TEST 1 Page: 7–8 1. Compare and contrast psychoanalysis and behaviorism as two of the early schools of psychology. Page: 20–21 2. What strategies do pseudosciences often use in promoting their claims? Page: 12 3. Research on social loafing demWe also discuss several other topics like How are computer screens designed?
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onstrated that European participants worked harder on a task when working alone, whereas Chinese participants worked harder on a task when they were part of a group. These results illustrate the importance of the _____ perspective in psychology. Page: 8 4. Who made the statement “Behaviorism, on the contrary, holds that the subject matter of human psychology is the behavior of the human being. Behaviorism claims that consciousness is neither a definite nor a usable concept. The behaviorist, who has been trained always as an experimentalist, holds, further, that belief in the existence of consciousness goes back to the ancient days of superstition and magic.” Page: 9 5. Which of the following approaches was referred to as the “third force” in American psychology? Page: 21 6. A friend tells you that putting a small cardboard pyramid under your bed as you sleep at night will enhance your “psychic energy” and give you “inner peace.” Pseudoscientific claims like this: Page: 32 7. After the dictatorship ended in Slobonia, many children were found in staterun orphanages where they had been badly treated and often neglected. These children were placed for adoption and researchers followed their progress over a number of years, measuring psychological and physical indicators of wellbeing. This type of research is called: Page: 15 8. Dr. Woods is studying the degree to which primates seem to display logic and insight in figuring out a variety of puzzles and other simple problems. Dr. Woods is most likely a(n) _____ psychologist. Page: 26 9. Researchers interested in how sleep deprivation affected performance randomly assigned participants to groups that had one, two, or three nights of sleep deprivation. Then they tested their reaction times on a standard motor reaction task. The dependent variable in this experiment was: Page: 15 10. When he was having academic difficulties, Walter received counseling and an assessment from a professional who also consulted with his parents, teachers, and other school staff. This professional is most likely a _____ psychologist. Page: 26 11. While conducting research on intelligence, the experimenters were very careful to control for unwanted variability in such factors as age, gender, ethnic background, socioeconomic status, and so on. They did this in order to avoid or minimize the influence of: Page: 18 12. Dr. O'Connor was interested in whether men and women differ in sexual attitudes. She found that more than 170 studies had already been published on this issue. Using _____, she combined the results of these studies and analyzed the data for overall trends. TEST 1 Page: 58 1. How does information transmission in the endocrine system differ from that in the nervous system? Page: 63 2. Explain the difference between structural plasticity and functional plasticity, and give an example of each. Page: 67 3. Each cerebral hemisphere can be roughly divided into four lobes. Which lobe processes auditory information? Page: 43 4. Which of the following is TRUE about axons? Page: 66 5. Which structure helps relay information from higher brain regions to the cerebellum and helps coordinate and integrate movements on each side of the body? Page: 45 6. The action potential is produced by the: Page: 49–50 7. The neurotransmitter called acetylcholine: Page: 75 8. Following her stroke, Fernando's grandmother could understand what she read or what was being said to her. However, she had great difficulty speaking. Based on these observations, Fernando suspected that his grandmother's stroke had produced damage in: Page: 77 9. In the college cafeteria, your friend Larry, who is an art major, loudly proclaims that because he is an artist he is rightbrained and it's no wonder he's having trouble with his college algebra class. Because you have read this chapter, you are able to tell him that: Page: 51–52 10. Which of the following is NOT one of the ways discussed in the text that drugs can interfere with synaptic transmission? Page: 50 11. Former heavyweight boxer Muhammad Ali suffers from symptoms that are very similar to Parkinson's disease. He sometimes experiences muscle tremors and has difficulty initiating movements or speech. To help reduce these symptoms, Ali takes a drug called: Page: 77 12. In reading these test questions, you are primarily using your _____ to understand what you are reading. Page: 96–98 1. Describe and contrast the trichromatic and the opponentprocess theories of color vision. Page: 87 2. Define and describe the process of transduction, and explain how transduction takes place in at least two different senses. Be specific. Page: 86 3. In contrast to sensation, the term perception is formally defined as the: Page: 91 4. As you glance at the person sitting next to you in class, light reflected from the person's shirt first passes through which three structures of your eye? Page: 96–97 5. Marcel has redgreen color blindness. In other words, Marcel: Page: 92 6. Rods are to cones as _____ is to _____. Page: 117 7. The ability to perceive the three dimensions of an object, along with its distance from you, is called: Page: 108 8. According to gatecontrol theory, psychological factors can affect the experience of pain because: Page: 88 9. John puts one toe into the swimming pool and shivers because the water is so cold. He grits his teeth and dives in anyway. After about ten minutes, the temperature of the water seems quite comfortable to him. This example illustrates the principle of: Page: 118 10. As you drive down the highway, a child in the back seat asks why