Study Guide for LTNS 230 First Exam, Spring 2017 I. Pre-Hispanic Period (Before 1492) (Review your notes on class lectures, maps and/or readings [on ILearn]) 1. Concept of Mesoamérica: A cultural region sharing a number of common characteristics throughout most of pre-Hispanic historyWe also discuss several other topics like gsu african american studies
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; its various cultures and main languages, and its geographical location in the Western hemisphere. 2. The legacy of Mesoamerican cultures: A different view of the world and a different set of values. 3. Mesoamerican cultures: ▪ Náhuatl (Teotihuacana, Olmeca, Tolteca, Mexica, Nicarao) ▪ Maya (Quiché, Cachiquel, Otomí, Mixteca, Tarasco, Zapoteca) ▪ Chorotega, Pipil, Mangue, etc. 4. Great subjects or themes in Mesoamerican indigenous literature. • Myths and legends • Sacred songs (hymns) • Epic poetry, lyric poetry, religious poetry • Chronicles • History • Didactic prose • Teachings about the gods • Principles of a pre-Hispanic philosophy 5. The Creation myth, Nahua sources: (Review your notes on class lectures, videos and/or readings [on ILearn]) • Dual principle, dual cosmic energy: “Our Mother, Our Father,” origin of all that exists: Ometéotl, god of duality and origin of other gods. Ome = two (dual); Teotl = cosmic energy. Ometéotl is also known as Ometecuhtli & Omecíhuatl or Tonacatecuhtli and Tonacacíhuatl • Legend of the Five Suns and the fragility of the earth • The creation myth and role of Quetzalcóatl as a creator of humankind, redeemer, and cultural hero • Why the Aztecs believed that sacrifice was necessary • Huitzilopochtli, the original god of the Mexica (his story and what he represented) 6. The Creation myth in the Maya Culture: The Popol Vuh. (Review your notes on class lectures, videos, and/or readings [on ILearn]) • Myth of the Creation of the world and the first animals and humans • Heroic deeds: the story of Hunahpú (Hunter) and Xbalanqué (Jaguar Deer) • Philosophical and ethical questions posed in the Popol Vuh • Different elements involved in the story (religion, history, ancestry, cosmology) • Human relationships, feelings and emotions, family ties, roles of men and women, cultural traditions, prejudices, and religious beliefs • The relationship of humans with Nature, the earth, and the environment • Fantastic elements; role of animals and relationship between humans and animalsStudy Guide LTNS 230 First Exam 2 7. The literary genres or forms of expression in Náhuatl during the pre-Hispanic (or pre-Columbian) period, recorded in códices. (Review your notes on class lectures, videos, and/or readings [on ILearn]) ▪ tlahtōlli : (teotlahtōlli and huehuetlahtōlli) and ▪ cúicatl : (teocuícatl, xopancuícatl, xochicuícatl, yaocuícatl, icnocuícatl, cuecuechcuícatl) ▪ Náhuatl name for poetry (in xóchitl, in cuícatl) II. Conquest and Colonization Period (1492–1810) (Review your notes on class lectures, videos, and/or readings [on ILearn]) 1. Códices (from pre-Hispanic and Colonial periods): Mesoamericans had two principal means to keep their memory. One of them was through written códices. Unlike other parts of the world, writing in Mesoamerica did not start as an accounting aid but instead had religious, political, and historical purposes. In the códices Mesoamericans recorded: dates and places, names and persons, attributions of the gods, ideas and abstract concepts. The tlacuilo o tlahcuilo (from the náhuatl tlahcuiloh, “painter, illustrator”, in plural tlahcuilohqueh, were the scribes and painters, writers and sages who produced the books or códices. The tlahcuiloqueh were men and women who were skillful illustrators and painters trained since childhood in the Calmécac, to obtain a deep understanding of their language, culture, customs, religion, politics, art, etc., because they were required to have a vast knowledge of their society in order to write about it. The work of the tlahcuilos was linked to different activities, not only the pictographic one. The tlacuilo painted the códices, the murals and the sculptures in Mesoamérica. According to their field of expertise they were in charge of recording annals, genealogies, maps, law books, rituals and ceremonies; philosophers and sages were dedicated to record the sciences of their knowledge; others would record mythology, and still others would record about biological diversity. To make the códices the tlacuilos used amatl (āmatl) paper, deerskin, cotton cloth woven in manual loom, and