BI213 Final Study Guide Ch. 51 – Animal Behavior 1. Social learning is when problem solving is learned from observing another individual’s behavior. 2. Classical conditioning is when an arbitrary stimulus is associated with a particIf you want to learn more check out gita kolluru
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ular outcome (ex. Pavlov’s dog and bell experiment) 3. Imprinting is when there is an establishment of a long lasting behavior to a particular individual or object. 4. A stimulus response chain has a response to each stimulus which is the stimulus for the next behavior. 5. Tactile communication is shown when male fruit flies touch a female with his foreleg to alert her of his presence. 6. Behaviors like migration and reproduction that are linked to light and dark cycles are part of behavioral rhythms. 7. The sequence of unlearned acts that are directly linked to a simple stimulus is a fixed action pattern. 8. Migratory orientation within a species is determined by genetics. 9. Trial and error learning is operant conditioning. 10. Male prairie voles are monogamous, care for the young, and are aggressive towards any intruders. This is due to the distribution of vasopressin gene receptors in the voles’ brains. 11. A pheromone is a chemical substance that signals an alarm to the organism. 12. Across a wide range in California, prey within a species of western gardener snakes differ because of a genetically based behavioral variation. 13. Associative learning is associating an environmental feature, such as color, with another environmental feature, such as a bitter taste. 14. The cognitive activity in devising a method to approach an obstacle is called problem solving. 15. Animals engaging in agonistic behavior display themselves as large and as threatening as they can. 16. Agonistic behavior can result from competition for food, resources, or mates. 17. When females choose a male mate based on appearance or song, this is considered a courtship ritual. 18. Behavior that decreases an individual’s fitness but increases the fitness of other individuals in the population is called altruism. 19. Imprinting a long-lasting behavioral response to a particular individual or object must be done during the organism’s sensitive period. 20. Kin selection is the enhancing of the reproductive success of relatives. 21. Hamilton’s rule states that for natural selection to favor an altruistic act, the benefit to the recipient must exceed the cost to the altruist.22. Inclusive fitness is the total effect an individual has on producing its offspring and providing it aid that also enables other close relatives to increase the production of their offspring. 23. The explanation of how a behavior occurs or is modified (by a stimulus) is the proximate causation. 24. The explanation of why a behavior occurs (in the context of evolution or natural selection) is the ultimate causation. 25. Two squirrels act oddly because one has bitten the other’s tail. The proximate causation would be that squirrels bite when another squirrel’s tail is present. 26. Honeybees communicate information about the location of food sources to other worker bees visually. 27. Pheasant chicks immediately peck at the ground for seeds after hatching; the ultimate cause of this behavior is that pheasant chicks that pecked survived and reproduced the best. 28. Sunbirds that fiercely defend a good food producing flower is an example of optimal foraging. 29. The optimal foraging model states that natural selection favors behavior that minimizes the cost of foraging and maximizes its benefits. 30. Ants carry dead ants to a trash pile. Even if a live ant has the dead ant pheromone, it will still be carried out. This is due to the chemical being a sign stimulus for a fixed action pattern. 31. Polygamous relationships involve one sex mating with many of the other sex. 32. Polygyny is where one male mates with many females. 33. Polyandry is where one female mates with many males. 34. Monogamy is where each sex has one partner (one female to one male). 35. The fraction of genes that are shared by two individuals is the coefficient of relatedness. 36. Sociobiology is about certain behaviors that are the expression of genes that have been favored by evolution. 37. A study where the young of one species are placed in the care of adults in a different species is called a cross-fostering study. 38. Tinbergen’s four questions in understanding animal behavior are: a. What stimulus elicits the behavior; what physiological mechanisms mediate the response? b. How does the animal’s experience during growth and development influence the response? c. How does the behavior aid survival and reproduction? d. What is the behavior’s evolutionary history? 39. A male fruit fly lacking the fru gene would fail to produce any offspring. 40. Males and females appearing differently due to sexual dimorphism occur in polygynous species, with males being showier than females. In polyandrous species, both are dimorphic but the females are showier than males.41. Monogamous species have animals that are difficult to distinguish sexes based on external characteristics. 42. Circannual rhythms are behaviors linked to the yearly cycle of seasons. Ch. 52 Ch. 53 – Population Ecology 1. Density-independent factors are unrelated to population size. 2. Examples of density-dependent factors are a. Competition for resources b. Disease c. Predation d. Territoriality e. Intrinsic factors f. Toxic wastes 3. Organisms that undergo a “one-shot” pattern of big-bang reproduction (produce many offspring then die, like salmon) undergo semelparity. 4. Iteroparity is repeated reproduction (ex. loggerhead turtles reproduce every 2-3 years. 