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CALPOLY / Biology / BIOL 263 / How does age structure affect population growth?

How does age structure affect population growth?

How does age structure affect population growth?

Description

School: California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo
Department: Biology
Course: Intro Ecology and Evolution
Professor: Lima sean
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Bio, Biology, CAl, poly, California, polytechnic, state, University, slo, San, Luis, obispo, alexis, rousek, Gita, kolluru, Ecology, evolution, 263, species, community, notes, week, 10, and handwritten
Cost: 25
Name: BIO 263 Week 10 Notes
Description: End of Lecture 10 Lecture 11 Species Interactions Lecture 12 Intro Community Ecology
Uploaded: 06/10/2017
2 Pages 186 Views 0 Unlocks
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BIO 263 week 10 Notes

The Hare - Lynx Cycle

  • No lynx plot
  • Not enough to completely prevent population crash
  • Extra food plots
  • Not enough to completely prevent population crash
  • No lynx + extra food plot
  • Shows that both predation + food influence population flux
  • How Does Age Structure Affect Population Growth?

  • Proportion of individuals at each possible age
  • Influences population growth
  • Age pyramid = depicts # of males + females of each age group
  • Uniform vs top / bottom - heavy
  • Developed countries = uniform → top (care for old people)
  • Developing countries = bottom heavy → uniform (education + jobs)
  • Human Population

  • Since 1970 growth rate ® is dropping
  • 1990 -1995 1.46% per year; now 1.2%
  • 1rst long - term decline ever
  • Zero population growth = fertility at replacement rate sustained for a generation
  • Replacement rate = each woman produces exactly enough offspring to replace herself and father
  • Lecture II : Species Interactions (community ecology)

  • Commensalism (+/0) (effect  on fitness)
  • Interaction between 2 species where one one benefits and the other in new
  • Driver ants(0), ant - birds (+)
  • Competition (-/-)
  • intraspecific  competition → logistic population growth, (r decreases)
  • Fighting wolves
  • BIO 263 week 10 Notes

  • Interspecific competition(if niches overlap)
  • Competitive exclusion principle = species with exactly the same ecological niche cannot coexist for a meaningful period of time
  • Incomplete niche overlap
  • Fundamental nice = occupied by a species when there are no competitors (larger)
  • Realized niche = occupied by a species when competitors are present (smaller)
  • Mechanisms of coexistence: resource partitioning
  • Natural selection favors individuals that do no compete
  • Over evolution time
  • Resource partitioning = niche differential
  • Change in resource use (as to not compete)
  • Directional selection acting in opposite directions on each species
  • Character displacement = evolutionary trait change
  • Competition alters evolutionary change
  • Predicted that fortis wouldn't survive along due to big beaked, but the opposite was actually observed
  • Consumption (+/-) (herbivory)
  • Herbivores eat most algae in water, but little of the plants on lan
  • Why don’t terrestrial herbivores eat everything
  • Hypothesis
    1. Top - down control: predation or disease limits herbivores
    2. Bottom - up limitation: plants have low nutrients / defenses against herbivores
    3. Removal of predators or islands = fewer plants (top - down)
  • Top - down and bottom - up factors limit herbivore
  • Beaver + cottonwood example + beetles
  • Felled trees increase salicortin concentration in newly sprouted trees + beetle larvae survive better from resprouted trees
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    BIO 263 week 10 Notes

  • Cannibalism
  • Ingestion of a member of the same species (conspecific)
  • Heterospecific - different species = carnivory = predation
  • Example = praying mantis → sexual cannibalism
  • Example = spadefoot toad tadpole
  • Produce a cannibalistic morph during stressful situations
  • Costs = easier to get diseases (similar parasitism)
  • Harder than preddation
  • Predation (bobbit worm)
  • Prey Adaptations (standing defenses = always present)
  • Toxins + bright colors = warning = aposematism
  • Bombardier beetle = fighting = weapons
  • Stotting and tail flagging (signaling) (honest signal)
  • Indicates that the prey has noticed the predator
  • Fooling the predator
  • Mallerian mimicry → both are poisonous (monarch and viceroy)
  • Batesian mimicry → model is toxic mimic is not
  • Benefits of mimicry depend on abundance of the model
  • Where the model is absent mimicry is not as beneficial
  • Inducible Defenses ( prey adaptation )
  • Takes time to create
  • Animals don’t un - necessarily produce them (energy efficient)
  • Only produce when threatened
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