maguey paper. They used a wide variety of instruments: paintbrushes and brushes, spatulas, moulds, measures, scales, compasses, and a simple copper or bronze pen to trace fine lines. They used black and red ink and a broad range of colors for paintings and glyphs. The códices were kept folded like folding screens in the amoxcalli, or houses of códices. Tlacuilos were under the protection of the goddess Xochiquétzal (precious flower or beautiful flower). In the Mexica mythology is the goddess of beauty, flowers, love and the pleasures of love, and the arts. The tlamatini was “the one who knows, the one who know things” that is the sage, who is equivalent to a philosopher for the mexica people. They were also poets and would discuss subjects about existence, truth, the nature of the cosmos, and the place of people in it. The tlamatini (plural tlamatinime) is described as “he who possesses the amoxtli and the black and red ink.”Study Guide LTNS 230 First Exam 3 The other means they had to keep their memory was the skillfully trained memory of priests, sages, rulers, and students in school and temples who were a living repository of knowledge so that the essence of the ancient world was always preserved, because the wisdom and symbols recorded in the books were in the mind and the mouth of the one who spoke. • Meaning of the word: Códices are books in Mesoamérica: Amoxtli = amatl + oxitl = glued sheets of paper. • The códices of Ancient Mesoamerica and the Colonial era. • The Cantares Mexicanos and Ballads of the Lords of New Spain • The Florentine Codex by Friar Bernardino de Sahagún. Its importance as the first ethnographic research project in Mesoamerica during the 16th century • The Codex Borbonicus • The Annals of Taltelolco • The Madrid or Tro-cortesianus codex • Three interesting things you learned from the Maya Códice (known as the Dresden Codex) from the video Cracking the Maya Code 2. The Spanish Heritage: Cultures that shaped the multiple Identity of Iberia (Spain), brought by the Spaniards to the New World. (Review your notes on class lectures, videos, and/or readings [on ILearn]) • The Americas first received the full sweep of Mediterranean tradition through Spain • Spain and Latin America have a conflictive relationship branded by several traumas (The conquest of the New World and the end of the splendid ancient indigenous civilizations) • Who are the Spaniards and where do they come from (Their history) • The Renaissance in Europe (Humanistic education, method of study; new ideas and religious reformation, invention of the printing press, meaning of Thomas More’s Utopia, etc.). • The Spanish Renaissance (The Reconquista or unification of the longed-for Christian kingdom, the official discovery of the western hemisphere, the publication of the first grammar of the Castilian language, the flourishing of the arts and literature, etc) 3. Novels published in Spain and their influence on the Conquerors expectations and on their view of the New World. • Utopia, by Thomas More • Books of Chivalry (or Romances of Chivalry) 4. Chronicles: The accounts of the Spanish (Iberian) conquest, exploration, and colonization of the New World published in Spain. They include Relaciones (letters of relations), derroteros (itineraries), journals, poetry, chronicles, and other narratives which are the origin of the Latino literary tradition. (Review your notes on class lectures, videos, and/or readings [on ILearn]) • Chronicles of Conquest (epic) • Chronicles of Exploration (mythic) • Chronicles of Colonization (contradictory) 5. Chroniclers from this period and the importance of their works: (Review your notes on class lectures, videos, and/or readings [on ILearn])Study Guide LTNS 230 First Exam 4 • Bernal Díaz del Castillo • Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca • Bartolomé de las Casas • Inca Garcilaso de la Vega 6. Harsh realities of colonialism that destroyed the dream of a Christian Utopia in the New World. (Review your notes on class lectures, videos, and/or readings [on ILearn]) • Plundering • Genocide • Slavery and the system of Encomienda • The Caste System in Spanish Colonial Society 6. The Baroque: Meaning of the word baroque, characteristics of the Baroque, use of the Baroque art by the Catholic Church, etc.) (Review your notes on class lectures, videos, and/or readings [on ILearn]) • The Baroque in Europe • The Baroque in Spain (the Golden Age of Spanish literature) • The Baroque Culture of The New World (The Baroque as a shifting art