the tall buildings downtown are moving so slowly when the roadside is moving so quickly. Because you have read your psychology text, you are able to answer her question by responding that this is an example of: Page: 121 11. An ambulance passes you on the highway and speeds into the distance. As the ambulance gets farther away, its retinal image shrinks. Nevertheless, you still perceive the ambulance as being the same size. How do you arrive at this conclusion? Ans: The brain integrates information about the size of the retinal image and the relative distance of the ambulance. Page: 111 12. Jenny is looking at a picture in a newspaper and recognizes the person in the picture as her ex boyfriend. What perceptual processing is she using? Page: 160–161 1. Describe the two categories of meditation, and discuss the general effects of meditation. Page: 140 2. Discuss the contributions of the invention of the electroencephalograph and the discovery of REM sleep to modern sleep research. Page: 140 3. REM is an acronym that stands for: Page: 154 4. A parasomnia called _____ involves sharply increased physiological arousal, restlessness, sweating, a racing heart, and intense fear accompanied by a panicstricken scream or cry for help with no recollection of the episode in the morning. Page: 169 5. Which of the following is NOT a commonly prescribed tranquilizer? Page: 153–154 6. Shortly after Jamil began the ninth grade, he was sent to the principal's office several times for nodding off in his classes. His mother said that Jamil had recently started doing the same thing at home. When Jamil had to make a presentation in front of his geography class, he stood up, and then collapsed to the floor. Which of the following explanations is most likely? Page: 170 7. Dan drinks three or four large cups of coffee a day and finds that the caffeine increases his mental alertness, vigilance, wakefulness, and generally speeds up his thought processes. It produces its mentally stimulating effects by blocking adenosine receptors in the brain. Which of the following is FALSE about adenosine? Page: 150 8. Elaine is sitting in Sigmund Freud's office and tells him that she remembers a dream in which a car was parked in front of her house and a man with a baseball bat kept getting in and out of the car. After some discussion, Freud suggests to Elaine that the baseball bat probably symbolized the man's penis and the action of repeatedly entering the car probably symbolized sexual intercourse. The symbolic meaning of the dream that Freud suggested is called the _____ content. Page: 164 9. Jared regularly takes a pain reliever for his back pain. After a few weeks, he notices that he needs to increase the amount of painrelieving drug that he takes each day in order to achieve the same level of pain relief. The phenomenon that Jared is experiencing is called: Page: 153 10. Marvin, who has been diagnosed with narcolepsy, is very likely to experience: Page: 143 11. Danita goes to bed at 10 P.M. and quickly falls asleep. She sleeps soundly until 6 A.M. the next morning. Between 4 A.M. and 6 A.M. Danita will most likely experience: Page: 148 12. A couple of times during the night, you awaken slightly. Each time you awaken, you're aware of vague mental images that reflect a conversation you and your boss had about resolving a problem at work. These bland, thoughtlike ruminations about real events are best described as: Page: 188–189 1. Describe the famous “Little Albert” study, including the implications of the study's results. Page: 202–203 2. Describe at least three strategies that can be used to change behavior without resorting to punishment. Page: 183 3. The process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses is called: Page: 185 4. Which of the following has the greatest impact on the strength of the conditioned response? Page: 186 5. Fred's dog was classically conditioned to salivate at the sound of a bell. Fred then repeatedly paired the bell with another stimulus, a whistle. Now whenever he blows the whistle, his dog salivates, even though the whistle has never been paired with food. This example illustrates: Page: 193 6. Your friend Madison became very ill a few hours after eating the fried chicken special in the college cafeteria. Now, Madison feels queasy whenever she smells fried chicken. Having read the learning chapter in your psychology class, you explain that: Page: 199 7. You take two aspirin to relieve a headache. Thirty minutes later, the headache is gone. You are now more likely to take aspirin to deal with bodily aches and pain in the future. In other words, _____ has occurred. Page: 203 8. Standing at the curb, you wait for the “Don't Walk” crossing signal to change to “Walk.” Using operant conditioning terms, the “Don't Walk”/”Walk” crossing signal is a(n) _____ in this situation. Page: 208 9. At the beginning of the semester, the humanities instructor explains that there will be ten surprise quizzes over the semester, so students are strongly encouraged to keep up with their reading and attend every class. The humanities instructor is using a _____ schedule of reinforcement to encourage studying and class attendance. Page: 209 10. The psychologists and teachers at the Center for Special Needs Children have designed an elaborate program that teaches the children how to feed themselves, brush their teeth, and so forth using a carefully designed program of shaping and reinforcement. This is an example of: Page: 211 11. Helen always drives down Sheridan Avenue to go to the college campus. One morning Helen discovers that Sheridan Avenue is closed at 23rd Street because of flooding. Helen immediately takes a different route to the campus. How would psychologist Edward Tolman explain Helen's behavior? Page: 219 12. Based on a review of decades of research, the American Psychological Association and other public health organizations stated that viewing media violence: \