5. Two factors that contribute to the evolution of semelparity vs iteroparity is the survival rate of the offspring and the likelihood that the adult will survive and reproduce again. 6. When the survival rate of offspring is low in variable or unpredictable environments, semelparity is favored. 7. When the survival rate of offspring is high in consistent environments, iteroparity is favored. 8. K-selection, or density-dependent selection, describes life history traits that are sensitive to population density. 9. r-selection, or density-independent selection, describes life history traits that maximize reproductive success in uncrowded environments. 10. The carrying capacity of an environment is the maximum amount of individuals it can hold, based on its available resources. 11. Type I survivorship curve has a low birth rate, long life span, and drops steeply at old age. Type II has a constant death rate and Type III has a high birth rate but low survivor rate. 12. The ecological footprint is the concept that summarizes the aggregate water and land required by each person to produce all resources s/he needs and absorb all waste s/he produces.13. A group of spatially separated populations of one species that interact through immigration and emigration is a metapopulation. 14. The exponential graph is shown as a J-curve, in an environment of virtually unlimited resources. 15. A graph that plots the numbers of individuals alive at a particular age is the survivorship curve. 16. Demography is the study of the vital statistics of a population and how they change over time. 17. A cohort is a group of individuals of the same age that are followed from birth until death. 18. A life table is the summary of the survival pattern of a population, not a graph. 19. The difference between immigration and emigration is that immigration is the influx of new populations from other areas and emigration is the movement of individuals out of a population. 20. Although some organisms fall in between iteroparity and semelparity, there are some life history trade-offs due to the high energy cost of reproduction. This means there are enough resources to reproduce often, produce many offspring, and take care of them. 21. The selective pressures of having a large brood of offspring to care for lowers the survival rate of the parents. 22. Fluctuations in the number of individuals in a population from year to year is called population dynamics. 23. A density-independent factor affects the same percentage of the population regardless of population density. 24. If r is positive, rN in the formula dN/dt = rmaxN(K-N)/K causes the population to grow increasingly rapidly. 25. In a clumped pattern of dispersion, organisms live in a homogenous abiotic environment in an uneven distribution for resources or to cooperate to avoid being eaten. 26. In a uniform pattern, distributions are even from competitive interactions between individuals. 27. In a random pattern, this results from a n even distribution of resources and lack of a social behavior. 28. A population that grows quickly but then levels off can be modeled by a logistic equation. 29. A population that grows logistically grows the fastest at an intermediate population size. 30. The ultimate size of any population is limited by the environment’s carrying capacity. 31. A population is a group of a single species living in the same area. 32. Territoriality is the antagonistic social interaction used to defend a bounded physical space. 33. Density is the number of individuals in a population in a unit area. Dispersion is the pattern of spacing of individuals in a population.Ch. 54 – Community Ecology 1) A group of populations of different species living close enough to interact is called a biological community. 2) Two key factors in species richness equatorial-polar gradients are climate and evolutionary history. 3) Primary causes of the latitudinal gradient in biodiversity are the climatic factors of water availability and solar energy input. 4) A species’ ecological niche is its use of the abiotic and biotic resources in its environment. 5) The aggregate land and water area required by a person, city, or nation to produce all of the resources it consumes and to absorb all of the wastes it produces is the ecological footprint. 6) The carrying capacity of an area is the maximum population size that a particular environment can sustain. 7) A demographic transition occurs in stable populations, where there is a shift from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. 8) To protect themselves from herbivores, plants use chemical toxins. 9) Herbivory is where an organism eats parts of a plant or algae. 10) Herbivores use adaptations such as feet chemical sensors, sense of smell, or specialized teeth/digestive tracts. 11) Because each existing community changes the environment, the succession of communities occurs. 12) Transitions in species composition over ecological time is the process known as ecological succession. 13) The food web is a diagram of the trophic relationships of a community showing who eats whom. 14) As the area of a community increases, so do the number of species. 15) An example of an ectoparasite is a leech attaching to a swimmer. 16) Parasitoids are insects whose larvae hatch in and then feed on their hosts. 17) Parasites that live within the body of their hosts are endoparasites. 18) Interspecific competition is when two or more species compete for a resource that is short in supply. 19) Interspecific competition is most obvious when a nonnative organism is introduced to the community. It includes predation, herbivory, symbiosis, and facilitation. 20) Symbiosis, where individuals of two or more species live in close contact with one another, includes parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism. 21) In mutualism, both species benefit from the interaction. 