ Basque is the only pre-roman language of the Peninsula still in use Lecture 2 Roman Hispania ● Second punic war: one of the most decisive wars in Western History ● Established Roman hegemony in the Mediterranean for centuries (about 600 years) ● It was fought partially in Iberian Peninsula and with soldiers recruited there ● First time that Hispania plays a central role in history because many battles were fought in the Iberian Peninsula (although both sides fighting for power are from outside) Punic Wars ● Confrontation to the death ● The Carthaginians were a large threat to the Roman and once they were defeated the Romans had a huge space now available to them ● Rome called up a new general who studied Hannibal’s tactics. He decided to invade Carthage and brought Hannibal to battle. Scipio confronted Hannibal, each side had about 34,000 men. Hannibal had elephants but Scipio had tactics to make the elephants useless. Scipio ended up winning, crippling Carthage and they had to give a lot of money ships and elephants to the Romans ● Hannibal ended up killing himself, but Rome still wanted Carthage to die. They finally did this in the second punic war and completely destroyed it ● If the Carthaginians had won, the history of Europe would have been completely different because Rome beat the Celtics and the Carthaginians and were able to spread their language and culture Roman Conquest of Iberia ● After Punic Wars, Romans started conquest of Hispania ● Long enterprise, lasted for two centuries. Very fiery wars (Polybius) ○ Why did this take so long? Because of all the different tribes ○ Rome when they defeated one tribe, they had to move on to another tribe. There was no central government to take over ○ There was also a very strong resistance to the Romans ● The two main episodes were called: Celtiberian Wars and Cantabrian Wars ● Celtiberian Wars: 155-133 b.c. ● Cantabrian Wars: 26-13 b.c. Celtiberian Wars ● Scipio Africanus expelled the Carthaginians from the Iberian Peninsula at 206 BC ● But the subjugation of the Iberian Peninsula would require another two hundred years of intermittent and often savage warfare, in which Rome, at least in cicero’s estimation, struggled, "As with deadly enemies, not to determine which should be supreme, but which should survive" (De Officiis, I.38). Roman Conquest: Viriato ● Viriato: First “Spanish” (and “Portuguese”) hero ● Even today, children in the school learning about the Roman Conquest talk about him as a hero ● Born in Lusitania, and elected chief by his people. ● Defeated Romans several times, using guerrilla tactics Myth and Fact of Viriato ● Viriato was killed (139 b.C.) by some of his men: traitors, paid by Romans. ● Was Viriato a Portuguese? Lusitania is not Portugal. ● Spanish and Portuguese symbol: “we only can be defeated by traitors from our own people.” Roman Conquest: Numantia ● Numantia: Celtiberian city in central Iberia. ● Numantine Wars: 143-133 b.C. ● Numantia defeated several Roman armies, until Scipio (the most prestigious Roman general) established a blockade with 60,000 men to starve the 6,000 defenders. ● Celtiberians burnt the town down and killed themselves, rather than surrender. ● Numantia: Spanish symbol: “better to die than to surrender.” ● “Numantino”: Spanish adjective, “resistencia numantina”. ● In modern Spain,many authors have written plays called “Numancia”, with symbolic meaning. ● Spanish Navy: ships called “Numancia.” ● They associate all this with their people confronting the Romans. They want to associate with the Celts or the Iberians because they were there before the Romans, the Romans were the invaders from outside ● All the symbols associated with the Spanish and Portuguese identities are taken from the Celts not from the Roman generals Hispania: Part of Roman Empire ● 38 b.C.: Iberian Peninsula officially declared part of Rome. ● Before Rome: many different tribes. ● With Rome, for the first time, Iberian Peninsula is united under a single rule, a single law, a single culture (roman culture), and a single language (latin). ● Hispania, part of a large Empire. (This was the new name for the Iberian Peninsula) ● Enjoyed benefits of “Pax Romana” ● Only people from the Iberian Peninsula have the identity of being from HISPANIA Romanization of Hispania ● Began about 200 b.C., and lasted for six centuries. Roman influence exceptionally important. Reached every single aspect of Iberian life: ○ A common language (Latin), cities, roads, bridges, aqueducts, theaters, amphitheaters… ○ Spanish riches: silver mines. ○ Agriculture: Hispania became the granary of Rome. ○ New diet: olive oil, wheat, wine ○ You have to consider that the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, as always when another region is colonized, the invaders want to exploit the natural resources. This is what they did with the silver in Spain ● Language ○ For the first time, a common language, Latin, is spoken in the entire Iberian Peninsula. ○ Slow process: inhabitants of Hispania continued speaking their own languages for centuries. Still today, Basque spoken. ○ Latin is the origin of all languages spoken today in Iberian Peninsula, with the exception of Basque. ■ The language aspect was a very long process. Basque was spoken in the middle ages and is still spoken today. At the beginning, it was only in the cities that Latin was spoken then it slowly spread but never truly meant EVERYONE spoke it. However, it was enough of an amount that it can be said that Latin was used everywhere, just not exclusively ● Religion ○ Christianity: for the first time, a monotheistic religion is practiced in the entire Iberian Peninsula. ○ Christianity arrived in Hispania in 1st C. ○ Santiago (Saint James): popular legend says he was in Spain around 40 a.C. Killed in Palestine, remains were carried back to Spain. ○ Christianity spread slowly. Only in 325 a.C., under Constantine, Iberian Pen, like rest of Empire, became predominantly Christian ○ In 7th C., still pagans. Basques, last to convert. ● Roads ○ Thousands of miles of roads linked all the different parts of Hispania. ○ Best road system in Spain until recently ○ For the first time, someone could travel north to south or east to west more easily and comfortably ○ Even today you can see some of the remains of the roman roads ○ Since they wanted to extract the riches of the people they needed to have a very good system of roads ● Cities ○ Key of Romanization: Schools, State Institutions. ■ Students had to learn Latin ○ Well-planned cities, along straight lines: with aqueducts (to bring water), sewer system, temples, theaters, amphitheaters, walls… ○ Most important Roman cities in Hispania: ■ Italica: First Roman city in Hispania. Founded by Scipio in 206 b.C. with veterans of Punic Wars. ■ Emerita Augusta (Merida): capital of Lusitania. One of the most important Roman cities at its time. ■ Tarraco: capital of Tarraconensis ■ Cordoba: capital of Betica ● Hispania: most important cities ○ Merida: Theater ○ Italica: Amphitheater ○ Temples: Merida, Talavera ● Practical Architecture: Bridges, Aqueducts ○ Roman Architecture had often a practical purpose. Some of the most impressive monuments still surviving are: ■ Roads. ■ Bridges. ■ Aqueducts ■ City walls ○ Segovia: The aqueduct ○ Bridge: Cordoba ○ Bridge: Alcantara (Cáceres) ○ Bridge: Alcantara (Cáceres) ● Romanization. Ornamentation: mosaics in houses ○ The houses were decorated with mosaics (houses of the wealthy people normally) ● Romanization: single currency ○ Romans united whole Iberian peninsula and the roman empire with a single currency because it encouraged unity and trade● Romanization: Realism in art ● Romanization ○ First area urbanized was Betica, in the South (Andalucia). ○ At the end of 1st C. b.C., Betica was considered the “most Roman” area outside Italy. ○ The “hispani” were the first people outside Italy to enjoy Roman citizenship. ○ Trajan: first non-Italian Roman Emperor was from Hispania ○ At the beginning Romans and Iberians didn’t mix, but eventually the distinctions vanished, and “hispani” became one people: Hispano-Romans ● Latin writers and philosophers from Hispania ○ After three centuries, Romanization was so effective, that some of the best Roman writers and philosophers of the 1st C. a.C. were from Hispania: ○ Seneca: Philosopher and dramatist. Forced to commit suicide by Nero. ○ Lucan: historian. Forced to commit suicide by Nero when he was 25. ○ Martial: writer of epigrams. Very critical of Roman life. ● Creation of Identity: Fact or Myth? ○ Creation of Spanish identity: Some people have associated Seneca’s Stoicism (his philosophy) with a “Spanish” attitude towards life. ○ But can Seneca be considered a Spaniard? ● Emperors ○ The most important Roman Emperors in 2nd C. a.C. were born in Hispania, or from “Spanish” families: Trajan, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius. ● Heritage of Rome in Iberian Peninsula ○ Rome: Probably the most important, and most lasting influence in the history of Spain and Portugal. ○ Even today both countries remain essentially Latin in language, religion, and law. ○ In many other aspects (such as architecture and diet), what is considered to be typically Spanish is often Roman in its origins. ○ But Hispania is not Spain Week 2, Monday Roman Frontier: the Germanic people ● After 1st Century A.D., most campaigns fought in Europe by the Romans had been to protect “civilization” within the Empire from “barbarians” outside. (Picture: a captive barbarian, from Trajan’s Column) ● Limes in central Germany, and Hadrian’s Wall in Scotland had same purpose. Germanic tribes ● Germanic tribes lived between Rhine-Danube frontier, Scandinavia, and the Baltic Sea. ● Rome never conquered them: abandoned conquest after defeat in 1st C. AD. ● Tacitus (Roman historian) saw in them a noble simplicity and vigor that, according to him, had been lost in Rome. End of Roman Empire ● Between 1st and 3rd C.: Germanic people resisted Roman domination. ● Beginning of 2nd C AD.: Roman Empire reaches biggest extension under Trajan. ● 3rd C. AD: crisis, struggle for power in Rome. German tribes start helping Rome against invaders. ● 4th C. AD: Emperor Constantine moves capital to Byzantium (Constantinople). 330 AD: Division: Western and Eastern (Byzantine) Empire. ● 4th C.: Visigoths called by Byzantine Emperor to defend frontier against the Huns (hordes from central Asia). ● 451: Battle of Catalonian Fields: Visigoths, Franks and Romans defeated Attila. End of Roman Empire: Visigoths ● Goths: originally from South Scandinavia. In 2nd C. AD. moved to Baltic area, and divided in two groups: Ostrogoths, and Visigoths. ● Visigoths (West Goths): Forced to move West by the Huns (Romans and Germanics alike were afraid of these hordes from Central Asia). ● Moved to Italy (403) and in 410, under Alaric, captured and sacked Rome. ● First time in eight hundred years that a hostile army entered Rome. End of Roman Empire: other German tribes ● Vandals: crossed Gaul (France), settled in Spain. Expelled by Visigoths, settled in N. Africa. Destroyed by Byzantines: 533 AD. ● Ostrogoths: settled in Italy. ● Franks: settled in Gaul (France). ● Anglo-Saxons: settled in England. ● After German invasions (“Barbarians from the North”), West Roman Empire officially disappeared in 476. ● East Roman Empire (Byzantium), lasted until 1453, when Turks conquered Constantinople Germanic invasions of Hispania ● In 409 Germanic tribes invaded Hispania, and ended 6 centuries of Roman rule. Pax Romana was over. Began period of violence, pillage, chaos, and instability. ● Vandals: settled for a short time in Hispania (Andalucia), but were expelled by Visigoths. ● Suebi: settled in Northwestern Hispania. ● Visigoths: created a lasting Germanic kingdom in Hispania.Visigothic Kingdom: History ● After sacking Rome, Visigoths moved to S. Gaul (France) and N. Hispania, making Toulouse their capital. ● Height of Visigoth power under Euric (466-84), who completed conquest of most Hispania. Unlike Roman conquest, they encountered little resistance. Why? ● 507: Visigoths defeated by Franks. Loose most of their possessions N. of Pyrenees. ● Toledo became new Visigoth capital. ● Most of the approximately 200,000 Visigoths who invaded Hispania settled in Central regions. Visigothic kingdom of Hispania ● 550: Byzantine armies invaded Hispania. For 75 years hold most of South and East Iberian Peninsula (with population help). ● Visigoths conquered Suevi territories in 585, and drove out Byzantines (624), unifying Hispania’s territory (with exception of Basque region). ● Hispania’s first attempt to become a unified and independent state: this is the most important legacy of the Visigoths Visigothic Kingdom: Romanization ● Most Romanized of Germanic tribes. ● Intimidated by Rome’s legacy: thought that Latin culture was superior to their own. ● Euric’s law was written in Latin, and drafted by Roman lawyers. ● Visigoths tried to be “the new Romans”: used Roman coins and lived in Roman cities. ● Even their gravestones were inscribed in Latin. ● They preserved Roman legacy: language, church, law. Were absorbed by culture of Hispano-Romans. Visigothic kingdom: problems ● Visigothic monarchy was elective, not hereditary. Constant fights for power. Of 34 Visigoth kings, only 15 died of natural causes. ● Common people didn’t benefit from continuous chaos: Byzantines encountered local support when they created colonies in South-Eastern Hispania. ● Visigoths were Christians, but believed in Arrianism (which denied the Trinity), while most Hispano-Romans were Catholics. ● Northern frontier (Basques and Franks) Kingdom of Toledo: Main rulers: Leovigild ● Leovigild: conquered the Suevi (585). ● Allowed marriage between Goths and HispanoRomans. ● Persecuted Catholics. Killed his own son (Saint Hermenegild) for having converted to Catholicism. ● Established truly regal court at Toledo. ● Tried to make monarchy hereditary Main rulers: Reccared ● Reccared: son of Leovigild. Converted to Catholicism (589), and with him most of Visigoths. ● United kingdom under one religion: Toledo was political and religious capital of Hispania. ● Leovigild and Reccared accelerated integration of Visigoths and Hispano-Romans Religious problems: Jews ● Large community of Jews had been living in Hispania since Hadrian’s destruction of Jewish state (135 AD). ● After Reccared, Roman Catholic Visigoths turned against Jews, the only important religious minority. ● Persecutions: At the beginning of 7th C, edicts were passed compelling the Jews to baptize. Most of them converted rather than suffering torture or death. ● This explains why Jews welcomed the invasion of Muslims in the year 711. Visigothic culture: Saint Isidore ● Born in Cartagena: 570-636. The leading intellectual figure of his time in Europe. ● Best known works: Etymologies, and History of the Goths ● Became an international figure. Widely read in Europe until the Renaissance. ● Most European monasteries had copies of his Etymologies. Etymologies (also called Origins) ● Kind of general encyclopedia, where Isidore summarized all the knowledge he had of Latin authors. ● Most had been extracted from Greek and Roman authors ● Topics treated: history, cosmology, theology, zoology, law, medicine, psychology, architecture, etc. ● Doesn’t follow scientific method, but it is a comprehensive view of the world as it was seen in the seventh century. History of the Goths: De laude Hispaniae ● In the beginning of the work there is a De laude Hispaniae (In praise of Hispania) that will be a future reference for Spaniards: ● “Of all the lands that extent from the west to India, thou art the fairest, oh sacred Hispania, ever fecund mother of princes and peoples . . . The driving race of the Goths came later and carried thee off to love thee, after many victorious wars fought over the vastness of the earth. That race delights in thee today, secure in the happiness of its domain, with regal dignity and greatness of wealth.”Visigothic architecture ● Not many constructions remain from that period. ● Apparently Visigoths were not great architects. ● But Arabs used material from Visigothic buildings for their own purposes: columns, capitals, etc (as can be seen in Merida’s fortress and Cordoba’s Mosque). ● Most important remains: church of San Juan de Baños, not far from Burgos; and San Pedro de la Nave, also in Northern Castile. Both constructed in second half of 7th Century. ● Both built in classic and simple pre-Romanesque style. There is nothing impressive in their construction. ● Few windows. Dark inside. Primitive technique. Horseshoe arch ● Widely used by Visigoths (although it will be later associated with the Arabs). ● Visigoths used it in doors and windows. ● Of unknown origin. Already used by the Romans, but with decorative purposes. ● Arabs didn’t take it from the Visigoths, but introduced it (from Syria) when they invaded the Iberian Peninsula. ● Arab horseshoe arch is more pronounced than the one used by Visigoths. Visigothic art: sculpture ● The ornamental use of vegetal motives and geometrical designs (combined sometimes with human figures) facilitated transition to Muslim art. Visigothic Jewelry: Treasure of Guarrazar (Toledo) ● Influenced by Romans and Byzantines. ● The most important piece of jewelry from the Visigothic period is the “Crown of Reccesvinth” (second half of 7th Century) Visigothic Legacy ● Ruled Hispania for 3 centuries, but sparse remains: a few churches, few pieces of jewelry… even in the language only a few words remain in Spanish from the Visigoths: guerra, robar, yelmo, harpa. ● However, the Visigoths were extremely important in the building of a national conscience in Spain. ● Later Christians in Iberian Peninsula will identify themselves with the Visigoths. Visigoth Legacy: The Idea of a Spanish Nation ● With the Visigoths, the Iberian Peninsula was for the first time a unified and independent kingdom, although for a brief period of time: 624-711, and with a lot of unrest and violence. ● The capital of the Visigothic kingdom was in central Hispania: Toledo. ● For the first time, there is a myth regarding the perception of Hispania as a whole, not associated with the resistance against a powerful Empire. ● The importance of the Visigoths does not lay as much in what they did, but in what they represented for later Christians fighting against the Muslims. ● When the Moors invaded the Iberian Peninsula, Christians spoke of “la pérdida de España” (the loss of Spain), and tried to “Re-conquer” it. ● It is the first time we find such an attitude in Iberian Peninsular towards invaders. Why? ● Myth of “the loss of Spain”: does not start right after the invasion, but during the following centuries, when Mozarab clerics migrate to the North, and help the small Christian kingdoms (especially León) organize according to social and political structures supposedly inherited from the Visigoths. Week 2, Wednesday Most important aspects and influences of the VISIgothic era ● Before the roman invasion, ,we know that there were many different types ● The current population in the iberian peninsula is descendants of these people and not the Romans (the roman influence was in language and culture rather than in dna) ● They spoke a Germanic language but wrote in Latin ● Controlled for 300 years but in certain areas of iberian peninsula was controlled by other germanic nations ● To create a homogenous society, around 600, they converted to Catholicism ○ United by a common culture and language (Latin) and a specific religion with one exception of the Jews who were obviously not Catholic ○ Jews were forced to convert so that there wouldn’t be any problems over religion ● When the muslims invaded in 711 the iberian peninsula had been romanized for 900 years Visigoth Legacy: The idea of a spanish nation ● WIth the visigoths, the iberian peninsula was for the first time a unified and independent kingdom, although for a brief period (624-711) there was a lot of unrest and violence ● Capital was in central Hispania: Toledo ● The importance of the Visigoths does not lay as much in what they did but in what they represented for alter Christians fighting against the Muslims ● When Muslims invaded the Iberian Peninsula, Christians fought back End of Visigothic kingdom: Muslim invasion (711) ● In 711: Muslim Invasion changes course of Iberian Pen. history. ● During one of the civil wars caused by endemic power struggles among Visigoths, one of the factions called the Moors for help. ● An army of 10,000 Moors (mostly Berbers) crossed the Gibraltar Strait under Tariq (Gibraltar is named after him). ● King Roderick was fighting the Basques, rushed from the north, and the two forces met near Guadalete River. ● In the encounter, some Visigothic nobles (including the bishop of Seville) fought with the Moors. Roderick’s army was annihilated after a large number of his troops changed sides during the battle Muslim invasion ● In a few years, Muslims controlled most of the Peninsula, except some small Christian enclaves in the North: Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria, and the Basque country. Probably they didn’t bother to occupy a region considered to be harsh and unproductive. 7 ● 12: Fall of Toledo. ● 714: Fall of Saragossa. ● Stopped by Franks at the battle of Poitiers (732) Muslim Conquest: Causes ● Division among Visigoths: some of them fought on the side of the Muslims. ● Visigoths didn’t have the support of most of the population (endemic civil wars among them, didn’t offer peace and protection, like Romans did). ● Persecution of the Jews by the Visigoths for more than a century. Muslims were tolerant with other religions. ● Muslim Jihad. Muslim Conquest: Consequences ● History of medieval Iberian Peninsula takes a different turn than rest of Western Europe. ● For centuries (until end of Reconquest) the main factor in the History of the Iberian Peninsula will be the struggle between Muslims and Christians ● The fight had a cultural dimension: confrontation between the Arab world (N Africa-Middle Eastern), and the Latin world (Europe). ● The confrontation had different chapters, but can be summarized as: advance of Christians from North to South, until Muslims are expelled to Africa. Muslims ● Beginning as a small band of followers of Muhammad, within one hundred years controlled all the territory from the Indus to the Atlantic along North Africa through Iberian P. ● Muslim different from Arab: Muslims in Iberia P., ethnically mixed (Arabs (elite bc they were the old Muslims), Berbers, and Hispano-Romans and Visigoths converted to Islam) ● Some possible reasons of Muslims’ success: ○ Jihad: belief that to die for the faith meant paradise. ○ Muslims were tolerant with other religions Beginning of Reconquest: History and Myth ● Covadonga (722): According to Christians, first battle of the Reconquest, won by a group of Christians against a larger army of Muslims. Thousands of Muslims were killed. ● According to Muslims: small skirmish against “thirty wild donkeys” ● Hard to say how important the battle was, but it proved to be decisive for the future presence of Christians in the Iberian Peninsula. Helped to create small Christian enclave in the North. Beginning of Reconquest: History and Myth ● Pelayo: Visigothic noble. Like many others, (probably thousands), escaped to the North (inaccessible region, with many mountains). There, he joined local defenders and organized resistance. ● He defeated Muslims in Covadonga (probably they weren’t very interested in occupying the region). ● Connected Resistance against Muslims (later called “Reconquest”) with Visigothic kingdom. ● Paradox: the core of this new “Visigothic kingdom” is an area that offered tough resistance to Visigoths (and also to Romans) ● Kingdom of Leon became the most important kingdom in 300 years History and Myth: The “Loss of Spain” ● For the first time, invaders of Iberian Peninsula face strong resistance and are finally expelled. ● How to explain? Probably because of the intrinsic nature of Christianity and Islam? ● Myth of “La pérdida de España” (the loss of Spain): implies that Muslims are not Spaniards. Very important for future Spanish identity. ● Asturias slowly expanded to the south. Its population greatly increased with successive migrations of Mozarabs (Christians living under Muslim rule). Al-Andalus: the Beginnings ● Political center of Iberian P. shifts to Córdoba. ● Until 756, Al Andalus was a distant province (depending of Bagdag Caliph). ● 756: Abderrahman I, an Umayyad, went to Al Andalus after his entire family was massacred by the