used by the people of the New World to express their self-doubts and their constant changing identity) • Black Culture In The Baroque of The New World (Its legacy in Latin American and Latino/a culture) • Syncretism in Latino-American-African culture 7. Review of the video When Worlds Collide (Indigenous, European and African cultures in the New World. The Baroque of the New World as expression of the cultural and religious syncretism of mestizaje. The Colonial society: system of castes. The subject of identity in the mestizo population) ▪ The great indigenous cultures of the Americas ▪ The history of Spain and the role of the Catholic Monarchs Isabella and Ferdinand ▪ How contact changed the Old World and the New World ▪ Religious syncretism in the New World ▪ The caste system created by the Spanish in the New World, and its failure ▪ African (Black) culture and its legacy in the Americas ▪ Who was Bartolomé de Las Casas, and what did he accomplished? ▪ What caused the fall of the Spanish Empire? ▪ Who was the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and what does he represent? ▪ What is mestizo culture. 8. Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz. Her literary power, the subtlety of her subversion, and her pursuit of all forms of knowledge. Why she is considered the most important writer and poet of the Baroque period in Colonial Spanish America, and one of the great poets of the world. (Review your notes on class lectures, handouts, and/or readings [sent by e-mail]) • The circumstances of her birth out of wedlock, and how this fact marked her vision of the world and her standing in a hierarchical Colonial society • The world in which Sor Juana was born, obsessed with, and nervous about, race, class, and identity. Also, women were restricted to three milieus: the domestic, the courtly, and the monastic; all of which were male-dominatedStudy Guide LTNS 230 First Exam 5 • Sor Juana’s personal quest for identity, and her life-long struggle for self-expression • Sor Juana’s hunger for wisdom which brought her glory; but also, and she always knew it, would precipitate her downfall • The Letter of Sor Filotea de la Cruz, an elaborate prank written by the Bishop of Puebla, Fernández de Santa Cruz—an authoritarian masquerade, an attack on Sor Juana’s overall character • The cultural value of A Spiritual Self-Defense, “First Dream,” and Response to Sor Filotea as documents that challenged the ecclesiastical status, promoted freedom of expression, and defended women’s rights • Reasons why the “Response to Sor Filotea” is considered a cornerstone of Hispanic- American identity III. Independence in Latin America, and Annexation by the U.S. (1810-1898) (Review your notes on class lectures, videos, and/or readings [on ILearn]) 1. Towards Independence: the Age of Nationalism: In the New World colonies the fever for independence began with the Spanish empire’s internal strife and inability to handle its overseas affairs, heightened by the American Revolution in 1776 when the British colonies in North America seceded from England, and later on the French Revolution was jump-started by the storming of the Bastille in 1789. As a result, among the educated Criollo elite from all Spanish Colonial America a widespread skepticism about autonomy turned into a cry for freedom. Creoles (or Criollos) vastly outnumbered Spaniards, but Creoles were vastly outnumbered by the “colored” majority. Both facts determined the nature of Spanish American Independence. Creoles were acute aware that they were on top of the pile, but secondary to Peninsular Spaniards in consideration, privileges, access to wealth, public posts, and political decision making, so they fostered a sense of self-reliance and autonomous survival among them. In 1810 a typical upper class Creole in Buenos Aires or in Mexico City would wonder whether they could go being considered simply a class or were they not becoming a nation? A Creole nation? Those questions lead to the emergence of a patriotic spirit among the Creole and the Mestizo population in Spanish America. 