ARCH 150 Final Study Guide
ARCH 150 Final Study Guide arch 150
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This 77 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angel Lee on Tuesday June 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to arch 150 at University of Washington taught by Alex Anderson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 173 views. For similar materials see building across times in Architecture at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 06/09/15
l IIIIIII I nllllll IIIIIII IIIIII 1 I 1 I I l ZNOI Ame nZgt mCult iii g CUm BUILDING MATERIALS wood construction masonry construction mud brick adobe fired brick refined stone Roman concrete BUILDING SYSTEMS post and lintel Chinese bracket systems building post amp beam supporting heavy terracotta roof use of wood flexible fits many climactic environments diminished damage from earthquakes Gothic structure pointed arches rib vaults flying buttresses stained glass made possible by wideness first 3 elements provided BUILDING PLANS E I1 l IE c 39 39 w i ii mosque plan IslamIC A I Christian plan types basilicalongitudinal plan no pagan associations fast to build provided large interior spaces for congregational gathering centralized plan any type of plan governed by a shape focusing on center pt URBAN PLANNING Hippodamus designed Miletus grid form castrum monastery Ex St Gall ideal monastery plan pilgrimage churches UUU ig E 39 PQQPQS 5D 4 I H I n Inn 00 min ll Ill 1 0 3n rm m V H ru 1 quot quot39 iKJJ quot COLUMN ORDERS Doric Classical Period male finger short and stocky usually closely spaced amp exterior of building lonic Classical Period interior proster columns curvy and slender Corinthian Hellenistic Period framed and marking of position capital of series of campus leaves Erinlhinn TEMPLES Buddhist stupa solid mound form of stone I Hindu sikhara 39 verticalmountainlike elements geometric forms oriented to compass points Greek temple temples dedicated to greek Gods ie Temple of Hera Panhenon Roman Ex Pantheon dedicated to all Gods ARCHES true arch corbel arch corbeled arch characteristic of old architecture true arch based on mutual pressure made of voussoir wedges and keystone triumphal arch structure in shape of archway usually in series of three arches architecture across Roman empire horseshoe arch elongated semicircular arch pointed arch an arch with a pointed crown allowed flexible ceiling heights transverse arch usually marks off space at end of nave PREHISTORIC ARCHITECTURE Prehistoric period before a written language building material stone monumental architecture indigenous vernacular mortise and tenon megalith big stone structures corbeled arch PREHISTORIC STONEHENGE ENGLAND CA 2500 BC made of earthworks as well as stones it was built in multiple stages 3 consists of trilithons three stones construction a simple post and lintel or post and beam system that isjoined by mortise anol tenon joints note the cosmological significance associated with this monument post and lintel using megaliths PREHISTORIC PYRAMIDS COMPLEX GIZA EGYPT CA 2500 BC pyramids serve as tombs of pharoahs they are usually solid with almost no interior space they derive from mastabas Pyramid of Khufu Pyramid of Khafre consists of a causeway leading to a sphinx Pyramid of Menkaure smallest consists of a causeway Tomb HIan H r Jquot J J I ll z p M u t quotT quotf h F 7 7 IE L 3 Te pl 3 W lial m Hr aldutiinignkeu 1 l r l P 3mm Dr Elna 7 EE39lITlElE H n I llllllil lll l mull 39I E H i V v i 39 r 3 1 quot39 A PEP quot quot l l iiquot TEMPIE39 f man u m Helm PREHISTORIC PYRAMIDS COMPLEX GIZA EGYPT CA 2500 BC 1 a 1513 Museum H I Old Kingdom period Pharoah Nile Masonry construction building material mud brick bitumen the glue built on an axis includes oolonnades pylon pilaster obelisk hypostyle hall HISTORIC MOHENJO DARU INDUS VALLEY PAKISTAN CA 24002000 BC MOHEleD 5E THE cttrrtDE39Lf T 13 IV 39i fIrst City where people came quotlL quot if together and lived together walled city built on grid with large city blocks subject to floods from Indus River built with sunbakedmud brick citadel surrounded city for fortification as protection river allowed for extensive trade 39 mnomm dynamic city as the invaders came and went BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE the goal of buddhist temples was to become objects of devotion the rise of buddhism is attributed to emperor Asoka a great Buddhist ruler who united lndia stupa solid mound that marks the location of ashes and light of buddha and serves as a reliquary created by piling up material and it is a part of a large complex of buildings vihara buddhist monasteries chaitya hall halls for buddhist religious contemplation mandala spritual and ritual symbol in Hindu and Buddhism representing the Universe square with four