Abbasids, and declared himself amir. ● Umayyad dynastic rule (756-1031) ○ As amirs (756-929) ○ As caliphs (929-1031) Al-Andalus—(8th-11th C): Population ● Population in Muslim Al Andalus: Composed by Arab rulers, Berbers, Jews, Christians converted to Islam (called muwallads) and Christians (called mozarabs). ● Many Christians converted to Islam and adopted Arabic as the everyday language. ● Christians and Jews were not forced to convert to Islam, but they had to pay a special tax, and did not enjoy complete equality before the law. ● There was a considerable amount of intermarriage. Al-Andalus—(8th-11th C) ● Irrigation techniques introduced (waterwheel, underground canals). Built immense aqueducts ● New crops (rice, citrus, sugarcane) ● Mathematical and scientific knowledge: Muslims were then more advanced than European Christians. ● Trade with other Islamic nations. Al-Andalus—(8th-11th C): Architecture ● Religious and Civil Architecture. Most important monuments: ○ – The great mosque of Córdoba ○ – Madinat al-Zahra palace ● Emirate and Caliphate styles: Muslim architect. styles in Al Andalus from 8th C to 11th C ● In the year 936, Abderraman III started building Madinat al-Zahra, the most splendid city-palace in the world in its day, covering an area of 112 hectares. Destroyed in 11C. Muslim architecture: characteristics ● Horseshoe Arch ● Multilobular Arch ● Use of fired brick in making pillars, arches, walls ● Ribbed domes. ● Use of ornamental ceramic tile ● Use of ornamental stucco and plaster ● Characteristic ornamental features: ○ Use of intricate geometric and vegetal forms. ○ Use of ornamental stylized calligraphy Cordoba’s Mosque: 785-990 ● Most important Muslim monument in Al Andalus from first period (Caliphate style) ● Was built on the site of a Visigothic Church, which served as a source of building materials for the construction of the Mosque. Columns were brought from different sites. Even Roman columns from Merida. ● Originally 1,200 pillars (800 remain today). pillars and rows of double arches, inspired by Roman aqueducts. ● Original mosque was built by Abderraman I Cordoba’s Mosque: 785-990 ● Most important Muslim monument in Al Andalus from first period (Caliphate style) ● Was built on the site of a Visigothic Church, which served as a source of building materials for the construction of the Mosque. Columns were brought from different sites. Even Roman columns from Merida. ● Originally 1,200 pillars (800 remain today). pillars and rows of double arches, inspired by Roman aqueducts. ● Original mosque was built by Abderraman I ● To give an impression of greater height and brighter and more spacious interior, the arches opened out onto the Moorish Court of Ablutions. ● Abderraman II (821-852) added eight aisles to the South. Because of increasing population Alhaken II (961-976) added a farther twelve to the South. Almanzor (987-990) carried out the third, and final, extension of the Mosque with eight new vertical aisles to the East, balancing length and width. ● Mihrab (10th C): Decorated with polychrome gold and glass mosaics. May be gift of the Byzantine emperor. Al-Andalus most powerful ruler: Abderraman III (912-961) • ● In 929 Abderraman III proclaimed himself Caliph of AlAndalus and the Moghreb. ● The title comes from the Arabic khalifa, meaning “representative of the Prophet”: implied absolute authority in religious and civil matters. Complete break with Damascus. ● His reign was plagued with constant warfare. Yet Al Andalus is considered to reach its zenith. ● Abderraman III was Europe’s most powerful and respected ruler. ● Cordoba became most important city in Europe. Al-Andalus best-known warrior: Al-Mansur ● Al-Mansur, (976–1002): Moorish regent of Córdoba. Great warrior, he reorganized the army and undertook many campaigns against the Christian states of the North. ● Sacked Barcelona (985), razed the city of León (988), and destroyed the church and shrine of St. James at Santiago de Compostela (998). ● After his death: internal division and endless struggles in Cordoba’s Caliphate. ● 1031: End of Caliphate. Christian Kingdoms (8th-10th C): Asturias and León ● Asturian Kingdom: ○ Claims a link to the Visigothic monarchy (in court writings, in ecclesiastical architecture, legal codes) ○ Pelayo ruled until his death (739) ○ His daughter married Alfonso I, founder of the Kingdom of Asturias. ○ Political center in Cangas de Onis and Oviedo (790), shifts south to León (950): Kingdom of León. ○ Acquired the territory of Galicia, and the frontier counties of Castile and Portugal Christian Kingdoms (8th-9th c.): Navarre ● Navarre (Basque Pyrenees): region occupied from early times by Basque peoples. Had to fight Frankish lords in the north and Muslims in the south. ● Muslims seized Pamplona and drove the native inhabitants into the mountains. ● In 824 they succeeded in driving out the Franks, and turned upon the Muslims. Íñigo Arista: first Count of Navarre. Christian Kingdoms (8th-11th C.): Aragon, Castile, and Catalonia ● The Kingdoms of Aragon and Castile were brought into existence by Sancho the Great of Navarre (1000-1035), who transformed the former Counties into Kingdoms. He was count of Aragon and Castile, as well as king of Navarre. ● The Spanish March (Catalonia): Under Frankish influence. The provinces of the Spanish March formed part of the Carolingian Empire until 10th Century. ● In 11th C.: Principality of Catalonia is born Week 3 Monday April 17th Reconquest 9th century ● Christians created the myth of reconquest to kick the muslims out again ● Two monotheistic religions face to face ○ Monotheistic religions do not accept other religions ● Muslims were pushed south 10th century ● Muslims were more united and more powerful than the christians● Christians were not unified Christian Kingdoms (8th-10th c.) ● Reasons for territorial “reconquest” ○ Demographic pressure: after Muslim invasion, thousand of Christians moved North. 8th Century Reconquest tries to find land for all this people. Later: migrations of Mozarabs. ○ Ideological imperative: Christianity ○ Divisions among Muslims ○ Economic necessity for more agricultural and pastoral lands Christian Kingdoms (9th-11th c.) ● Permeable frontiers ● Christian knights served Muslim lords ● Jewish merchants moved north to trade goods ● Mozarabic (Arabized Christians) influence in art, science, and architecture Christian architecture: 9th-10th C: Pre-Romanesque Styles: Asturian ● Architectural style developed in the small Christian kingdom of Asturias. ● Features: square apses, rounded arches, small windows. ● Most important manifestations: Santa Maria de Naranco (mid-9th cent.), and San Miguel de Lillo (mid-9th C.). ● The art and architecture of the Mozarabs (9th- 11th cent.), combining Asturian and Moorish features, produced some of the most original and interesting European buildings of the time. Christian Architecture-9th-10th C.- Mozarabic style ● Mozarabs, Christians who lived in Al Andalus after the Arab invasion of 711 ● Mozarabic was the Romance language spoken by Christians under Muslim rule in Al-Andalus. ● Usually, Christians were treated tolerantly and became culturally Arabized. ● Even after persecution by fanatic Muslim newcomers in the 12th century, the Mozarabs were often in conflict with Westernized "liberators" from the north. ● Muslim architecture was considered better than Christian style so they had adopted Muslim techniques Mozarabic Style ● Mozarabic art, influenced by Muslims, became a synthesis of the two traditions: Subject matter is Christian, but style shows assimilation of Islamic decorative motifs and forms. ● Architecture: horseshoe arches and ribbed domes. Use of ornamental stucco and plaster. In decoration, use of intricate geometric and vegetal forms ● Through the emigration of Mozarabs, Islamic influence in the arts spread northward into the Christian kingdoms. Mozarabic literature: the “jarchas” ● First lyric manifestation of any Romance language in Medieval Europe. ● 11th and 12th centuries. ● Short poems, usually at the end of a long poem written in Arabic or Hebrew. ● Written in Mozarabic, but with Arab or Hebrew characters. For that reason some were difficult to transcribe. ● Usually, love poems lamenting absence of lover. Reconquest: 11th-13th Centuries Turning the Tide: Beginning of Christian Hegemony End of Caliphate (1031) ● A century of conflict and infighting ● Internal divisions. Dominance of an Arab elite. Non-Arab Muslims, Christians, and Jews were at a disadvantage ● Inability to effectively exercise spiritual authority over western Islam (criticized by the orthodox caliphs in Damascus and Baghdad) ● External intervention from Berbers and Christians Taifa Kingdoms: Early 11th C – Mid 13th C. ● After Al-Mansur’s death, rulers known as the "party kings" (Arabic Muluk al Tawa'if ) formed 15 minor independent kingdoms, out of the Islamic territories of the Iberian Peninsula which had formerly been unified under the Cordoba court. ● Most powerful were: Seville and Granada, followed by Córdoba, Almería, Zaragoza, Badajoz, and Toledo. ● Seville replaces Cordoba as most important city in Al-Andalus ● Taifa kingdoms often asked for Christian support against rival Muslim kings, or ● Turned to North African kingdoms for aid against Christian princes. ● Lack of unity made “taifas” easy targets for Christians: Badajoz, Toledo, Zaragoza, and even Seville had to pay tribute to Alfonso VI of Castile and Leon. Taifa Kingdoms and Almoravids: 11th-12th cent ● In 1085 Alfonso VI of Castile took Toledo. First major Christian victory of the Reconquest. ● At the invitation of several taifa kings, the Almoravids entered the Iberian Peninsula and defeated Alfonso in 1086. ● The Almoravids dissolved the party kingdoms (1090-91) and extended the Almoravid empire into Spain. Almoravids: 11th-12th cent. ● Fanatics from Muslim North Africa (Mauritania). ● Created an Empire that extended through Africa and the Iberian Peninsula. ● Marrakesh was the capital of their empire. ● Almoravid Al-Andalus was very different from the tolerant society of the Caliphate and Taifas: intolerants with other religions: persecuted Christians and Jews, who had to migrate North. ● Never entirely stable, were overthrown by the Almohads in 1174. Almohads: 12th-13th cent. ● Berber Muslim dynasty that ruled Morocco and Al Andalus in the 12th and 13th cent. ● Originally a puritanical sect: its goal was to purify Islam. ● By 1174 Almohads had completely displaced the Almoravids as rulers of Morocco and Al Andalus. ● With time the Almohads lost some of their fierce purifying zeal. ● In 1212 Almohad power in Iberian Pen. was destroyed by victory of Christians at Navas de Tolosa: opened Andalucia to Christian conquest. Taifa Kingdoms: Art ● Despite political incompetence, taifa kings fostered a period of brilliant cultural revival. ● In Architecture the most important construction is the Aljafería Palace of Saragossa (second half of 11th C.). ○ Extreme manifestation of Cordoban interlacing polylobed arches. ○ Carved stucco ornament of its interior spaces. Almoravids and Almohades: Art ● Almoravids reacted against art of Taifa kingdoms in the beginning, but eventually succumbed to the luxury culture of al-Andalus. ● Architecture took on a new conservatism in plan and a decorative simplicity. ● During Almohad rule, the minaret called La Giralda (in Seville) was built. A sister tower was built one year later in Marrakesh: Koutoubia Tower. ● Torre del Oro (Seville): built in 13th cent. with defensive purposes. Muslim Spain (12th C.): Averroes and Maimonides ● Despite their fanaticism, the Almohads’ period is of great cultural achievement for Al Andalus. Two towering figures are: ● Averroes (Córdoba, 1126--1198): translated into Arabic the work of Aristotle, which had been virtually forgotten in the West. His rediscovery was crucial in launching Latin Scholasticism in West Europe, and, in due course, the European Renaissance of the 15th C. ● Another son of Córdoba was the Jew Maimonides (1135-1204): philosopher and physician. Through the "Guide of the Perplexed“ exerted much influence on Scholastic philosophers. Reconquest: 11th-13th cent.: Kingdom of Aragon ● Muslim revival actually helped consolidate main Christian kingdoms in 12th cent. ● Aragon was born as a Kingdom in 1035: At