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UH / Psychology / PSYC 3350 / What was ebbinghaus experiment?

What was ebbinghaus experiment?

What was ebbinghaus experiment?


School: University of Houston
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Cognitive Psychology
Professor: Maria archila
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: Chapter 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, & 6
Uploaded: 06/14/2017
9 Pages 65 Views 2 Unlocks

Cognitive Psych

What was ebbinghaus experiment?



∙ Cognitive Psychology is The branch of psychology concerned with the  scientific study of the mind

∙ Donders (1868): Measuring how long it takes a person to make a  decision

o Reaction-time (RT) experiment: Measures interval between  stimulus presentation and person’s response to stimulus

o Simple RT task: participant pushes a button quickly after a light  appears

o Choice RT task: participant pushes one button if light is on right  side, another if light is on left side

∙ Choice RT – Simple RT = Time to make a decision  ∙ Wundt’s approach (1897): Structuralism: experience is determined  by combining elements of experience called sensations

What was watson's major argument in his 1913 paper psychology as the behaviorist views it?

We also discuss several other topics like What accounts are included in post closing trial balance?

∙ Ebbinghaus (1885/1913): read list of nonsense syllables aloud many  times to determine number of repetitions necessary to repeat list  without errors

o Savings = (Original time to learn the list) – (Time to relearn the  list after a delay)

∙ John Watson proposed a new approach called behaviorism ∙ Classical Conditioning: Pair a neutral event with an event that naturally produces some outcome. After many pairings, the “neutral” event now  also produces the outcome

∙ Operant conditioning: shaping behavior by rewards or punishments  o Behavior that is rewarded is more likely to be repeated

∙ To understand complex cognitive behaviors:

What gets paired with a neutral stimulus during conditioning?

o Measure observable behavior

o Make inferences about underlying cognitive activity

o Consider what this behavior says about how the mind works ∙ Artificial Intelligence: “making a machine behave in ways that would  be called intelligent if a human were so behaving.” (McCarty et al.,  1955)

∙ How research progresses from question to question o Start with what is known

o Ask questions

o Design experiments We also discuss several other topics like What is the relationship between individual and society?

o Obtain and interpret results

o Use results as the bases for new research questions and  experiments

∙ Two kinds of models in Cognitive Psychology:

o Structural Models are representations of a physical structure  (mimic the form)

o Process Models: Represent the processes that are involved in  cognitive mechanisms, with boxes (specific processes and arrows indicating connections between processes)

∙ The cognitive revolution (rebirth): during the 1950s

Chapter 2: 

∙ Cognitive neuroscience involves an understanding of both the nervous  system as well as the individual units that comprise that system o Analyzes topics of interest looking at them from multiple angles  and different points of view

∙ Neurons: cells specialized to create, receive, and transmit information  in the nervous system. Each neuron has a cell body, an axon, and  dendrites

∙ The interconnections of neurons create a nerve net, which is like a  continuous network that is similar to a highway We also discuss several other topics like How many seconds does sensory memory last?

∙ Cell body: contains mechanisms to keep cell alive

∙ Dendrites: multiple branches reaching from the cell body, which  receives information from other neurons

∙ Axon: tube filled with fluid that transmits electrical signal to other  neurons

∙ Action potential

o Neuron receives signal from environment Don't forget about the age old question of Will the effort reveal any new insights that will help reduce risk?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the consumer surplus transferred to domestic producers?

o Information travels down the axon of that neuron to the  dendrites of another neuron

∙ Measuring action potentials

o Microelectrodes pick up electrical signal

o Placed near axon

o Active for ~1 second

o The size is not measured; size remains consistent

o The rate of firing is measured

 Low intensities: slow firing We also discuss several other topics like What are the three metrics that could be put in place to determine the impact of the existing?

 High intensities: fast firing

∙ Synapse: space between axon of one neuron and dendrite or cell body  of another

∙ Hubel & Wiesel (1960s) Representation in the brain:

o Feature detectors: neurons that respond best to a specific  stimulus

∙ Hierarchical Process: When we perceive different objects, we do so in a specific order that moves from lower to higher areas of the brain ∙ Specificity coding: representation of a specific stimulus by firing of  specifically tuned neurons specialized to just respond to a specific  stimulus

∙ Population coding: representation of a particular object by the  pattern of firing of a large number of neurons

∙ Sparse coding: when a particular object is represented by a pattern  of firing of only a small group of neurons, with the majority of neurons  remaining silent

∙ Specific functions are served by specific areas of the brain ∙ Cognitive functioning breaks down in specific ways when areas of the  brain are damaged

∙ Cerebral cortex (3-mm thick layer that covers the brain) contains  mechanisms responsible for most of our cognitive functions ∙ Language production is impaired by damage to Broca’s area (Frontal  lobe)