gates containing a circle with a center point BUDDHIST GREAT STUPA amp MONASTERY SANCHI INDIA CA 250 BC 250 Fug i a purpose religious Great Stupa reliquary consisting of a ceremonial gate part of a larger complex buddhist monastery also known as a vihara house monks F developed under Emperor Asoko post and lintel construction just the front gate mud brick fired brick stone constructed from plan inspired by mandala radial balance circle with center pt xxx Thabha Torana GREEK ARCHITECTURE temples distinct form of Greek architecture that serves as a space for a God cella within the temples developed from the Mycenean megaron developed throughout the classic period inventions of greek architecture include entasis and the three column orders sculptures caryatid having a democratic government allowed for unified funding for advancements in technology and creation of grand civic spaces for a variety of purposes from political blouterion commercial stoaagora recreational theater and religious temples ANCIENT GREECE PARTHENON AND ACROPOLIS ATHENS GREECE 448432 BC Acropolis protected city on high developed during the classical period includes Propyleae entrance to the acropolis small temple dedicated to victorious Athena Erecthion lonic temple adjacent to Parthenon consisting of a caryatid porch Temple of Athena Nike lonic temple located near Propyleae Parthenon next slide ANCIENT GREECE PARTHENON AND ACROPOLIS ATHENS GREECE 448432 BC Temple of Athena Parthenos the virgin fully built of stone Parthenon main temple of Athens used Doric order post and Iintel and entasis consists of a ceIIa pronaos and statue of Athena architects Iktinos and Callicrates ARCHITECTURE FOR EMPIRES Early city planning cities were fortified and development occurred within these fortifications characteristics included water control and food distribution systems as more cities began to develop many adopted the form of building on an aXIs also as time passed cities were built with stronger and more stable materials such as concrete and stone most city planning succeeded if there was a unified government under a king emperor or war lord shared cultures allowed for the investment of grander architecture for religious temples and recreational purposes ball court theater CITY PLANNING CHANG AN CHINA 600 Xuanwu Gate Gaming Gong palace complex Danieng Gate Gate 39 nine grid bIOCk City J22 rat masonry construction mud brick wooden roof with ceramic tiles relief sculpture planned city organized to cardinal directions they built the city around the river and divided the neighbors plan aligned with the entire empire fortified commoners lived outside located at the end of the silk road note the multiple gateways into the palace Chinese bracket system l i l Palace City l L Kaiyuan Gale Xingqing Palace Chunming Gate Tonghua Gate Jinguan Gate Yanping Gate 4 Yanxlng Gate Qixia Gate Anhua Gate Mingde Gate Qu ang 5quot x Lake CHINA GREAT WALL 221 301700 construction begun by Qin Shi Huangdi first emperor initial independent fortifications later united into one continuous wall represented audacity of enclosing city defense largely rebuilt in Ming Dynasty checkpoints along the wall STONE CITY PLANNING MILETUS TURKEY REBUILT AFTER 479 BC Greek colonial town of Asia Minor Hippodamus designed the orthogonal grid form Greek theaters engage with the landscape or or T H i 39 A no J 397 JOCK a O 000 3W 3 position innovation specifically for military defensive rectangular form archway at entrance lined by covered walkways colonnades line the main street a A ma 1 Ham e H 4 3 fm E Jana milrava An rim A TEE ll a l B L a l r 7 A u A 4 U y r 4 A A 7min U lr L u A Nth AAa AA A r g A V IL castrum plan block system Roman i m Ti 1 w 9 l TUE a 4 4 l A A 3 A m i JAI 1 r lull Al P w I l l l l p l r A A w 4 u I ww a n I T A u Ai If 1 r Ann 7 l A A I HH A r1 1 wt r yAIA l n pi i r i ll Lit an 5 1 I 1113 A I T Al l A L Aw n A I I L L all l Al A I h if A w I A al A 1 1J1 A 3 m m l I h V L J A 4 4 A l J A J A a 1 1 AA A H l 1 1 1 i lr A J i z l A l l Arr quot 1 mm H3 edible VLFFL IR i I Ar F A 4 4 l u ms 100 CITY PLANNING TIMGAD ALGERIA CA ROMAN ARCHITECTURE with the rise and expansion of the Roman empire there were many technological advancements in a variety of areas true arch roadways for military traveling and trade water management aqueducts and Roman baths concrete gave flexibility for exterior decoration city planning with controlled entrances and exits basilica plan multipurpose civic buildings for congregations However since Rome itself grew from an archaic city the plan of Rome is not so very organized either ways Roman architecture prospered under a single ruler and became like Greek 40 they also adopted all the greek orders ROMAN PANTHEON ROME ITALY 125 dedicated to all gods thick walls made of concrete huge columns Corinthian