the death of Sancho III of Navarre, his western territories were organized as the kingdom of Aragon for his illegitimate son, Ramiro I. ● Aragon conquered Zaragoza (1118), then Aragon and Catalonia united (1137), creating a powerful kingdom. Eventually, from 12th-15th C. will create an Empire in the Mediterranean. Kingdom of Aragon ● A federation which progressively unified during 12th and 13th c. ● Annexation of the Balearic Islands in 1229-35 ● Annexation of Valencia in 1238 ● Expansion in the Mediterranean (Sicily, Sardinia, Malta) ● Catalan expansionism (Barcelona): 12th-13th c) ○ An urban success story ○ A strong and active bourgeoisie (bankers, property developers, industrial entrepreneurs). Reconquest: 11th-13th cent: Kingdom of Portugal ● Northern third of the modern state. Separated from Leon-Castile in 12th C. ● 1095: Alfonso VI of Castile named Henry of Burgundy (husband of his daughter Teresa) count of Portugal. ● 1128: Their son, Alfonso Henriques, started calling himself King of Portugal, as Alfonso I. Pushed the frontiers South of Tagus river. • Conquest of Lisbon: 1147 ● Resettled the territory with the help of Cistercian monks and Templar knights. Reconquest: 11th-13th cent: Kingdom of Portugal ● Conquest of the Algarve (mid-13th c.). Portugal ends its share of the Reconquest. Starts maritime exploration. ● From the beginning, the history of Portugal is characterized by confrontation with Castile-Leon: ○ Castile tries to incorporate Portugal into a bigger Spanish (or Iberian) unity. ○ Portugal fights for independence. Reconquest: 11th-13th cent.: Castile and Leon ● Castile was first a county of the kingdom of Leon, with Burgos as capital. Fernán González secured virtual autonomy by the 10th C. ● Sancho III of Navarre, who briefly annexed the county, made it into a kingdom for his son, Ferdinand I, in 1035. ● León was united with Castile in 1037: Alfonso VI ● Dynastic rivalries delayed the permanent union of the two realms until Ferdinand III (1230) Reconquest: 11th-13th cent.: Castile and Leon ● Castile was first a county of the kingdom of Leon, with Burgos as capital. Fernán González secured virtual autonomy by the 10th C. ● Sancho III of Navarre, who briefly annexed the county, made it into a kingdom for his son, Ferdinand I, in 1035. ● León was united with Castile in 1037: Alfonso VI ● Dynastic rivalries delayed the permanent union of the two realms until Ferdinand III (1230) ● After conquest of Toledo, Castile becomes the most powerful Christian kingdom. ● 1085: Conquest of Toledo (the old Visigothic capital). First crucial Christian victory of Reconquest. ● In this period the concept of “holy war” or Crusade is born among Christians, probably as reaction against fanatical Almoravids. ● Arrival of Almoravids and Almohads will delay Reconquest until 13th C. Reconquest (13th cent) ● 1212: Christians alliance (Castile, Aragon, Portugal and Navarre) defeats the Almohads in the battle of Navas de Tolosa. Most important battle of Reconquest. ● After Navas de Tolosa, Muslims were not a serious threat to Christians anymore. Had to be at the defensive. ● Navas de Tolosa allowed the three main Christian kingdoms to gain control of southern territories by 1250. At that time Reconquest was almost finished. Castilian hero: El Cid (mid to end 11th c.) ● Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (El Cid) (c.1043-c. 1099) ○ Native of Burgos ○ Exiled by Alfonso VI for raiding Toledo under the king’s protection (1081) ○ At the service of the Muslim ruler of Zaragoza, he fights both Muslims and Christians ○ Sieges and captures Valencia (1094) ○ Becomes Valencia’s ruler○ Castilian hero (have ideal qualities for Castilians): brave, loyal, with a strong sense of honor and pride. ○ Cantar de Mio Cid: the earliest surviving work written in Castilian (c. 1140; Per Abbad) Christian Kingdoms: 11th-13th cent: Camino de Santiago ● Crucial to Reconquest was the legend of Santiago Matamoros (the Moors Slayer) ● At the beginning of the 9th century possible remains of Saint James were found in Galicia. ● In the following centuries Santiago became most important pilgrimage destination in Europe. ● The Road to Santiago helped Christian Spain to overcome its cultural isolation (like Straight of Gibraltar helped Al-Andalus to be in contact with Muslim world). ● For centuries was main connection with Europe: through the Road to Santiago Spain received European population (mainly French), new ideas and customs, new art and architectural styles: Romanesque, Gothic, etc Christian Kingdoms (11 th-13th c.): French influence ● Growth of a network of Cluniac monastic colonies supported by the gold from the royal family of Castile and León. ● From tenth century there were successive waves of monastic reform in France - Cluny, Cister, Mendicant and so forth. Cluny was founded in 910. All reached Christian Spain through the Road to Santiago. ● Modernization of writing (new French script). ● French monks, artists, knights, circulated all over Christian Spain. ● New ideas about holiness of religious warfare. Christian Kingdoms (11 th-13th c.) and European Ideas of Religious Warfare ● Ideological justification of Reconquest given by: ○ Crusades (First Crusade 1095-1101; Last Crusade 1270). ○ Crusades: union of all Christians under the direction of the Pope. Each warrior was considered a soldier of the Church. Crusaders were also granted indulgences and temporal privileges. ○ Almoravids and Almohads invasions: Christian religious fanaticism was justified by Muslim religious fanaticism. ○ European Crusaders participated in several battles of the Reconquest ○ Creation of Religious Military Orders: Knights Templar, first military order (1118). Type on which the others are modeled. Military orders very popular because they combined two great passions of Middle Ages, religious fervor and martial courage: cross and sword. ○ In the 12th century were created: in Portugal the Order of Aviz; and in Castile and Leon: the Order of Santiago, the Order of Calatrava, and the Order of Alcantara. All of them had an active participation in the Reconquest. Christian Kingdoms (11 th-13th c.): new population problems ● After 11th cent. (conquest of Toledo): many Muslims moved South, but others remained. ● Christians for the first time faced the problem of how to incorporate two different (and somehow superior) cultures into the structure of their society: Muslims and Jews. ● It came to be accepted that proper order of society was: Christian warriors and priests, Muslim cultivators and artisans, and Jewish technicians and traders. Christian Spain (11th-13th cent): Romanesque art ● Romanesque art (architecture, sculpture, and painting) is one of two great artistic movements that occurred in Europe during the Middle Ages. ● Romanesque architecture emerged about 1000 and lasted until about 1200, by which time it had evolved into second great artistic era: the Gothic. ● Romanesque art was at its height around 1100. ● The Romanesque developed during the spread of monastic life in the 11th and 12th centuries ● Romanesque Cathedrals were designed to show the power of the Church. ● Main features include: ○ the semicircular ("Roman") arches. ○ barrel vaults (i.e., arches forming a half-cylindrical vault over a rectangular space) ○ Massive piers and walls (with few windows). ○ This last element was necessary to support the structure of increasingly large buildings Summary of Monday’s lecture ● There is the kingdom of leon and on the other side of the peninsula it was controlled by the Muslims ● There is no “Spain” right now, it is still developing ● Muslims control most of the Iberian peninsula and are all unified. They didn’t care about conquering the whole iberian peninsula because they probably thought that it wasn't worth it ● The “old muslims” were at conflict with the “new muslims” aka berbers and christians who had converted ● Jews and Christians were allowed to practise their religions before the second conquest○ After the second phase, with the more radical muslims from north africa, persecution of other religions begins ○ Jews feel more comfortable with the christians than the muslims ● After the battle in 1212, the Christians conquered most of the Iberian peninsula ● The camino de Santiago allowed Christians to connect with each other and spreads their ideas and culture Romanesque Sculpture and Painting ● Large paintings in the Romanesque period covered the interior walls of churches. ● Later Romanesque painting and sculpture starts being less hieratic. More realistic. Wednesday, April 19th: Reconquest:13th to 15th C. End of Muslim Dominion in the Iberian Peninsula Reconquest: 13th C ● After the battle of Navas de Tolosa (1212), Christian activity increases: ● By 1250, Portugal and Aragon had finished their part of the Reconquest (they both start to expand and build small empires) ● Fernando III of Castile conquered Cordoba and Seville, and could have finished the Reconquest, but Granada’s king signed a pact and helped him to conquer Seville. ● Conquest of Seville (1248), last major event of the Reconquest until the fall of Granada (1492) ● For two centuries and a half, Muslim kingdom of Granada survives as a Christian vassal. ● Castile is the biggest Kingdom in 13th C The Reconquest: Portugal ● Part of the Crown of Leon until 12th C. ● In 1139 becomes independent Muslims in Castile 13th c. ● After 1264 Muslim rebellions, Muslims were expelled from Castile. Only small urban communities remained. ● They were called mudejars (from Arabic: “permitted to remain”). Allowed to retain some traditions and religious institutions. ● Mudejars were usually artisans: construction work, leather trade, and veterinary work. ○ It was believed that the Muslims were better architects than the Christians so they were hired to build things ● Muslim irrigation techniques were essential to maintain a prosperous agriculture in southern regions. With expulsion of Muslims large areas went out of production. ● Nobles try to repopulate with Christians because the Muslims would leave or be expelled ○ Created a problem bc the Christians weren’t as good at agriculture Christian Kingdoms (11th-15th cent.): mudejar style ● Mudejars, highly regarded as architects, created an innovative architectural style, where Moorish techniques were adapted to Christian and secular buildings. ● Christian kings usually hired Muslim architects to build their palaces. ● Characteristics: use of the brick (Christians preferred stone), horseshoe arch, florid detail, traditional Moorish skill at working in plaster and wood, fabric and tile. ● Main works: Church of Santiago del Arrabal (Toledo), Synagogues of Santa María la Blanca and El Tránsito (Toledo); the Castle of Coca in Segovia, and the Alcazar (Palace) of Seville. ● Mudejar remained in vogue until the Renaissance style took over late in the 15th C, at a time when anything Muslim was considered inferior. But its themes and techniques survived and later turned up in buildings in Spain and Spanish America. Aragon: 13th-15th C. ● The 13th C. saw major changes of direction in the crown of Aragon: ○ Its historical links with southern France were severed by wars in France. ○ Possible occupation of new Muslim territories ended by Castilian conquest of Murcia. ○ As a result, the energies of the Aragonese and Catalans became directed toward Italy and the eastern Mediterranean, where they were able to build on the extensive maritime interests already established by Catalan traders and sailors. One Peninsula, Three Colonial Empires: Aragon ● Conquest of Majorca by an Aragonese-Catalan army in 1229-30, first step in building a Mediterranean Empire. ● 1283: Conquest Sicily. ● 1323: Conquest Sardinia. ● 1442: Takes control of Naples. ● All this led to a lengthy intervention in the affairs of Italy in the 15th and 16th C. The rise of Portugal: 13th-15th C. ● Conquest of the Algarve blocked Castile’s ambition to colonize the area (1250). ● Frequent tensions with Castile in 13th and 14th C. ● Defeat of Castile at Aljubarrota (1385) effectively ends Castilian possibility of annexing Portugal until 16th c. ● Portugal position strengthen by alliance with the house of Lancaster (England): in 1386, after the battle of Aljubarrota, Portugal and England signed a treaty of “perpetual alliance” ● Success