22) In commensalism, one species benefits from the interaction, while the other is unaffected by it.23) In facilitation, species have positive effects on the survival/reproduction of other species without direct contact. 24) Solar radiation determines the potential evapotranspiration. 25) Because zooplankton feed on cyanobacteria, removing fish that eat zooplankton during an algal bloom would allow the cyanobacteria population to decrease and the zooplankton to increase. 26) In Batesian mimicry, a palatable/harmless species mimics an unpalatable/harmful species to avoid predators. 27) Harmful species mimicking each other is Mullerian mimicry 28) Cryptic coloration is camouflage for animals. 29) When equilibrium is reached on an island, the rate of immigration will equal the rate of extinction/emigration. 30) Examples of defensive adaptations are mechanical defense, Mullerian mimicry, aposematic coloration, and Batesian mimicry. 31) A zoonotic pathogen is transferred to humans from other animals. 32) Diseases transferred through direct contact by an intermediate species is called a vector. 33) The main difference between keystone species and dominant species is that keystone species exert control through important roles or niches, even though dominant species are the more abundant ones (have the highest biomass in the community). 34) Foundation species alter the structure or dynamics of the environment. 35) A reduction in the number in a keystone species results in decreased community diversity. 36) Resource partitioning allows similar species to coexist in a community; evolution or natural selection eventually separates their ecological roles. 37) The principle of competitive exclusion states that two species can’t coexist permanently in a community at the same time if their niches are identical. 38) The tendency of characteristics to diverge more in sympatric than allopatric populationa is character displacement. 39) When competitive exclusion, an outcome of interspecific competition, occurs, the inferior competitor is eliminated. 40) In primary succession, soil has not yet formed and its life-forms that are first found are prokaryotes and protists. 41) Shannon diversity is used to compare the diversity of communities across time and space. 42) The species diversity of a community has two components: species richness and the number of different species in a community. Ch. 55 – Ecosystems, Restoration, and Ecology1) A measure of production that is calculated by subtracting autotrophic respiration from all primary production in an ecosystem is called net primary production. 2) The total biomass of photosynthetic autotrophs present is a measure called standing crop. 3) The net primary production is the amount of new biomass added in a given period of time. 4) The measure of total biomass accumulation during a given period of time is net ecosystem production. 5) The total primary production of an ecosystem is gross primary production. 6) The percentage of energy stored in assimilated food that is not used for respiration or eliminated as waste is production efficiency. 7) The percentage of production transferred from one trophic level to the next-higher trophic level is trophic efficiency. 8) Important biogeochemical cycles in ecosystems include phosphorus, water, carbon, and nitrogen. a. Water is important because its availability influences the rates of ecosystem processes such as primary production and decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. b. Carbon is an essential part of organic molecules in all organisms. c. Phosphorus is a major component of nucleic acids, phospholipids and ATP molecules. d. Nitrogen is a part of amino acids, proteins, and nucleic acids; it is also a limiting plant nutrient. 9) Autotrophs are primary producers. 10) Detrivores are consumers that derive their energy and nutrients from nonliving organic material such as corpses, fallen plant material, and the wastes of living organisms. 11) Most solar radiation that reaches Earth’s surface lands on bare ground and bodies of water that absorb or reflect incoming energy. 12) Increased rates of decomposition occur in tropical systems. 13) Temperature, moisture, and nutrient availability limit primary production in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems as well as decomposition. 14) The main abiotic reservoir for elements involved in local biogeochemical cycles, such as calcium and phosphorus, is soil. 15) An ecosystem consists of all the organisms living in an area and the abiotic factors with which they interact. 16) Detrivores are considered heterotrophs. 17) The amount of chemical energy in a consumer’s food that is converted to its own new biomass over a period of time is called secondary production. 18) The new biomass created in primary producers is called primary production. 19) In a marine ecosystem, iron stimulates the growth of cyanobacteria, which convert atmospheric N2 to nitrogenous minerals, stimulating the growth of phytoplankton. a. Without cyanobacteria to convert nitrogen to usable forms, phytoplankton populations are likely to be low. 20) The main decomposers in an ecosystem are fungi and prokaryotes. 21) Over oceans, evaporation exceeds precipitation. 22) Transpiration is evaporative water loss from terrestrial plants. 23) Deforestation of a watershed can dramatically increase the flow of water and minerals out of the watershed. 24) Bioremediation is a process that uses organisms to detoxify polluted ecosystems. 25) When energy released by respiration exceeds the energy captured in photosynthesis in a community, this means that the community biomass is decreasing. 26) The phosphorus cycle includes an organic component (living organisms), mineral (PO34- absorbed by plants), and aquatic component (phosphorus is found in water). 