order rich interior ornamented with marble celebrated materials from Roman empire exemplifies Rome at height of empire diameter of plan height of dome built by Hadrian harmonious proportions note coffers and oculus portico colonnade porch ROMAN COLOSSEUM FLAVIAN AMPHITHEATER ROME ITALY 80 manmade built by family of emperors used as a place of entertainment gladiators rise steeply sloped seats hierarchy 50K people capacity open at top saillike roof for shade basic construction barrel vaults of concrete arches true with columns of Doric lonic amp Corinthian order 4 tiers of seats below wood arena floor CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE adopted the basilica plan to distinguish itself from other religions it had no pagan associations was fast to build and could accommodate congregations and processions Constantine adopted and legalized Christianity and then relocated the capital separating his empire architecture that developed during this time include baths the triumphal arch churches baptisteries martryriums centralized plans and ambulatories 3 if 17 am a CHRISTIANBAROQUE ST JOHN LATERAN ROME ITALY first Christian church cathedral of Rome built by Constantine consciously located outside of city because of political conflict longitudinalbasilica latin cross plan rectangular marked with long rows of columns post and lintel construction with truss roof inexpensive to build elements clerestory Greek influence columns 34 1quot BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE empire splinters when last Roman emperor falls reached full extended under Justinian hagia sophia started off as a Christian building but changed into an Islamic building note the mosiacs with letters from the Koran centralization was key aspect richly decorated interior use of colored marble mosaics used trusses to support the roofs BYZANTINE HAGIA SOPHIA ISTANBUL TURKEY 53237 built by Anthemius and lsodorus landmark most important church of Byzantine empire capital of Ottoman empire first use of pendentives largest building in the world combined centralized domes symbolizing heaven and longitudinal halfdomes Greek cross planning allows a lot of light taking away solidityheavy sense use of colored marble has windows decorated with mosaics light was used to make the place seem lighter and illuminate the mosaics 3917 atrium IJWUK 1 I L gt V39HH W J 3939v a 393939 ROMAN ESQUE ARCHITECTURE purpose religious longitudinal plan masonry construction of fire brick Developed during the period of the dark ages after collapse of the Roman empire with the collapse of the Roman Empire there was a loss of centralized authority without centralization it was hard for people to make unified efforts to create grand buildings for public use as a result people resulted to their next motivation medium in which they could raise funds to build religion this led to the formation of smaller communities whose goals were to be selfsufficient such as abbeys much of the new buildings were created using material from old Roman buildings caroligian architecture that developed during the rule of Charlemagne ROMANESQUE MONASTERY AND CHURCH CLUNY FRANCE 11TH C huge 5aisled church amp extensive monastery buildings could not see church in one view elements barrel vaults round arches chevet radiating chapels two transepts heavy piers multiple towers columns incorporated into arches to provide unity thick stonework masonry a monastery Included livestock and a human accomodations ROMANESQUE ST FoY CONQ UES FRANCE CA 10501130 lots of means of access j towers rising up held by heavy masonry I all made of fired brick buttressing support elaborated sculpture on walls tympanum The Last Judg historiated capitals biblical stories for illiterate worshipers distinct parts individual blocks articulated layering had barrelrib vaults clerestory windows central nave thick walls round arches chevet westwerk reliquary with clothing of saints ROMANESQUE LORSCH ABBEY GATEHOUSE V ARCH OF CONSTANTINE set on the roadway with a pitch roof Similarity gateway utilizes a triumphal arch Abbey no inscription Arch inscription labeling zquot39 2 a A 1 339 J l a 4n Constantine s K 13 s symbolic meanings Abbey spiritual victory Christian salvation Arch military victory brought Constantine to the throne ROMANESQUE PALATINE CHAPEL AACHEN GERMANY v SAN VITALE ITALY similarities Centralized planned church with octagon in center rich interiors with mosaics Differences Palantine Romanesque thick heavy walls no concrete striped masonry Vitale Byzantine lighter and less emphasis on the walls ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE reuses Roman building material mosques lots of mosaics that demonstrate Byzantine influence column orders that signify previous Roman influence recurring elements include courtyards and wall