of Portugal was founded on mercantile interests of Lisbon. ● Navigational skills, acquired from the Muslims, contributed to Portugal’s rise as a maritime nation in 15th c.: invention of the caravel. ● Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460). ○ He sponsored exploratory and colonizing expeditions to Canary Islands, Madeira, the Azores, and Cape Verde Islands. ○ A number of military expeditions were made against North Africa, with mixed success. Tangier was acquired in 1471. ● Henry the Navigator tried to reach India going around Africa, to control European market of spices (Ottomans had occupied Byzantine: Conquest of Constantinople: 1453). ● Foundation of colonies along coast of Africa: Madeira, Cape Verde, Sao Tomé. ● Attempts to conquer North Africa: Ceuta (1415). Wanted to continue Reconquest (gain land and vassals), and also to control gold trade (like Almoravids had done in 11th C.) One Peninsula, Three Colonial Empires: Portugal ● In 1481 Portugal recognized Spanish possession of Canary Islands. In return, Castile recognized Portugal in Azores, Cape Verde, Madeira, and its monopoly of the African mainland and eastward passage ● By 1482 Portuguese explorers had penetrated the Congo (along West Coast of Africa) ● In 1487-8, Bartolomeu Dias rounded Cape of Good Hope to reach the coast of east Africa ● In 1498 Vasco de Gama reached India. This discovery of the route brought Portugal enormous profits in trade, and laid the foundations of its overseas empire in the east. ● For 100 years Portugal monopolized sea route to Asia. ● Slave trade into European markets. Later, with discovery of America, controlled slave trade until 18th C. Castile: 13th-15th C ● After great territorial expansion in first half of 13th C. the process of Reconquest slows down. Last Muslim kingdom (Granada) remains in southern Iberian Pen. for another 250 years. Possible reasons: ○ Internal conflicts and civil wars in Castile. ○ Rural depopulation of S. Spain created shortage of labor to work the land. ○ Muslim kingdom of Granada pays tribute to Castile. Survives as a vassal of Castile. ○ Black Plague-14th century killed half of Europe. One Peninsula, Three Colonial Empires: Castile ● During the 13th and 14th centuries, Aragon and Portugal created more extensive Empires overseas than Castile. ● Probably because Castile took on most of the Reconquest efforts in the Peninsula. And still had to finish it: Granada was its business. ● However, Castile also created a small colonial Empire in the Atlantic in the 15th C.: ○ 1402-1495: Conquest of Canary Islands. ○ According to some, would serve as model for the conquest of America. 13th C. Castilian Culture: Alfonso the Learned (1221-1284) ● For the first time cultural life of a Christian kingdom in Iberian Pen. equals (or surpasses) that of the Muslims. ● Alfonso X the Learned was son of Fernando III, the conqueror of Cordoba and Seville. ● Most remarkable aspect of his cultural undertakings was his simultaneous connection with East and West. Under him, the Crown of Castile saw a synthesis of cultures, incorporating Christian, Jewish and Muslim aspects. ● Collaboration among intellectuals of the three cultures saw its greatest expression in the School of Translators of Toledo. Jewish, Muslims, and Christians collaborated to summarize the knowledge of their time. ● Persian literature, Greek philosophy, Arabic medicine, and other wisdoms were translated into Latin (bridge between antiquity and medieval Europe). ● More original: many translations were made into Castilian, not Latin. ● Alfonso’s legislative work, linked with introduction of Roman Law into Castile and Leon. His most important contribution in this field was the Siete Partidas. Alfonso X and the School of Translators of Toledo: Works ● Astronomical Tables (1272) ● "History of Spain" and "Great and General History", written in Romance language (Spanish) to demonstrate the monarch's support of Castilian. ● In poetry: Cantigas, of which the best-known are those in honor of Saint Mary. ● He also favored musical studies; and published a "Book of Chess, Dice and Tables“. Alfonso X (1221-1284) ● The scope of his cultural revival ○ The use of Castilian helped linguistic evolution of the dialect ○ The use of Castilian insulated the cultural achievements of his reign and limited them to the peninsula ○ Reinforced the Marian cult (Virgin Mary) ○ It paved the way for Humanism 13th-15th cent Architecture: Gothic style ● Gothic style: A development of Romanesque, spread from France all over Europe in the 12th-15th C. Each country produced a national style of Gothic. ● Features: pointed or ogival arch, elaborated stone vaulted roofs, clustered columns and rich stone carving. ● Development of technique led to high buildings with walls consisting very largely of windows, the great stresses being taken by the arches themselves, by pillars, and by buttresses, often flying buttresses. ● The Gothic church or cathedral, seeming to aspire eternally heavenwards, is taken as a symbol of medieval spirituality. ● In Spain: Gothic arrives around 1220, and lasts until beg. 16th C. ● Main Cathedrals: León, Burgos, and Toledo (13th C), Barcelona and Palma (14th C.), and Seville (15th C). ● Seville’s Cathedral is the largest Gothic Cathedral in the world (“Let’s build a Cathedral so huge that people will think that we are mad”) Its tower is the minaret of the old Mosque. ● Some Gothic buildings (for example Toledo’s Cathedral, San Juan de los Reyes, etc), have mudejar components. The Jews in 13th - 15th C. Sepharad ● 1000-1250 is regarded as a “golden age” for Judaism in the Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Pen., but only because Jewish communities (the largest in western Europe) were not actively persecuted. ● During 13th C, for the first time in Christian Iberian Pen., increasing influence of the Papacy (and propaganda emanating from north of the Pyrenees), brought tensions between Jews and Christians. Things will worsen in 14th C Jews in 13th-15th C. Sepharad: Anti-semitism (Cantigas) ● Cantigas (13th C.): Jews as moneylenders. ● In 14th and 15th C. feelings against rich Jewish community grew harsher ● Anti-Semitic propaganda: 14th C. Spanish illumination shows Jews stealing consecrated communion bread from a church, and trying to destroy it 14th-15th C: Breakdown of convivencia ● 14th and 15th C: Anti-Semitic persecutions in Christian kingdoms. Animosity against Jews grows. They are blamed for all social and economic problems (civil wars, famines, plagues). ● Growing propaganda presenting Jews as implacable enemies of Christianity. ● 1391: After a series of violent attacks, thousands convert to Christianity. The conversion of large numbers of Jews will have major repercussions in the future: conversos (also called New Christians) will be suspected of secretly keeping old beliefs. Difficult integration. ● Inquisition founded in 1476. Expulsion in 1492. Vanishing Muslims: Granada, last Muslim kingdom: 1238-1492 ● With the expulsion from Christian territory of Muslim population in 1238 the Nasrid family moved from Jaén to Granada, a mountainous region, and established there the centre of the last Muslim kingdom in the Iberian Pen. ● Rarity in medieval Iberian Pen.: a long-lasting state (over 250 years) that enjoyed almost complete religious unity. ● Fell in 1492 to Christian attackers, due in part to the impetus of the crusade led by Ferdinand and Isabella, and also to civil wars among different factions of the Muslims. The Fall of Granada: History and Legend (Boabdil) ● The Fall of Granada has been fictionalized in numerous Spanish legends. ● Granada’s last king, Boabdil, has been depicted (probably without good reasons) as a man more interested in sensual pleasures than in war. ● According to one of those legends, when Boabdil was leaving Granada and saw the city for the last time, he started to weep (“The last sight o the Moor”), and his mother, a tough woman, told him: “You do well to weep as a woman over what you could not defend as a man” Granada: Nasrid period of Muslim architecture (13th-15th C.) ● With the Nasrid dynasty Granada experienced an astonishing epoch of cultural splendor. The last one in Al Andalus. Called the Nasrid period. ● Under the Nasrids the famous Alhambra (fortress and palace) was built. Perhaps the best known monument of Al Andalus. ● The Alhambra and the Generalife (the Gardens of the Palace) show the high degree of sophistication reached by Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula. Week 4 Monday ● The Reconquest from the 10th-13th centuries ● First: Between 711-1000 ○ For 300 years the muslims controlled the majority of the Iberian peninsula.■ Much more powerful and sophisticated in every aspect ■ Stronger army more sophisticated architecture ■ Complex because it had different groups held together very well by the gov’t ■ Allowed for the practice of their own religion ■ It's not tolerance how we see it now, there was a hierarchy of religions. But jews and christians etc. were not actively persecuted ○ The most important christian kingdom was Leon ■ When you compare them with the muslims the Muslim society is more complex and sophisticated ■ Compare the cordoba mosque with the pre romanesque churches you see the difference ● Second: Between 1000-1212 ○ 200 years we see a stalemate between christians and muslims ○ The christian moves their frontier south and conquer toledo ■ Important symbol bc it was the capital of the Visigoths ○ Mudejars ○ Jewish communities are important in christian society ○ Alfonso the 10th, the learned. Created the enterprise of different religions and people working together to translate science and math books to spread learning ○ Christians were more tolerant than muslim religions ■ However there were still crusades starting in the end of the 11th century ○ Nobody has a monopoly over fanaticism or intolerance ■ Some countries and sometimes prove to be more tolerant than others ● Last phase: 1212-1492 ○ Conquest of granada ○ After the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa the christians controlled the entire peninsula with the exception of granada ■ Survived for another 250 years until 1492 ○ 1250 ■ Map labeled reconquest 13th-15th C (on multiple PP slides) ■ There is Portugal, Aragon, Navarre, Castile (biggest) and Granada ○ In 1400s, the catholic monarchs unite Castile and Aragon, conquer Granada, and annex Navarre ■ This then turns into the borders we have today ○ There is no spain ■ There is portugal, but no name or region for Spain■ How was Spain born? ■ Before, it was more like a symbol or a myth ■ The myth of the whole iberian peninsula being united under a christian monarch ■ Not a socio-political reality ■ Visigoths were not Spaniards ■ After Muslim invasion takes place this identity of christianity becomes the most decisive factor in the building of a national identity of spain ■ Bc spain took place fighting against the muslims- uniting of christian kingdoms to expel the muslims developing for centuries The Catholic Monarchs and the Year 1492 One Country, One Religion, One Empire ● The Catholic Monarchs (1474- 1516) ○ Marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon (V of Castile) and Isabella of Castile (1469) ○ The unification of Castile and Aragon was not a necessary outcome of the Reconquest. Isabella considered two possibilities: marrying Ferdinand of Aragon, or king Alfonso V of Portugal. ○ If she had married Alfonso V of Portugal, probably the composition of modern Spain would have been entirely different: Castile and Portugal, instead of Castile and Aragon. Her decision was crucial for future of Spain. ○ Unification of the two kingdoms (1479) ■ Ferdinand and Isabella thought that the union would have positive effects for their kingdoms. Castile wanted to increase its power, and Aragon needed a powerful ally to protect its Mediterranean Empire. ■ Both kingdoms had equal importance in theory. They had (and continued having) different linguistic, political, social, and legal traditions ● Federation of Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Balearic Islands (fueros, Cortes, customs, coins, etc.) ■ “Tanto monta, monta tanto, Isabel como Fernando” (Isabella is the equal to Fernando) ○ Before expelling the Muslims from Granada, Ferdinand and