∙ Language comprehension is impaired by damage to Wernicke’s area  (Temporal lobe)

∙ Primary receiving areas for the senses

o Occipital lobe: vision 

o Parietal lobe: touch, temperature, pain 

o Temporal lobe: hearing, taste, smell 

∙ Coordination of information received from all senses (Frontal lobe) ∙ Double dissociation: When damage to one part of the brain causes  function A to be absent while function B is present, and damage to  another area causes function B to be absent while function A is present ∙ Fusiform face area (FFA) responds specifically to faces

o Temporal lobe

o Damage to this area causes prosopagnosia (inability to recognize faces)

∙ Parahippocampal place area (PPA) responds specifically to places  (indoor/outdoor scenes)

o Temporal lobe

∙ Extrastriate body area (EBA) responds specifically to pictures of bodies  and parts of bodies

∙ Neutral Networks:  

o Groups of neurons or structures that are connected together o Can be examined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)

Chapter 3:

∙ Perception: Experience resulting from stimulation of the senses o Perceptions can change based on added information

o Involves a process similar to reasoning or problem solving o Perceptions occur in conjunction with actions

∙ Inverse Projection Problem

o Refers to the task of determining the object responsible for a  particular image on the retina

o Involves starting with the retinal image and then extending  outward to the source of that image

∙ Objects can be hidden or blurred

∙ Objects look different from different viewpoints

∙ Direct perception theories

o Bottom-up processing  

o Perception comes from stimuli in the environment

o Parts are identified and put together, and then recognition occurs ∙ Constructive perception theories

o Top-down processing

o People actively construct perceptions using information based on expectations

∙ Bottom-up processing

o Perception may start with the senses

o Incoming raw data

o Energy registering on receptors

∙ Top-down processing

o Perception may start with the brain

o Person’s knowledge, experience, expectations

∙ Speech segmentation: the ability to tell when one word ends and  another begins

∙ Direct Pathway model:

o An early model that emphasized nociceptors that would send  pain messages directly to the brain

o A bottom-up processing model

∙ Helmholtz’s Theory Of Unconscious Inference (1860): o Top-down theory

o Some of our perceptions are the result of unconscious  assumptions we make about the environment

∙ Perceptual Organization:

o “Old” view – structuralism (perception involves adding up  sensations)

o “New” view – Gestalt psychologists (the mind groups patterns  according to laws of perceptual organization)

∙ Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization:  

o Law of good continuation

 Lines tend to be seen as following the smoothest path

o Law of pragnanz (simplicity or good figure)

 Every stimulus pattern is seen so the resulting structure is  as simple as possible

o Law of similarity

 Similar things appear grouped together

∙ Physical Regularities:

o Oblique effect

 People can perceive verticals and horizontals more easily  than other orientations

o Light-from-above assumption

 Light comes from above

 Is usually the case in the environment

 We perceive shadows as specific information about depth  and distance

∙ Semantic Regularities:

o The meaning of a given scene is related to what is happening  within that scene, and semantic regularities are the  

characteristics associated with the functions carried out in  different types of scenes.

∙ Thomas Bayes (1701-1761)

o One’s estimate of the probability of a given outcome is  influenced by two factors:

 The prior probability (our initial belief about the probability  of an outcome)

 The likelihood of a given outcome

∙ Some neurons respond best to things that occur regularly in the  environment

∙ Movement helps us perceive things in our environment more  accurately than static, still images

Chapter 4: Attention. 

∙ Attention is the ability to focus on specific stimuli or locations in our environment: o Selective: attending to one thing while ignoring others

o Divided: paying attention to more than one thing at a time

∙ Dichotic Listening research method is when one message is presented to the left ear and  another to the right ear

∙ Models of Selective Attention:

o Early­selection model (Broadbent’s Filter Model)

 Filters message before incoming information is analyzed for meaning o Intermediate­selection model

 Attended message can be separated from unattended message early in the  information­processing system, the selection can also occur later

o Late Selection Models

 Selection of stimuli for final processing does not occur until after 

information has been analyzed for meaning

 McKay (1973): In test, participants had to choose which was closest to the meaning of attended to message

∙ Load Theory of Attention: Processing capacity – how much information a person can  handle at any given moment

∙ Perceptual load is the difficulty of a given task

o High­load (difficult) tasks use higher amounts of processing capacity o Low­load easy) tasks use lower amounts of processing capacity