enclosure ISLAMIC DOME oF THE ROCK JERUSALEM v CHURCH oF HoLY SEPULCHER Dome Located at the Temple Mount within a walled city earliest surviving building associated with Islam rivals Christian architecture consciously emulates the Church of holy sepulchre centralized planning it is believed to be the location from which Muhammad ascended to Heaven aligned toward Mecca masonry construction of fire brick Church built by Constantine longitudinal planning Similarities located in Jerusalem mosaics dome ISLAMIC GREAT MOSQUE OF DAMASCUS SYRIA 706715 Tomb rf Sill haddina Tinmar of the Bride T Bab ELIAmara hau Iii ileiqtmatyanqimtuieqowg quot I Dnme of BMW the Shelter 1 fquot i 39l clu rrhari i g I l Sagaa it i If Treasury k Ifquotsz c l E K quot J h 39 Elabt r V L 1 Sawyerti Bab Elgarin E a Jalrun j i 4 Prayer HEill in II F 239 E tdohn i tEHEEJ39F39i the Elabtiarl an quot i1 igii iJI quotquotIIC jquot quotirrl i ait Elva Elab alEiadah earliest surviving mosque richly decorated with mosaics colored marble and geometric coloring simple truss roof supported by arches column halls walled enclosures reuses RomanChristian materials inspired by Church of St Foy amp Forum of Augustus replaced Church of St John which replaced the Forum of Augustus central axis FRENCH GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE purpose religious higher roofs and wider spans compared to Romanesque made possible by flying buttresses 1st distinct type since the Romans developed in the 16th century the term originally had negative connotations referring to vandals key recurring elements include exterior flying buttresses pointed arches ribbed groin vaults triforium distinctive tracery and lots of stained glass note all the elements above made walls of stained glass possible compared to Carolingian and Romanesque architecture the walls were thinner if g a llede France heart of France including the land surrounding Paris before the arrival of Gothic architecture there wasn t much grand building over here Notre Dame Virgin Mary Abbot Suger guy who rebuilt the Romanesque church in the new pointed style with an emphasis on light which symbolized the presence of God Relic holy object GOTHIC BUILDING TYPES Cathedral originally known as the seat of the bishop it is a place of Christian worship that is always located in an urban context Lady Chapel chapel dedicated to the virgin mary that it placed in the most important position often behind the high altar r barrelvault GOTHIC KEY TERMS Pointed arch an arch with a pointed crown allowed flexible ceiling heights n39l vauft El EDDIE Mer r iamWebster Inc Flying buttress combination of external buttress pier and slender arch attaching to a wall below springing of vaulting to resist lateral thrust Ribbed groin vault intersecting barrel vaults of elongated arch Tracery ornamental stonework in Gothic windows BUTT 9 4 39 39V39AJlTlrJC GOTHIC KEY TERMS Arcade series of arches carried on columnspiers 5 L Trforum narrow passage below clerestory corresponding to the roof over the aisle Clerestory windows placed high in wall usually above lower roof elements Choir part of cathedral between altar and nave used by choirclergy GOTHIC KEY TERMS nanhex entry point radiating chapel chapels arranged radially around ambulatory chevet apse with encircling ambulatory and radiating chapels rayonnant style radiant style crossing tower visual marker on flat land GOTHIC KEY TERMS chapter house reading gathering space hammerbeam decorative element that is used as structural support triangular on the corner fan vaults vaulting that opens up into a fan Collegiate Gothic gothic architecture that influenced universities CH PTER HG USE GOTHIC CHARTRES ND CATHEDRAL FMNCE v ST ETIENNE CAEN E Chartes very idiom of gothic built in honor of a garment of Mary that did not burn thin walls elongated nave much taller building wider span flying buttressing characterized by colonnettes and lots of stained glass rose and lancet windows showing tympana or scenes of Chirst s glory masonry construction of fire brick Ettiene romanesque thick heavy walls buttressed in a way that did not let light through similarities nave latin cross plan tall clerestory space for stained glass buttressing both have westwerk towered fascade Gallery level arcade v E haw a 0 6 a e e e Z 1 Ln 39 rquot 2 I Z 1 gt 39F39 Iquot 1 quot 3 1 r 1 a KT x 339 1 i A r E GOTHIC ABBEY CHURCH ST DENIS FRANCE built by Abbot Suger small Romanesque ChurCh rebuilt in new pointed style light was of central importance gave sense of the presence of God pointed groin vaults could span different widths and pointed arChes ambulatory with vaulting Chevet arge windows integrating stain glass ethereal light from color 39 is t 39 quot u u Wele front Carolinglan South tranEEpt Choir H 39q M l 41 L twat 39 built by Basilica Maddedbjy N i