2. The Romantic Era in Europe and its influence in Latin America (and the United States) (Review your notes on class lectures, and/or readings [on ILearn]) • Romanticism’s essential spirit of revolt • The Romantic style (Libertarianism, Nature, the lure of the exotic) • The decline of Romanticism 3. Nationalism and Romanticism in Latin America (Review your notes on class lectures, videos, and/or readings [on ILearn]) • A patriotic spirit emerged in literature and nationalism became the central motif • This nationalism as a central motif was reflected in the work of Latin American writers in Spanish America • Nationalism was also reflected in the work of Latin American writers in the U.S. • Cuban writers Félix Varela and José María Heredia: why both are key figures in theStudy Guide LTNS 230 First Exam 6 creation of the Latino literary tradition, and are among the foundational figures for Hispanic culture in the U.S. • Puerto Rican writers and patriots Ramón Emeterio Betances and Eugenio María de Hostos, and their involvement in the independence struggle and nation building • Cuban writer José Martí, the most iconic figure in the Cuban-exile community, who would redefine the movement’s ideological aesthetic and died heroically fighting for the independence of Cuba 4. The Monroe Doctrine and domination of the U.S. (The Annexation Period) (Review your notes on class lectures, videos, and/or readings [on ILearn]) At the end of the 19th century the U.S. sought to compete with Europe for world domination and became the reigning force in the continent, guided by the Monroe Doctrine. (President James Monroe’s proclamation in 1823.) It states that European nations must not interfere in the activities of the Americas and that the U.S. will reciprocate by not interfering in the affairs of Europe. In 1845 the American editor and columnist John L. O’Sullivan first uses the phrase “manifest destiny,” in an editorial advocating the US annexation of Texas. Since 1819, the Adams-Onís Treaty, settling a border dispute between the U.S. and Spain, transferred ownership of Florida from Spain to the U.S. The concept of MANIFEST DESTINY was the belief, articulated during the presidency of Andrew Jackson (1829―1837) that the U.S. was destined to expand from the Atlantic coast to the Pacific coast. The influence of the Monroe Doctrine and the widespread conception of “Manifest Destiny” are the driving ideas in this period, galvanizing fierce resistance and equally fierce support. In 1846 starts the American-Mexican war. In 1848 the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the peace agreement that concluded the American-Mexican war, forced Mexico to give to the U.S. the territories known today as: California, Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, which was 525,000 square miles of Mexican land. The Treaty stipulated that the U.S. paid Mexico 15 million dollars for everything and now the U.S. expansion to the Pacific coast of North America was completed, and its “Manifest Destiny” to control the vast territory “from sea to shining sea” was fulfilled. The discovery of gold in California, which started in 1848 (the same year the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed) set off a stampede of people to the West (the California Gold Rush), and they had to travel across the plains and the Rocky Mountains in a long and difficult journey that lasted for months. As a result, the prospect of establishing an inter-oceanic transit route across the Isthmus of Central America stimulated intense U.S. interest; Nicaragua, as well as Panama, were the target areas. The 19th century U.S. millionaire Cornelius Vanderbilt noticed the conveniently located waterways that made Nicaragua an ideal site for an inter-oceanic canal. From the Atlantic coast, traveling up the San Juan River and across Lake Nicaragua, a shallow-water boat could get within twelve miles of the Pacific coast. Vanderbilt started a lucrative business transporting travelers across Nicaragua by building a road over the twelve-mile stretch of land. Thus Nicaragua became a major route for prospectors on their way to the California Gold Rush; but with U.S. business came the gunboats of the U.S. Government to preserve “the honor and interest of its citizens.” The first (of many) U.S. intervention in Nicaragua happened in 1853-54 when a contingent of Marines was sent there to settle a dispute between Vanderbilt’s transit company and local authorities of the small Atlantic port of San Juan del Norte, because Vanderbilt refused to pay taxes to the port authority. During Study Guide LTNS 230 First Exam 7 a fracas with the mayor of the port, a U.S. diplomat was grazed by a bottle thrown from an angry crowd, and, in retaliation, a U.S. naval gunship bombed the town until hardly a building was left standing. A landing party of Marines then looted the ruins and set them on fire. The Walker Affair: It has been called by several