∙ Stroop effect is the name of the word interferes with the ability to name the ink color ∙ Overt Attention: Eye movements, attention, and perception

o Saccades: rapid movements of the eyes from one place to another

o Fixations: short pauses on points of interest

o Studied by using an eye tracker

∙ Bottom­up Determinants of Eye Movement:

o Stimulus salience: areas that stand out and capture attention

∙ Top­Down Determinants of Eye Movements:

o Scene schema: knowledge about what is contained in typical scenes

∙ Covert Attention: attention without Eye Movements

∙ Precueing: directing attention without moving the eyes

∙ Divided Attention

∙ Practice enables people to simultaneously do two things that were difficult at first ∙ Schneider and Shiffrin (1977): Divide attention between remembering target and  monitoring rapidly presented stimuli

∙ Object­Based Visual Attention:

o Location­based: moving attention from one place to another

o The enhancing effect of attention spreads throughout the object

o Attention can be based on the Environment or Specific object

∙ Change detection (change blindness): if shown two versions of a picture, differences  between them are not immediately apparent

∙ Binding is The process by which features such as color, form, motion, and location are  combined to create our perception of a coherent object

∙ Feature Integration Theory (FIT), Treisman and Schmidt (1982):

o Participants report combination of features from different stimuli

∙ Physiology of Attention: Attention enhances neural responding

Chapter 5: Short term and working memory

∙ Memory is the process involved in retaining, retrieving, and using information about  stimuli, images, events, ideas, and skills after the original information is no longer  present

∙ Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) came up with three different types of memory: ∙ Sensory Memory – Initial stage that holds all incoming information for seconds or  fractions of a second

o Information decays very quickly

o Holds large amount of information for a short period of time

o Iconic memory: Brief sensory memory of the things that we see (Responsible for  persistence of vision)

o Echoic memory: Brief sensory memory of the things that we hear (Responsible  for persistence of sound)

∙ Short­term Memory – Holds five to seven items for about 15 to 20 seconds. o Proactive interference: occurs when information learned previously interferes  with learning new information

o Retroactive interference: occurs when new learning interferes with remembering  old learning

o Capacity of short­term memory: Digit span (how many digits a person can  remember) ­ Typical result: 5­8 items

o Chunking: small units can be combined into larger meaningful units o Ericsson et al. (1980): Trained a college student with average memory ability to  use chunking

o Alvarez and Cavanaugh (2004) used colored squares as well as complex objects ∙ Long­term Memory – Can hold a large amount of information for years or even decades

∙ Control processes: active processes that can be controlled by the person (Rehearsal for  example) 

∙ Working Memory is Similar concept to short­term memory

o limited capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information  for complex tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning

o differs from short term memory

o Short term memory holds information for a brief period of time

o Working memory is concerned with the processing and manipulation of  information that occurs during complex cognition

∙ Phonological similarity effect: letters or words that sound similar are confused o Articulatory suppression: Prevents one from rehearsing items to be remembered o Reduces memory span

o Eliminates word­length effect

o Reduces phonological similarity effect for reading words

∙ Word­length effect: memory for lists of words is better for short words than for long  words

o has trouble when similar types of information are presented at the same time o

∙ Visual imagery: The creation of visual images in the mind in the absence of a physical  visual stimulus

∙ The central executive: Attention controller

o Focus, divide, switch attention

o Controls suppression of irrelevant information

∙ Episodic Buffer: Backup store that communicates with LTM and WM components o Hold information longer and has greater capacity than phonological loop or  visuospatial sketch pad

Chapter 6: Long term Memory 

∙ Long term Memory is the Archive of information about past events and knowledge  learned

∙ Murdoch (1962) studied the distinction between short­term and long­term memories  using the serial position curve

∙ Wickens et al. (1976): Semantic encoding in short­ and long­term memory ∙ Sachs (1967): Recognition memory: identification of a previously encountered stimulus ∙ Neuropsychology

o The hippocampus is responsible for one’s ability to encode new long­term  memories

o Henry Molaison (H.M.) – surgery for epilepsy

o Clive Wearing­ encephalitis

o K.F. – brain injury in a motorbike accident

∙ types of Long term Memory that both show double dissociation:

o Episodic: memory for personal events

 involves mental time travel

 No guarantee of accuracy

o Semantic: facts and knowledge

 does not involve mental time travel

 General knowledge

∙ Separation of Episodic and Semantic Memories

o K.C. damaged hippocampus

 No episodic memory, cannot relive any events of his past

 Semantic memory intact, can remember general information about the past o Italian woman

 Impaired semantic memory

 Episodic memory for past events was preserved

∙ Interactions  Between Episodic and Semantic Memories

o Episodic can be lost, leaving only semantic

o Semantic can be enhanced if associated with episodic

∙ The Effect of Time

o Typical research findings are that forgetting increases with longer intervals from  the original encoding

∙ Implicit/non­declarative: unconscious memory 

o Procedural (skill) memory

o Priming: previous experience changes response without conscious awareness ∙ Explicit/declarative: unconscious memory  

o Episodic: personal events/episodes

o Semantic: facts, knowledge

Skill memory: memory for actions

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