Isabella had to consolidate royal power in Castile and Aragon: ■ First they confronted the nobles and weakened their power. ● End of the long period of civil wars in Castile ■ Took control of medieval Santa Hermandad to grant security in countryside. ■ Reformed the Church to stop corruption of the priests. ■ Founded the Inquisition in 1478. ● Medieval Inquisition ○ Medieval Inquisition: Founded by Pope Gregory IX in 1231, to deal with heresy, it was very active in Northern Italy, and Southern France at the end of the 13th C. ○ During the Middle Ages, an attitude developed in Europe that religious dissidents could not be tolerated in a harmonious society. ○ Conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453 increased Muslim threat (especially for Spain, with significant Muslim population). ● Spanish Inquisition: 1478-1834 ○ Spanish Inquisition was founded in 1478: ■ Not against Jews or Moors, but against “false Christians” (conversos and moriscos). Some Jews converted to avoid persecution. Jewish converts suspected of still practicing Judaism were called marranos. ■ Before, the jews and muslims felt better living under Christian rule bc of the tolerance they showed ■ Anti-semitism begins in the 14th century bc of the Black Plague and any tolerance is gone during the reign of the Catholic monarchies ■ Many Jews wanted to avoid being killed and persecuted so they converted to Christianity, but obviously didn’t actually believe it--called conversos ■ Later, also against Protestants (to supervise orthodoxy among “old Christians”). ■ Methods of the Inquisition: secret proceedings, informants, torture. ○ Served political as well as religious purposes. The only institution common to Castile and Aragon. Sometimes was used to strengthen Royal power. ○ Autos de fe: Those that refused to confess were generally burnt alive (supposedly as a means to purify them). ○ Nobody wanted to be considered a converso because it meant death. This paranoia negatively affected spanish society ○ Recent accounts credit the Spanish Inquisition with between 3,000 to 5,000 deaths over its three and a half centuries of existence (contrary to the more than 300,000 people reported by the Black Legend) ● Spanish Inquisition: Black Legend ○ Black Legend against Spain was mainly centered in two areas: Spanish Inquisition, and the Conquest of America. ○ Black Legend was created by Protestants defeated on the battlefield around 1565. Product of resentment against a powerful Empire. ○ No doubt Inquisition is a dark page of Spanish history, but its acts must be judged in comparison to other European tribunals during this dark period where torture was commonly used. ○ The Inquisition created a society of terror and intolerance ○ But some scholars argue that it also immunized Spain in advance against the Reformation, and prevented the endless religious wars of other European countries in 16th and 17th C. ● 1492: End of Reconquest ○ The war against the Muslim kingdom of Granada attracted hundreds of crusaders from outside the peninsula. ○ The reconquest of Granada in 1492 provided Christian Europe with a much needed triumph (40 years after Muslim Turks had conquered Constantinople). ○ The conquest of Granada meant the end of Muslim power in the Iberian Peninsula, but not the end of Muslim presence: many of them decided to remain in Spain under Christian rule. ○ The defeated Muslims in Spain were originally granted religious freedom and the right to emigrate in safety to Africa (thousands did it). ○ Within a short time (1499), however, Cardinal Cisneros persuaded Isabella to enforce “mass conversions.” ■ Consequent uprisings were effectively repressed. ■ Fear of morisco ties with Berber pirates and with France caused distrust between both communities. In 1609 moriscos will be expelled from Spain. ● Muslim Legacy ○ Although the idea of Spain was constructed by the Christians (empathically anti-Muslim), they were deeply influenced by their enemies in: ■ Population: many Muslims converted and remained. ■ Customs, ideas, attitudes. ■ Architecture ■ Dress ■ Language ■ Probable the most important: the desire not to be Muslim, not to act as a Muslims (reversed influence). ○ Muslims and jews help create an importance of the catholic church Muslim Legacy: Language ● Structure of Spanish was not affected by Arabic. ● But several thousand words in Spanish come from Arabic (they make up around 8% of Spanish vocabulary). ● Some passed through Spanish to English and other European languages: alcohol, algodón, café, cero, guitarra, jarabe, jirafa, limón, macabro, mono, naranja, aceite, ojalá. ● Many Arabic words that were usual in medieval Spanish are not in use anymore (have been substituted by Latin equivalents) 1492: Expulsion of the Jews ● Less than three months after the conquest of Granada, the Inquisition acted against the other non-Christian community in Spain. ● All Jews who refused to convert to Christianity (between 150,000 and 200,000) were expelled from Spain, mostly from Castile. ● Many Jews decided to convert (at least nominally) to avoid deportation. They constituted the new group of conversos. ● Other countries kicked the jews out, but there were so many ones in SPain that were powerful that this negatively affected Spain to lose them Importance of Jews in Christian Kingdoms: 13th-15th C. ● Persecutions were common in medieval Europe, but Jews in the Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Pen. had a high economical and cultural status. ● Bridge between three cultures: Christian, Muslim, and Hebrew. Some of the most distinguished collaborators of Alfonso X The Learned were Jews. ● Economically were very important. Key for Castilian finances. ● Judges, doctors, writers ○ In writing defended use of Castilian over Latin: played important role in making Castilian language of culture Expulsion of the Jews: Effects (Sephardic Jews) ● A large number of Jews settled in North Africa and in the Ottoman Empire, especially Turkey and Greece. ● Spanish exiles brought with them a unique culture, language (Ladino) and traditions. Many of them still speak ladino. ● Ladino: grammar and vocabulary of 15th C Spanish, with addition of Arab, Greek, and Turkish words. ● Today the largest Ladino-speaking community can be found in Israel. Expulsion of the Jews: Effects ● Deprived Castile of some of its most active citizens (economically as well as intellectually). ● Created a new group, the conversos, who would deeply affect Spanish society in the following centuries: ○ Certain positions of power were only obtained by “old Christians” (as opposed to “new Christians”) ○ New Christians (or conversos) tried to hide its origins. ○ That created a growing paranoia (everybody was suspected of being partially Jewish, including the members of the aristocracy: some had married Jewish women in the past). Expulsion of the Jews: Effects for Spain ● As with Muslims, the most important effect of Jewish expulsion for Spain was reversed influence: ○ Nobody wanted to be considered a converso. Therefore all the activities associated with the Jews began to be stigmatized. ○ For centuries to come intellectual and economical activities in Spain will be affected by this prejudice. Francis Bacon’s view of Spain ● At the beginning of 17th C, the English philosopher Francis Bacon will still write on his essays “Of the True Greatness of Kingdoms and Estates”: ● “I have marvelled sometimes at Spain, how they clasp and contain so large dominions with so few natural Spaniards . . . It is certain, that sedentary and with indoor arts and delicate manufacturers (that require rather the finger than the arm) have in their nature a contrariety to a military disposition. And generally all warlike people are a little idle, and love danger better than travail . . . for empire and greatness, it imports the most, that a nation do profess arms as their principal honour, study, and occupation . . . Of Christian Europe, they that have it are, in effect, only the Spaniards” 1492: Columbus’ Voyage ● Christopher Columbus, born in Genoa (Italy). ● He never wrote in Italian (that we know), not even to his own brother. ● Had a plan to reach Asia through the Atlantic. Offered his plan to the Portuguese, but was rejected. ● In 1485 he landed in Palos (S. Spain), but his plan wasn’t considered feasible, and was also rejected. Finally, when he was about to leave, got approval by Queen Isabella (four months after conquest of Granada, and one month after expulsion of the Jews) ● Columbus expedition: three small ships (caravelas), 120 men. ● Sailed off from South Spain. Stopped in Canary Islands. ● In October 12, 1492, after 32 days without seeing land, they reached a small island that Columbus named San Salvador. ● Next year, Columbus made another voyage with 1,500 men. They carried seeds, plantings, livestock, everything necessary for a colony. ● Up to his death, Columbus believed he had reached Asia, not a new continent. ● The New World was named after another Italian sailing under Castilian flag, Amerigo Vespucci. Effects of Columbus’ Voyage ● It can be argued that the “discovery” of America in 1492 was the greatest single event in the history of mankind: ○ Put an end to the Middle Ages. ○ Opened the colonial era. ○ Shifted centre of gravity from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. ○ New “Imago Mundi” (Image of the World) ○ For the first time, all Continents were united: soon it would be clear that all human beings were equal. ● Columbus’ Voyage radically changed European and American life in many different ways: economy, relations of power, ideas, religion, customs, diet… ● American products introduced in Europe through Spain: potatoes, corn, tomatoes, chocolate, tobacco… ● European products and animals introduced in America through Spain: wheat, wine, olive oil, horses, cows… ● Words from different American languages that, through Spanish, became common in most European languages: patata, tomate, chocolate, huracán, canoa, hamaca, cacique, maize, cacao, iguana, tucán… ● Treaty of Tordesillas (1494): Pope Alexander VI divided the World between Spain and Portugal. ● It is the origin of today’s Brazil. ○ Spain and portugal thought they could divide the world between two areas of influence ○ Wanted to avoid conflict between the two Another Step towards Unity: Annexation of Navarre ● In 1512 Ferdinand the Catholic annexed the kingdom of Navarre, completing the unification of the entire Iberian Peninsula (with the exception of Portugal) Spain: Intervention in Europe ● Association with Aragon forced Castile to intervene in Europe (to defend Aragonese Mediterranean empire against French ambitions) ● Anti-French policies will be the base of Spain’s foreign affairs for over two centuries. ● French were defeated in Italy by Spanish army under Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, the “Gran Capitán.” ● The tercios (Spanish infantry, organized by the Gran Capitán) will be the masters of European scene for some 150 years. They were not defeated until mid-17th C. ● The union of Castile and Aragon, as well as the discovery of America, oriented Spain’s foreign affairs towards Europe and America. ● Intervention in North Africa will be limited to small military enclaves. 