j39 39quot 3 Abbot uger AbbotSuger l w i l E I Ii i F I r l PIH ul 21 39 17 p v a a h l 39 quot E it it liqctpes I u 352 1 3 I gt a 39 39 q i rm my quotI a 1r 39 ll39 Aisle t ardent GOTHIC STE CHAPELLE FRANCE royal chapel pointed arches thin walls and continuous windows stained glass cage of light walls reduced to thin colonnettes up to ribbed groin vaults buttresses were finlike projections on exterior bc building needed ore 39 support wide rayonnant style i a surf t quot ENGLISH V FRENCH CATHEDRALS ENGLISH both have westwerks both wanted to reach high heights and reach god built on an empty grass space which allowed for urban development in cities choir vaulting is used for decoration FRENCH built within cities GOTHIC CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL ENGLAND pigrimage site Mormon City ChurCh emphasis on verticality westwerk consisting of 2 towers decorative use of vaulting fying buttresses long Choir tall nave in interior continuity GOTHIC SALISBURY CATHEDRAL ENGLAND wide front blocky facade vertical emphasis at crossing tower had a cloister covered walkwaygathering place that served as a place of contemplation for the clergy crossing tower lady chapel two transepts tall nave verticality westwerk French similarities English influence of horizontal layers rib vaults articulated in dark stone complex tracery of windows umbrella vaulting in chapter house entrance porch Trinity chapel cloister chapter house GOTHIC KING S COLLEGE CHAPEL CAMBRIDGE ENGLAND began closely linked to church individual universities were separate units founded by King Henry VI exuberance of fan vaulting served as the master plan for many American universities including the UW 39 GOTHIC ST AGNES ENGLAND Parish church that was paid for by an earl pointed arches separate the nave and aisles tracery work lancets had paint and stained glass wooden roof utilized hammer beam trusses GOTHIC ST GEORGE GEORGE ETHIOPIA exuberant vault decorations no buttressing built by King Lalibela main church of rockcut churches Greek cross plan excavated 40 ft into ground carved fully out of living stone subtracting offered a local accessible site in which to do pilgrimage remains hidden at a distance MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE early medieval cities were isolated and protected walls served as defense developed during the rise of the urban middle class and secular city which occurred after the fall of the Roman Empire until the Renaissance common elements of an early medieval city included isolation fortification tall towers for military defense and moats during this time feudalism was the predominant social system which restricted land ownership towards the end trade routes opened up cities and connected isolated cities MEDIEVAL KEY TERMS Keep fortified innermost and most protected tower built within castles during the Middle Ages by European nobility Moat waterfied trench canceHa ons pattern along top of fortified wall usually in form of rectangular spaces through which weaponry may be shot MEDIEVAL BUILDING TYPES castle Bastide series of newly planned market towns more open than castles primary purpose was to promote commercetrade market town plan has grid characteristics but not a defined shape common people house 342 a L 9v fm K V 1 pi F WHITE TOWER ith double fortification and outer Roman walls 0 e e k 9 n O t S f 0 9 ll d LD 3 AN Wm y a m dl VA nwo th EL 0 y ber G D bene tte SSfe EN aaem E E M MEDIEVAL CARCASSONNE FRANCE medieval fortified town on hill with double fortification initially started by Constantine and then later modifications done by King Louis same guy for St Chapelle elements moat fortified keep towers along the walls two circuits of walls with passageways for soldiers church adjacent to the river bastide with a regular grid system with market hall at center developed across the river 5 39 39 MEDIEVAL GREAT ZIMBABWE GREAT PALACE climate secluded urbanization rivers surrounding Zim were loaded with gold the palace served as a home to the king in addition as a place to melt and make gold elements stonework buildings thick fortified walls and cut stone that fits together without mortar MEDIEVAL MACHU PICCHU PERU impressive stonework lncan site cyclopean stone held together solely by gravity site for the royal built on a mountain MEDIEVAL CITY PIAZZA DEL CAMPO SIENA ITALY Siena capital of trade republic that grew very prosperous during the middle ages as a banking center made of red brick Piazza plaza monumental civic center of Siena city hall marked by heavy tall bell tower look out tower teethlike elements that signify that this building is protected frescos promoting peace and prosperity through good government public space for informal and formal purposes site of horserace importance of open public space of city UW s red square is