historians one of the most amazing and bizarre episodes in Central American history, and, particularly for Nicaraguans, one of the most galling. In 1854 the Nicaraguan Liberal and Conservative parties were engaged in a civil war. The Liberals appealed to a North American from Tennessee named William Walker to raise a contingent of “filibusters”—mercenaries—to bolster their forces. Given free passage on Vanderbilt’s ships, Walker sailed from San Francisco, California, to Nicaragua in June 1855, with a small band of armed Californians. Supported by wealthy landowners from the South of the U.S., Walker had a very different plan in mind: after his troops captured the Conservative capital of Granada, by holding the wealthy families of the Conservative leaders hostage and forcing them to surrender, he rapidly began to acquire real power. Walker was a firm believer in manifest destiny—the imperialist expansion of Yankee ideals, by force if necessary, beyond the boundaries of the Unites States. Calling himself “the Grey-Eyed Man of Destiny,” in July 1856 Walker took control of the Nicaraguan government, declared himself president, made English the official language, and established slavery. William Walker then became the first self-appointed dictator president of Nicaragua, supported by the U.S. Government. His involvement in the Nicaraguan civil war did not have any serious resistance from Washington, and when he finally seized the presidency of the country, his “government” was officially recognized by U.S. President Franklin Pierce. Nicaraguans of both parties became increasingly alarmed at the foreign takeover of their country, and, with the help of the combined armies from all the Central American Republics, in 1856 fought the Yankee interloper and drove him out of Nicaragua. Walker tried to return in 1860 to resume his war, but he was captured in Honduras and shot by a firing squad. In 1898, after the Spanish-American war, the U.S. takes Puerto Rico and the Philippines, and, although Cuba gets its independence, the Platt Amendment imposed by the U.S. doesn’t let the Cuban government do anything without the U.S. consent, and the U.S. also takes a piece of Cuban land, Guantánamo, to place a military base. Three years later in 1901, under President Theodore Roosevelt’s “Big Stick” policy, he explained his corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: “speak softly and carry a big stick.” In short, the U.S. invaded Mexico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and it annexed Puerto Rico. 5. Modernismo Introduction: By the end of the Romantic era, a new literary movement had swept through Latin America, Modernismo, the first since the Barroco de Indias to have a distinctly New World inflection. Its leader was the Nicaraguan Rubén Darío. The Nicaraguan (1867-1916) was the first major poet in the language since the seventeenth century, the end of the Golden Age whose masters included Garcilaso, Saint John of the Cross, Fray Luis, Luis de Góngora, Francisco de Quevedo and Sor Juana. The poetic revolution led by Darío spread across the Spanish-speaking world and extended to all of literature, not just poetry. In Spanish, Study Guide LTNS 230 First Exam 8 there is poetry before and after Rubén Darío, whose stature stature as a classic writer remains unequaled and is now beyond dispute. Study the readings “Modernismo,” “The Master of Modernismo,” and “The influence of Rubén Darío and the Modernistas in Latin America.” Highlight the main ideas presented in each text. Reading guide for the texts: ►Modernismo as a literary response to the modernization of Latin America in the last decades of the 19th century, and the reason why Darío gave it that name. ►Modernismo as a rupture with the early Romantic’s optimism about the U.S. as a potential ally and model to be imitated. Why did the Modernistas feared U.S. expansionism, not only in politics but, even more important, in culture? ► What did José Enrique Rodó forcefully articulated in "Ariel" (1900)? ► What made Darío’s Azul... so influential, and how long has this influence lasted? ► List all the literary and poetic innovations achieved by Rubén Darío. ► List the themes and/or topics Darío wrote about. ► List the characteristics of a Modernista poem. ► List the most prominent characteristics of the Modernista movement. How did it establish Latin American literary independence from Spain by articulating a Latin American identity, and how was this identity. Study the poems “To Roosevelt” and “Fatality.”