1492: First Castilian (or Spanish) Grammar ● With the Catholic Monarchs, vernacular languages lost ground to Castilian. ● Castilian became the language of the official bureaucracy. ● Jewish expulsion eliminates Ladino, a combination of Castilian and Hebrew (1492) ● Morisco expulsion eliminates their language, an Iberian form of Arabic (1609) ● In 1492 Nebrija (the foremost intellectual figure of the Renaissance in Spain) published the first Castilian Grammar. ● In the Introduction he made the visionary prediction that “language is the greatest instrument of Empire” Birth of Spain: Castilian/Spanish ● Within a century, España (Spain) was familiar to all as the collective term for the Iberian territories under the rule of the Spanish monarch. ● Castilians and Aragonese distinguished themselves from others by the word “españoles”. ● In the 16th C. Castilian became the lingua franca of a huge overseas empire and was known throughout Europe as Spanish. ● Portuguese and Catalans will struggle since then to avoid being absorbed by powerful Castile (politically, culturally, and linguistically). Portuguese/Castilian/Catalan ● During the Middle Ages, several dialects from Latin developed in the Iberian Peninsular: Galician-Portuguese, Leonese, Castilian, Aragonese, and Catalan (in addition to the Mozarabic dialects spoken in Al-Andalus). ● By 16th C Castilian had absorbed Leonese and Aragonese. ● Three big linguistic areas remain until today: Galician-Portuguese, Castilian, and Catalan (in addition to Basque). ● Castilian is also called Spanish. Originally spoken in a small area (Burgos, Rioja, and Basque country) Cultural life in15th C. Europe: Humanism ● The great intellectual movement of Renaissance Europe (15th-16th cent) was Humanism. Started in Italy at the end of 14th C. The humanists believed that the Greek and Latin classics contained all the lessons one needed to lead a moral life, and the best models for writing. ● Church should not rule civic matters, but only spiritual matters. Good citizens needed a well- rounded education (to be good soldiers and also to have a solid intellectual education). ● A person should try to harmonize all aspects of humanity: armas y letras. Humanism in Spain ● During 15th C. takes place in Spain a revival of classical studies: 14th cent writers were still under influence of Muslim culture (for inst. Don Juan Manuel, and the Archpriest of Hita). 15th C. writers look more after Italian models. ● Juan de Mena writes in Spanish with many Latin words (to prove his high cultural level) ● Jorge Manrique (1440-1479) ○ Arms and Letters (dies in battle) ○ Coplas to the Death of His Father ● Being a good soldier and warrior, but having a good grasp of culture(language, learning, etc.) shown through the sculpture of Doncel de Siguenza-XVth C A Literary Masterpiece: La Celestina (1499) ● Author: Fernando de Rojas, a Castilian «converso». La Celestina is considered to be the parting point of Spanish Golden Age in literature. ● Dramatic dialogue (to be read, not represented) ● Symbol of the dawn of the Renaissance in Spain: individualized psychological characters reflect a new anthropocentric understanding of the world ● Dualism: tragedy and comedy (implicit in the title) ● Dualism: idealism (Calixto and Melibea), and realism (Celestina) ● Spanish realism. Humanism and Intolerance: Cardinal Cisneros (1436-1517) ● In 1502 Cardinal Cisneros persuaded queen Isabella to enforce mass “conversions” of the Muslims remaining in Spain (some 300,000 “converted” in one year). He also passed laws against Muslim’s customs and language. ● But at the same time: ○ Founded the University of Alcalá (Complutum), built by Pedro de Gumiel at the turn of the 16th c. ○ Recruited scholars to Alcalá under the patronage of Isabella (among them Nebrija) ○ Published the Complutensian Polyglot Bible (1514- 1517). The first Polyglot Bible. Architectural Styles: Plateresque ● From Spanish “platero” (silversmith) ● Term used to describe the late Gothic and early Renaissance architecture of 16th century Spain. ● Decorated with very elaborated motifs. ● Its characteristically florid decoration employs motifs derived from Gothic, Italian Renaissance and Islamic sources, and tends to mask the structure it adorns. ● For clarity, associate it with the Catholic monarchs The legacy of the Catholic Monarchs ● The Catholic Monarchs are the most decisive rulers in the constitution of modern Spain (or simply Spain, as we understand the concept). Their legacy: ○ Spain as a sum of Castile, Aragon and Navarre, with Castile as the predominant power. ○ Religious exclusion: Spanish is defined as Christian/Catholic. ○ A country with two main projections: Mediterranean and Atlantic (Italy and America). From now on African matters will be secondary. ○ The decision to marry their daughters (their only son died young) with a political agenda will decisively affect Spanish reality for over two centuries: intervention in European wars. ○ Strong royal power (secondary role of aristocracy) ○ Old social structures remained intact: huge latifundia Wednesday Week 4 (1 week until midterm!) Spain as a World Power: 16th Century (Charles V and Philip II) Charles I (1516-1556) ● Juan, the only son of the Catholic Monarchs died very young. His sister Juana was heir to the throne, but she was officially declared mad. ● Charles I was son of Juana (daughter of the Catholic Monarchs), and Philip of Habsburg. ● He inaugurated a new dynasty in Spain, the Habsburg. ● Elected Emperor Charles V of Germany in 1519, he spent much of his reign fighting European enemies. ● Spanish subjects resented that he was a foreigner (he had been educated in Flanders, and when he arrived into Spain he did not speak correctly Spanish). Comunero Uprising: 1520-1 ● Discontent was aggravated because Charles I named foreigners (particularly Flemish) to high posts. ● Resentment caused the comunero uprising in Castile. ● Comuneros: people from cities who organized to defend their rights against central government. ● Charles crushed the comunero uprising at the Battle of Villalar (1521) with the support of key members of the aristocracy. ● Villalar is considered a symbol of the defeat of a certain idea of Spain: a country where the cities and the regions shared a bigger percentage of power (instead of absolute monarchy) Charles I of Spain and V of Germany (1516-1556) ● One crown unites: ○ Castile, Aragon and its Italian and Mediterranean colonies ○ the American and African colonies ○ the royal houses of Burgundy and Flanders, Austria, and the Holy Roman German Empire. ● Spain gets involved in European wars, against its interests, to defend dynastic interests of the Habsburgs. This will affect its history for centuries. Charles I (1516-1556) ● As Holy Roman Emperor Charles V made a last attempt to revive the medieval universal empire. His opponents were therefore: ○ The European national states; especially France (the old rivalry Aragon/ France, aggravated now by rivalry Habsburg/Valois). Alliance with Protestants & Turks. ○ Protestants (Germany): Charles I, unable to check the spread of Protestantism. Spain will become the main champion of Catholicism. ○ Ottoman Empire: Turks, and their allies along the African coast. Continues confrontation Christian/Muslims in medieval Europe. ○ Also the Pope (to resist Imperial power in Italy) ● Europe becomes a place of nonstop religious fighting ● Many spaniards thought they could have a universal pope Charles I of Spain and V of Germany (1516-1556) ● In 1525 Charles defeated Francis I of France. ● Two years later Rome was sacked and the pope imprisoned. ● In 1529 the Turks laid siege to Vienna, but they were forced to retire. ● Eventually, the pope, Francis, and Charles agreed to a truce, but Charles's league with the pope drove the Protestants to rebellion. ● Charles defeated the German Protestants in 1547, but when France made an alliance with the North German rebels four years later, Charles' empire was shattered. ● Disappointed, Charles divided the empire between his son (Philip II of Spain) and his brother (Emperor Ferdinand), retiring to the monastery of Yuste in Spain in 1556. Ottoman Empire ● Ottoman expansion had a profound impact on europe ● Military victories ed to fear the Ottomans would collapse the political and social infrastructure of the West and bring about the downfall of Christendom ● Europeans mounted crusades against the Ottomans in 14th and 15th C. ● Ottoman expansion into Europe was well underway in the late 14th century. ● Constantinople fell in 1453. Athens fell in 1456. In 1480 they set foot in Italy. Ottoman Empire. Charles’s intervention in North Africa ● Although Turkish presence in Italy was short- lived, it appeared as if Rome itself would fall into Islamic hands. ● In 1529, besieged Vienna. The siege was unsuccessful. ● Charles also took up his grandfather Ferdinand of Aragon's project of conquering North Africa. ● But Charles's capture of Tunis (1535) did nothing to diminish the strength of Turkish Empire and North African pirates in the Mediterranean. Protestantism and Religious Wars. Martin Luther (1483-1546) ● Martin Luther (1483-1546). In 1517 he nailed his Ninety- five Theses to the door of the church of the Wittenberg Palace. It is considered the beginning of Protestantism. ● Religious wars: between 1560 and 1715, Europe had only thirty years of international peace. ● In 1555, the Peace of Augsburg divided German states between Catholic and Lutheran authority. ● By 1609, the Holy Roman Empire had fragmented into two hostile alliances -- the Protestant Union and the Catholic League. Spain, the champion of Catholicism. ● The thirty Years' War (1618-1648) had its origins in the complicated religious and political environment of the period. Spain as a World Power: Exploration and Conquest ● In a 50-year period, Spain raised from a situation of marginality in Europe to being a world superpower. This was done through a frantic activity of exploration and conquest: ○ Importance of Columbus’s travel was not immediately recognized. Spanish activity centered first in the Caribbean. ■ Columbus and everyone else thought he was in Asia, not that he found a new world ○ 1519-1522 Magellan and Elcano circumnavigated the globe for the first time ■ Connects America with Asia ■ Spain established this connection and starts the unification of the continents ○ Main conquest and colonization starts almost 30 years after Columbus’s first travel Exploration and Conquest ● Cortés conquers the Aztec empire (1519-1521). ● Pizarro conquers the Inca empire in 1534. ● By mid-16th C. most of the entire hemisphere, North and South, had been explored, and was under Spanish rule. ● 1580: Buenos Aires was founded. ● Colonization of New Mexico starts at the end of 16th C. ● America was first divided into two huge “viceroyalties”: New Spain and Perú 1519-22: Magellan expedition to circumnavigate the World ● Magellan, a Portuguese, convinced Charles I to fund an expedition to find a westward route to the Moluccas, so that Spain could claim rights to trade in Asia. ● On Sept. 20,1519 Magellan left Southern Spain with five ships and 265 men. ● Magellan was killed in the Philippines. Elcano took charge of the expedition. Only one ship returned three years later with a crew of 18 men. ● The voyage laid a foundation for trade in the Pacific between America and Asia. ● Though Spain did not recognize the importance of the Philippines immediately, before the end of the century, Manila became the greatest Spanish trading center in the East Conquest of the Philippines: 1565- 1570 ● Named after king Philip II of Spain. ● The conquest of the Philippines began in 1565, with an expedition under the command of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi. ● One half of the Philippines was conquered by 1570. ● In 1571, Legazpi founded the city of Manila, securing Spanish presence in the area, despite the opposition of the Portuguese, who wanted to maintain their monopoly on the trade of East Asia. ● At the end of 16th C. Manila had flourishing trade with China, India, and the East Indies. Manila galleon (1565-1815) ● Manila galleon (1565-1815): For 250 years, once a year, brought goods from Manila to Acapulco. First regular communication between America and Asia The making of Latin America: drastic population changes ● In the 16th C, the native population of the Americas declined drastically because of war and epidemics ○ Population is being killed by the same plagues that had affected Europe before ● In the Caribbean population was reduced from an estimated 500,000 to 22,000 in 1570. ● Indian population in central Mexico was estimated at 11 million. By 1597 had plunged to 2.5 million. In Peru was reduced from 6 million to 1.3 million by 1590. ● Rapid decline of the Indian population in the Caribbean led to increasing slave trade. ● By 1570 the Caribbean had 56,000 inhabitants of African origin, surpassing Indian and white population. ● Some 240,000 Europeans came to America during the 16th century. America’s Wealth: Repercussions in Europe ● Between 1550 and 1660, the Spanish imported 18,000 tones of silver from Mexico and Peru (three times the supply of silver in Europe before 1550). ● Gold reserves in Europe increased by twenty per cent. All this made it easy for the expansion of a capitalist economy in the early modern period. A new class