derived from this plan MEDIEVAL CITY VENICE ITALY trade republic on Adriatic Sea series of islands with boats a main means of transportation Venetian Gothic architecture expressed wealth obtained from trade developed after fall of Rome MEDIEVAL DOGE S PALACE VENICE head of government located on the Grand Canal byzantine plan form clock tower encircles a courtyard reflection of Gothic Architecture pointed arch fortified windows reminiscent of Islamic architecture pointed arches striped masonry stone patterning ISLAMIC ALHAMBRA PALACE SPAIN Within walled hilltop fortress decorated and richly ornamented interior idea of paradise Hall of Ambassadors muqarnas geometric patterning through stuccos carvedin structures rich wooden ceiling Walled enclosures and gardened courtyards extensiv 3 planting Court of the Myrtles paradise garden Court of the Lions sahn lions at base holding up h fountain dry so water was symbolic and feeding into the f l fountain at the center idea of water as a refuge i 39 View out was protectedguarded controlling the light r LL39I L 7 l 1 f ur l r 7 J r u um J Hun ISLAMIC ROUND CITY OF BAGHDAD IRAQ 762 large palace that consisted of commercial residential and ceremonial space made of brick four long passageways into the center wn is the Great Mosque of Sam mara 851 a Elf hypostyle mosque with a detached minaret special thing about this whole plan was that the palace was built to centralize the mosque Q mini 6 anaemia manual gaunt ROMANESQUE GENERAL TERMS Carolingian D term applies to buildings constructed during the period bn 792814 when Charlemagne first Holy Roman emperor was in rule During this period concrete disappears and buildings are heavy yet dematerialized using light and decoration Benedictine Rule D defined how monasteries functioned they lived communally under the authority of an abbot Pilgrimage D journey to a religious place in order to commune with relics ROMAN ESQUE BUILDING TYPES Abbey D a monastery religious institution providing living accommodations and working space for monks governed by an abbot Cloister D walkway surrounding court yard that connects the domestic buildings and the church Radiating Chapel D chapel sticking outwards on the apse ambulatory 39 ROMANESQUE KEY 339 TERMS Horseshoe Arch D arch in the shape of a horseshoe 39r 3 r o 8 3t quot n amp Ambulatory D a place for walking especially an aisle around the apse or a cloister in a church or monastery Choh D part of a cathedral or large church bn the alter and the nave used by the choir and clergy Colonette D Column composed of bunch of smaller columns Transverse Arch D arch that divides the bays ISLAMIC GENERAL TERMS Qmmwml D the direction that should be faced when a Muslim prays during salat It is fixed as the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca D Kaabar cuboid building at the center of Islam s most sacred mosque ISLAMIC BUILDING TYPES Mosque D place of congregational prayer for Muslims Paradise Garden D used to represent paradise in the hot palace D EX Court of Myrtles ill F u 4 39ii39 ISLAMIC KEY TERMS Sahn D courtyard with wall enclosure EX Court of the Lions Prayer Hall D Mihrab left D Semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the direction of the Kaabla qibla Minbar right D Pulpit in the mosque where the imam prayer leader stands to deliver sermons or in the Hussania where the speaker sits and lectures the congregation ISLAMIC KEY TERMS Minaret D entrance prominent vertical element tower calling out for the worshipper Ablution Fountain fountain for performing ritual washing before entering for prayer Squinch D a corbeled arch used to transform a square bay into an octagon for the springing of a dome Muqarnas D Honeycomb like vaults Early medievalRomanesque carolingian crusades pilgrimage monasticism religious pilgrimage church abbey monastery chapter house Gothic Abbot Suger lle de France Notre Dame Relic religious cathedral lady chapel pointed arch flying buttress ribbed vault decorative stained glass rose started in France UW Gothic architecture planning derived from piazza del campo Medieval longhouse identify era of pilgrimage STONEHENGE prehistorical monumental architecture indigenous vernacular post and lintel stone corbeled arch mortise and tenon megalith big stone structure PYRAMID COMPLEX GIZA prehistorical monumental architecture Old kingdom period pharaoh agency Nile river runs through mud brick masonry bitumen glue connecting bricks coonnadepylonpilaster obelisk main column hypostyle hall when you enter pyramid built on axis mastaba serbad mortuary vs pyramid location of tomb Greek vs Roman theatres Greek semicircular engaged with landscapenatural world sloping seats Great Wall made from stone Qin Shi Tomb terracotta army made from mud brick wooden roof
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