27) The law of conservation of mass states that matter cannot be created or destroyed. This allows scientists to determine the gain or loss of a chemical element in an ecosystem. 28) Chemical elements are continuously recycled within ecosystems, but energy is not. 29) Nitrogen is supplied in ecosystems through nitrogen fixation. 30) Ecosystems are open systems, which absorb energy and mass and release heat and waste products. 31) Local conditions such as rainfall or removal of plants may limit the amount of available nitrogen, phosphorus, or calcium but not carbon because carbon is readily available in the air. 32) The global hydrologic cycle supports a net flow of atmospheric water vapor from the oceans to land. 33) Restoration ecology is the practice of renewing or restoring damaged or destroyed ecosystems that were affected by human activity. 34) The direct product of nitrogen fixation is NH3. a. Nitrogen fixation makes N2 available to plants. b. Nitrification produces nitrite, which is then converted to nitrate (NO3-) by nitrifying bacteria. 35) In biological augmentation, organisms are used to add essential nutrients to a degraded ecosystem. 36) Nutrient enrichment such as nitrate and phosphate runoffs from land frequently and directly result in eutrophication, creating an explosive increase in the density of photosynthetic organisms. 37) In a working ecosystem such as the arctic tundra, there are diverse species interactions, energy and matter transfers, chemical cycling, and dynamic populations. 38) In an ecosystem, all incoming energy will eventually be dissipated as heat. 39) Solar radiation is the ultimate energy source for most ecosystems, and respiratory heat loss is the ultimate sink.Ch. 56 – Conservation, Biology, and Global Change 1) Top-level carnivores are the most affected by toxic compounds in the environment because the biomass at any given trophic level is produced from a larger biomass ingested at the level below. 2) In the process of biomagnification, the concentration of toxic compounds increases at each subsequent trophic level. 3) The minimum viable population is the minimal population size at which a species is able to sustain its numbers. 4) The extinction vortex is the downward spiral in which inbreeding and genetic drift combine to cause a small population to shrink and become extinct. 5) The effective population size is the estimate size of a population that is based on the numbers of females and males that successfully breed. 6) Conservation biology applies a global perspective to the changes happening across Earth; it integrates ecology, physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and evolutionary biology to conserve biological diversity at all levels. 7) An endangered species is in danger of extinction. a. As more species are lost to extinction, species diversity decreases. 8) Molecular biology is used in controlling overharvesting. 9) Ecosystem services include all the processes through which natural ecosystems and the species they contain help sustain human life on Earth. a. Some examples are crop pollination, water purification, and moderation of weather extreemes. 10) A biodiversity hotspot is a relatively small area with numerous endemic species and a large number of endangered or threatened species. 11) A series of small clumps or a narrow strip of quality habitat that connects otherwise isolated patches of quality habitat is a movement corridor. 12) Critical load is the amount of an added nutrient, usually nitrogen or phosphorus, that can be absorbed by plants without damaging the ecosystem’s integrity. 13) A zoned reserve is an extensive region that includes areas relatively undisturbed by humans, surrounded by areas changed from human activity and used for economic gain. 14) Biodiversity is considered at three levels: genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity. 15) Genetic diversity consists of the genetic variations among individuals in a population and populations that are often associated to local conditions. 16) Species diversity is the variety of a species in an ecosystem or across the biosphere. 17) Ecosystem diversity is the variety of the biosphere’s community and ecosystems (and their interactions). 18) Individuals generally have a better chance of reproducing by remaining behind rather than dispersing and excavating homes in new territories.19) The reason for the decline of the prairie chicken in Illinois was because of a decrease in fertility due to lack of genetic diversity in the population. 20) A small population that inbreeds may be drawn into an extinction vortex. 21) Inbreeding and genetic drift can result in a loss of genetic variation. 22) Mining and forestry result in habitat loss. 23) Climatologists can measure past atmospheric CO2 concentrations by measuring the air bubbles trapped in glacial ice. 24) An exotic species is an introduced species. 25) The release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the atmosphere is most directly linked to the destruction of the ozone layer. 26) Biophilia is the natural human connection to nature and other forms of life. 27) Rising CO2 levels could increase vegetative productivity. 28) The effects of global warming are more noticeable at the polar regions because loss of ice and snow increases the amount of solar energy absorbed by the land and water, creating feedback effect that speeds warming in those areas. 29) The greatest cause of extinction of species today is habitat alteration. 30) Ozone is beneficial in the upper atmosphere because it protects Earth from UV radiation. It is harmful in the lower atmosphere because it has harmful effects on lung function. 31) Amphibians are most severely threatened with extinction.