of men appeared -- the bourgeoisie, the "men of the towns." ● This set in motion the Industrial Revolution which would change the landscape of Europe and the world during the 19th century. ● Although Spain had the trade monopoly with America, other European countries (Low Countries, England) enjoyed the benefits of this trade more than Spain. ● America’s wealth flooded European markets. It did not stay in Spain. Possible reasons: ○ Intervention of Spain in European wars was very expensive (protestant wars, wars with the Turks, etc.). Charles I was forced already to declare bankruptcy (many more to come). ○ Spaniards rejected mercantile spirit (they associated economical activities with being a Jew or a converso). Trade was generally in hands of Italians and Flemish. ■ If they had accepted the Jews and Muslims, their history would have been different because they would have been more invested in maintaining trade Catholic Spain: Council of Trent ● Council of Trent (1545-1563): an intent to reform the Catholic church to resist advances of Protestantism. ● In the area of religious doctrine, the council refused any concessions to the Protestants. Codified Catholic dogma far more than ever before. ● At the same time, the council reformed major abuses within the church that had partly incited the Reformation. Tried to stop previous corruption and relaxation. ● Spain and the recently founded Society of Jesus played a major role in the Council. ○ Spain: Champion of Counter Reformation ○ Jesuits: “Storm-troopers” of Counter Reformation Spain’s missionary spirit: foundation of the Society of Jesus ● Founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1540. ● The Society was not created against Protestantism. Ignatius’s early plan was the conversion of Muslims. ● The Society of Jesus was founded with a certain military spirit: discipline and obedience was very important. ● In the following centuries Jesuits grew extremely influential in the whole world. ● One of its first members, the Spaniard Francis Xavier (1506-1552), went to Asia as a missionary, and converted thousands in India, China, and Japan. He is considered the greatest missionary since the time of the Apostles. Christian communities still remain in Asia since that time. He died in China. Spain’s Missionary Spirit ● The conquest and foundation of colonies was made by Spaniards with the same crusading spirit of the Reconquest. ● “Conquest to Christianize” was the main justification for the conquest. ● Evangelization of indigenous peoples in America by Franciscan and Dominican friars was made in a short period. ● Spain’s missionary spirit reached Asia: not only the Philippines, but also China and India. Spain and New Spain ● Spaniards founded colonies with the purpose of recreating their original land. ● This is reflected in the naming of areas and cities: Nueva España, Nueva Granada, Nuevo León, Trujillo, Córdoba, Santiago, Cuenca, Laredo, Guadalajara… ● New societies are created with a strong Spanish flavor: Spanish language, architecture, legal system, universities, customs, food, dress… ● Cultural hybridization characterizes Latin America: mainly Spanish and indigenous (and in certain areas African). Spain’s Colonial Empire: moral and legal problems ● Spanish conquerors were fierce, but very soon there were debates in Spain about the rights of the Indians. ● Atrocities were publicly criticized by the priests. ● The New Laws (1542) prohibited enslavement of Indians, and (at least nominally) granted them equality as subjects to the Castilian crown. But in fact the system of “encomiendas” did not work in their favor. ● Fray Bartolomé de las Casas (1474-1566) debated the moral and legal problems arising from colonial rule. His writings denouncing the atrocities committed by the Spaniards were key for the diffusion of the Black Legend (negative propaganda developed by Spain’s enemies: Dutch, French, English and, later, by criollos) Abdication of Charles I (1516-1556) ● In 1556, Charles V abdicated the Spanish crown in favor of his son, Philip II ○ Spain and its possessions in America, Africa, and Europe. ○ The Netherlands, Milan, Burgundy ● He also abdicated the Holy Roman Empire crown in favor of his brother, Ferdinand ● Retired to the monastery of Yuste, in Extremadura, where he died two years later. Phillip II (1556-1598) ● World’s first crown bureaucrat. ● Moved the court to Madrid, at the exact geographical center of the peninsula (1561) ○ A fixed court came into existence (with Charles I the court was continuously moving from place to place, following the Emperor’s travels). Most of the grandees moved to Madrid. ● Started his reign with a crushing defeat of the French at the battle of Saint Quentin (1557). For years to come, until 1595, France will be neutralized by a succession of civil wars. El Escorial (1563-1584) ● To celebrate his victory against the French, Philip II built the monastery of El Escorial near Madrid, and made it his permanent residence. ● El Escorial was built by Juan de Herrera in Renaissance style. The monastery gave rise to the term Herrera style in architecture. ● It is a huge architectural complex: palace, monastery, administrative center, library, museum, pantheon. It has hundreds of rooms. ● El Escorial is a symbol of Imperial Spain: it gives an impression of greatness, strength, order, austerity, self-control. Philip II (1556-1598): Conflicts ● Inherited his father’s conflicts: ○ Ottoman Empire’s expansionism in Europe and the Mediterranean ○ Protestantism (especially in the Low Countries) ○ France (confrontation because of Italian possessions and Burgundy). Neutralized for most of Philip’s reign. ○ Pirates in Caribbean and the Mediterranean ● Against Ottoman Empire and Protestantism; Spain, champion of Catholicism. ● New enemy: England (supported Protestants in Sp. Netherlands. Rivalry to control sea routes) Global Problems of a Superpower ● Turkish and Pirate’s attacks in the Mediterranean. 1558: raid in Balearic islands. ● Morisco uprising in the peninsula ● Unrest in Flanders over the repression of heresy and political control ○ Military expenditure increased five times between 1567 and 1598 ○ Worried by the prospect of a Spanish victory, England intervened to aid the Dutch. ● Pirate attacks of the imperial merchant ships and Caribbean possessions. Philip II and the Muslims ● The repression of the Moriscos, especially after the revolt from 1568 to 1571, assured Spanish religious unity. The moriscos were deported from Granada to other parts of Spain. ● The main purpose was to prevent the Moriscos from helping the Ottomans to invade Spain. ● Philip’s half-brother, John of Austria (1545–78), defeated the Ottomans at the battle of Lepanto (1571), and Tunis was captured and held briefly (1573–74). ● Lepanto: decisive battle that stopped Turkish threat in the Mediterranean. Philip II and the Protestants ● The second half of Philip’s reign was dominated by the revolt of the Netherlands. Philip appointed (1567) the duke of Alba as governor, but when Alba’s harsh methods failed to end the revolt, Philip supported more conciliatory tactics. ● Alba’s successors managed to reconquer the S. Netherlands (approximately present-day Belgium). ● The Dutch received support from the English and from the French Protestants. ● Philip intervened (1590) in the French Wars of Religion to aid the Catholic League against the Protestants. The Spanish Armada ● English support of the Dutch rebels and their persistent attacks on Spanish shipping led Philip to plan the invasion of England in 1588. ● The “Invincible Armada” was intended to assist an invasion force from Flanders, but it had serious deficiencies, and it was a failure. ● While few ships were lost due to English action, the fleet's destruction and the loss of life from other causes was devastating. ● Yet far from marking the collapse of Spanish maritime power, stimulated the construction of a modern navy to replace it. Spain’s rivalry with England to control the seas continued for another fifty years. Philip II: Annexation of Portugal ● The only major military success of Philip’s later reign was the annexation of Portugal, to which he had a claim as the son of Isabella of Portugal, daughter of Manuel I. ● In the 16th C. Portugal continued building a big colonial Empire: in the second half of the century they started the colonization of Brazil. ● At the end of the century, they had founded a trading-post at Macao, and secured a monopoly of the Japanese trade. Portugal in the 16th C ● Colonial trade produced enormous riches in Portugal: large fleets were sent to East Indies. ● Architecture and arts flourished. Lisbon became one of the greatest cities of Europe. ● The age of discovery stimulated a rich literary tradition. Luis de Camões, Portugal's greatest poet, published Os Lusíadas in 1572. ● Increasing Spanish influence during the 16th C.: Spanish language and customs were in fashion in Portugal (some Portuguese authors, like Gil Vicente, wrote in Spanish) Camoes / Os Lusiadas ● Luis de Camoes (1524-1580), wrote Os Lusíadas in celebration of Portuguese history and seafaring. The epic poem recounts the voyages of Vasco de Gama King Sebastian of Portugal (1554- 1578) ● In 1578, when he was 24, king Sebastian of Portugal sailed for Morocco determined to fight his way to the Holy Land to liberate Jerusalem. ● He had with him an army of 16,000 men, including 2,000 volunteers from Castile and virtually the whole adult male membership of Portuguese nobility. Disaster of Alcacer-Kebir (1578), and annexation of Portugal ● The battle of Alcacer-Kebir was a massacre: half of the Portuguese army was killed (including the king) and thousands were taken prisoners. ● Sebastian was succeeded by his uncle Henry, but when Henry died (1580), Philip II of Spain, also uncle of king Sebastian, was the most serious candidate for the position. ● The duke of Alba overran the country, and Philip was recognized as king by the Portuguese Corte. The old goal of uniting the entire Iberian Peninsula was finally achieved. Spain’s Global Empire ● Most Spanish colonial expansion was completed before Philip II. During his reign, however, the Spanish established colonies and garrisons in the present S United States and conquered the Philippine Islands (named for the king). ● With the annexation of Portugal, at the end of the 16th C. Spain’s colonial Empire stretched across the whole world: North and South America, Asia, Africa, and Europe. ● First global empire. Not even the Roman empire had such an extension. End of Philip’s reign. Internal problems ● Depopulation: the last decade of the 16th C. was characterized by famine and plague. Population decreased by 10%, ● The debilitating effects of depopulation, of colonial overexpansion, and of continuous wars began to make themselves strongly felt in Philip’s Spain. ● American gold and the proceeds of an increasingly heavy taxation were not enough to finance Philip’s foreign wars and had to be supplemented with loans. ● The king declared bankruptcy four times during his reign. He died in 1598 and was succeeded by his son Philip III. An artistic Golden Age: Renaissance Architecture ● The 16th and 17th C. are considered the Golden Age of Spain in art, architecture, and literature. ● Renaissance architecture: Proportion, symmetry, linear perspective. ● The Renaissance implied a classical revival (imitation of Greek and Roman classical forms). ● Two contrasting styles in Spain: Plateresque, and High Renaissance (Italian in inspiration). ● By mid sixteenth century, Plateresque was not in fashion anymore. It was supplanted by a more classical form of the Renaissance style. High Renaissance style: Palace of Charles I, and Granada’s Cathedral ● The uncompleted Palace of Charles I in Granada, built inside the Alhambra (1527-68) is a good example of High Renaissance style. ● Another example of High Renaissance style is the Cathedral of Granada (1518-1704). ● Although started in the Gothic style (Royal Chapel), most of the structure is Renaissance. ● The 17th century façade, composed of three large arches, was the work of Alonso Cano and evokes the great Roman triumphal arches High Renaissance and Herrera Styles ● The most important Renaissance building in Spain is the Escorial, built by Juan de Herrera outside Madrid.