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UAH / Engineering / CS 121 / What is a programmable device that can store, retrieve, and process da

What is a programmable device that can store, retrieve, and process da

What is a programmable device that can store, retrieve, and process da

Description

School: University of Alabama - Huntsville
Department: Engineering
Course: Computer Science I
Professor: Richard coleman
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Computer Science and Intro to Computer Science; Computer Science
Cost: 50
Name: CS 121 - Test #1
Description: These notes cover the topics included in the first exam
Uploaded: 06/08/2017
10 Pages 164 Views 0 Unlocks
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What is an auxillary storage device?




What is a peripheral device?




What is the primary purpose of Computer Science?



Define the following term:  Computer - a programmable device that can store, retrieve, and process  data Define the following term:  Algorithm - a step-by-step procedure for solving a problem in a finite  amount of time Define the following term: Computer Science - the scientific and logical approach to computations Define the following term:  CentrIf you want to learn more check out which of the following demonstrates the law of demand
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Don't forget about the age old question of life history traits that are favored in uncrowded environments are known as
al Processing Unit (CPU) - microprocessor mounted on the  motherboard Define the following term:  Programming - writing a list of instructions that tells the computer how to  solve a problem Define the following term:  Programming Language - a formal computer language designed to  communicate instructions to a macine Define the following term:  Data - information in a form the computer can use Define the following term:  Machine Language - another name for binary/what the computer  understands Define the following term: Compiler - translates high level languages into assembly Define the following term: Assembler - a program that translates assembly language into machine code Define the following term: Source File - a file that contains a program's source code; source files have  a .cpp filename extension Define the following term:  Object File - a file that contains the object code associated with a program;  automatically generated by the compiler Define the following term:  Hardware - CPU and all perihperal devices that attach to the CPU Define the following term:  Software - any program that is stored in RAM or ROM and is executable by  the microprocessor What is the primary purpose of Computer Science? - to solve problems What is a peripheral device? Give three examples: - 1) Monitor 2) Mouse 3) Keyboard What is an auxillary storage device? Give three examples: - 1) USB 2) Hard Disk Drives 3) CDs What is the operating system? - provides an interface between an  application program and the computer hardware What is software piracy and why is it an important concern for software  engineers? - the unauthorized copying of software, What is the ASCII code? - a code for representing English characters as  numbers, with each letter assigned a number from 0 to 127 List and briefly define the seven problem solving techniques used in  computer program design: - 1) Ask questions 2) Look for things that are familiar  3) Solve by analogy 4) Means-ends analysis 5) Divide and conquer 6) Building-block approach 7) Merging solutions What is a function in a C++ program? - a group of statements that perform  a task togetherList and briefly define the three elements of the C++ language. - 1) Syntax  and semantics: defining the syntax or grammar of the language, and the  semantics or meaning of commands in the language.  2) Symbols: defining certain operations, like the math operations of  addition, subtraction, etc. 3) Reserve words: words that have a specifically defined meaning in a  command. What is the difference between Syntax and Semantics? - If you violate any of the syntax rules your program won't compile. If you violate any of the  semantics rules your program may compile and run, but it won't run  correctly. What is an identifier in a C++ program and what are the rules for naming  identifiers? - identifiers are the names we give things in our program. The  identifier must vegin with a letter, upper or lower case, may consist of any  number of letters or numbers plus the underscore charcter, may not be any  of the reserved words in the C++ language, may not contain any spaces. What is a variable? - a location in memory where we can store data values What are the 5 integer data types in C++? - 1) int 2) short 3) long 4) float 5) double What are the 3 real data types in C++? - 1) float 2) double 3) long Is the string a C++ data type? Why or why not? - If strings are a data type  in the sense of basic or atomic data types, then no, strings are not a data  type. The string object is a part of a special C++ library known as the  Standard Template Library Show how to create a string variable and store a string value in it. - string  bookTitle; Show how to concatenate strings with the + operator. - bookTitle = phrase1 + phrase2; What is a constant in a C++ program: - a location in memory, referenced by  an identifier, that contains a data value that cannot be changed Show how to create a constant called PI and set its' value to 3.141592. -  const double PI = 3.141592 What is a literal value in a C++ program. - any number that cannot be  modified by a program, but may be copied into a variable for further use.Given a list of names of people making significant contributions to the  development of modern computers and a list of those contributions be able  to match the person's name to what they did. - ENIAC - J. Prosper Eckert  and John W. Mauchly ABC - Dr. John Vincent Atanasoff & Clifford Berry Mark I - Howard Aiken & Grace Hopper Given a list of historical events in the development of modern computer  technology, be able to place the events in chronological order. - Groups of  pebbles, sticks, notches on sticks, and knotted ropes are used to count  objects. (Ancient times) Abacus is used to perform mathematical calculations in the Roman Empire.  (Roman Republic and Empire, circa 500 BC to 500 AD) John Napier invents logarithms. (circa 1600) William Oughtred invents the slide rule. (1621) Blaise Pascal invents the Pascaline, a machine to perform addition and  subtraction. (1642) Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz invents calculus and creates a calculating  machine which could add, subtract, multiply, and divide. (1673) Basile Bouchon invents a programmable loom using the ideas from the  paper rolls of player organs built by his father. (1725) Jean-Batist Falcon invents a progrmmable loom that used stacks of thin slats of wood with holes punched in them to control the patterns. (1728) Joseph Marie Jacquard invents a programmable loom that uses thin slats of  wood connected together to create a long "treadmill" of cards with punched holes in them to control the patterns. (1745) Charles Babbage designs the Difference Engine (1822) and the Analytic  Engine (1834), programmable mechanical computers. Ada Lovelace becomes the first programmer after writing a sequence of  steps for programming the Analytic Engine. (1843) Herman Hollerith invents a punched card reader for use with tabulating the census. (1880s) John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry invent the first electronic  computer known as the Atanasoff-Berry Computer, or ABC (1939-1942) The Colossus I computer is invented at Bletchly Park England for use in  breaking Nazi military codes. (1943)The Mark I computer invented by Howard Aiken in which Grace Hopper  finds the first computer "bug". (1944) J. Prosper Eckart and John Mauchly invent ENIAC, the first multi-purpose  programmable computer. (1946) John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley invent the transister at Bell Labs. (1948) J. Prosper Eckart and John Mauchly invent UNIVAC, the first practical, mass produced, electronic computer. (1951) Fortran programming language is created to run on the IBM System/360  computer. (1964) Digital Equipment Corporation begins marketing the PDP-8, the first  integrated circuit computer. (1965) Intel Corporation produces the first microprocessor. (1971) Popular Electronics magazine publishes plans for building the Altair 8800,  the world's first microcomputer. (1975) Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniac begin marketing the Apple II. (1977) IBM begins marketing the IBM-PC (1981). Apple begins marketing the Macintosh, the first computer with a Graphical  User Interface (1984). The Internet comes on-line linking computers all over the world. (1990s) What function is used to print to the screen? Demonstrate its use. - cout <<  "statement" << endl; What operators are used to enclose a block of code in a C++ program? -  Curly brackets ({ }) What does the #include preprocessor directive do? - Includes header files  for other libraries, classes, interfaces, etc. What header file do you have to #include in a program to use the cout  command? - <iostream> What is the insertion operator and what is it used for? - The insertion  operator (>>) is used to display information on the console What is an escape code? - invokes an alternative interpretation on  subsequent characters in a character sequenceDefine the escape code: \x64 - Prints the related ASCII symbol @ Define the escape code: \" - Insert a single double quote character in a  string Define the escape code: \\ - Insert a backslash character in a string. Define the escape code: \t - Horizontal tab. Move the cursor to the next tab  stop. Define the escape code \n: - New line. Positions the cursor at the beginning  of the next line. Define Unary Operator: - an operator that takes a single operand in an  expression or a statement Define Binary Operator: - operates on two operands and manipulates them  to return a result Mixed Type Expression: - An expression involving more than one data type.  Usually used in the context of combing integer and floating point types in  numeric computations. What is the difference between a signed and an unsigned integer type  variable? - Signed variables will allow you to represent numbers both in the  positive and negative ranges.  Unsigned variables will only to represent numbers in the positive range. What are the 5 basic math operators (symbols) used in C++ for addition,  subtraction, multiplication, division, and modulus division? - 1) Addition: + 2) Subtraction: - 3) Division: / 4) Multiplication: * 5) Modulus Division: % Given two integer variables (int x=33 and int y=2), what is the answer to  the following two formulas:  z = x / y; z = z % y; - Formula #1) 16 Formula #2) 0 What is the order of precedence of the basic math operators? - 1)  Multiplication 2) Division 3) Remainder 4) Multiplication 5) Addition 6) Subtraction7) Assignment What is meant by type coercion and type casting? - Type casting: The  implicit (automatic) conversion of a value from one data type to another Type coercion: The explicit (intentional) conversion of a value from one data type to another What does the following format specifier do when used in a cout statement  to print numeric data:  showpoint - Sets the showpoint format flag for the str stream. What does the following format specifier do when used in a cout statement  to print numeric data:  setprecision - Sets the decimal precision to be used to format floating-point  values on output operations. What does the following format specifier do when used in a cout statement  to print numeric data:  setw - set the field width of the next item output What does the following format specifier do when used in a cout statement  to print numeric data:  fixed - Force all subsequent number output to be in decimal notation instead of scientific notation. What does the following format specifier do when used in a cout statement  to print numeric data:  scientific - Force all subsequent number output to be in scientific notation  instead of decimal notation Explain the difference between a function declaration/prototype and a  function definition. -  Why must function prototypes be placed before the start of main()? -  Because the main function is where the program begins executing, and  without the function prototypes declaring the existance of the function Define:  function interface -  Define:  non-local identifier - Define:  scope rules -  Define:  scope of a variable -  Define:  static variable -  Define:  local variable -  Define:  global variable -  Define:  call-by-reference -  Define:  function declaration -  Define:  call-by-value -  Define:  function prototype -  Define:  function definition -  Define:  function call - a call that passes control to a subroutine Define: function parameters - specify the type and a local name by which the values  may be accessed inside the function body Define:  reference parameter -  Define:  function arguments -  Define:  value parameter -  List three types of function parameters and be able to demonstrate each by  writing a function prototype where each is used. - 1)  2)  3) Explain the difference between a void function and a value-returning  function. -  List and briefly explain the meaning of the five scope rules discussed in  class. - 1) Function Scope: Identifiers declared in the outermost block of a  function have function scope. They can be accessed only in the function that declares them. 2) File Scope: Identifiers declared outside all blocks and functions have file  scope. It can be used in all the blocks and functions written inside the file in which the variable declaration appears. These identifiers are known from  their point of declaration until the end of file. 3) Block Scope: Blocks are portions of C++ code contained within curly  braces] 4) Function Prototype: Variables appearing in the parameter lists of function prototypes have function - prototype scope 5) Class Scope: A class member is local to its class and has a class scope What is meant by variable lifetime? - variable lifetime refers to the time  duration where the variable is in a valid state What is the difference between an automatic and a static variable? -  Automatic variable: What is meant by data encapsulation or data hiding and why is it so  important in program construction. -  What is meant by side effects of a function? - What are all of the values a bool data type can hold? -

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