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ttu international

ttu international

Description


What are the 5 elements of objective statements?




UNIVERSAL STANDARDS: Ethical standards/trends…if T/F—go with UNIVERSAL STANDARD What are the challenges in international PR research?




Comparative Ethics: Descriptive ethics, “what do people say is right?



PR 4351 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE THIS = ON EXAM #1 THIS = ON EXAM #2 THIS = ON BOTH EXAM #1 & #2 This = Need to figure out answer before final exam This = correct answer on exam This = Professor said would be onIf you want to learn more check out kongmeng yang
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final exam International PR Examples: Google PR to Koreans living in Korea (exam 2 example was about volkswagon,  tricky because other option was McDonalds’s PR in China to Chinese through international PR Firm) Multicultural PR Examples: TTU PR to Latino’s in Lubbock High Context: (Korea), Messages are not well defined, Time is not organized, Polychromic Low Context: (USA), EXPLICIT, Messages are well defined, Time is highly organized, Monochromic *MATCHING Q: LOW CONTEXT = EXPLICIT* Individualism: Do it alone. (typically low context countries) Collectivism: Everyone works together. (typically high context countries) Power Distance: Degree to which institutional and organizational power should be distributed among members of  society// could be based on age, birth, gender, merit, wealth, occupation, etc. Uncertainty Avoidance: Ability to adapt to change, tolerance of ambiguity (structure) // predicts risk tolerance. *QUESTION: People with uncertainty avoidance want more rules. True or false? (not sure??) Masculinity: Masculine cultural values are assertiveness and achievement Femininity: Nuturance and support Gender Equality: Gender equality is valued more in low masculine societies Confucian Dynamism: Long term orientation, COLLECTIVE FACE SAVING Task vs. Relationship orientation: More time spent on building relationships and not on the task Monochromic: Start and end meetings at the agreed time. (low context, USA) Polychromic: Set appoints with short notice and be prepared for last minute changes. (high context, Korea)Proxemics: Distance from each other (how far apart we stand from each other) Haptics: touching Occulesics: eye movements Kinesics: non-verbal communication Authoritarian: Dictatorship (Cuba, China, Iran) Radical ideology: Government, Dominant religious ideology Libertarian: Free Market Economy Social responsibility: Educating and enlightening the public, monitoring government activities Legal Counsel: “no comment” PR: Truthful Disclosure Comparative Ethics: Descriptive ethics, “what do people say is right?” Normative Ethics: Prescriptive ethics, “Suggesting what is right” (PRESCRIBE…SUGGEST) Applied Ethics: How those moral judgements are applied to real world circumstances Meta-ethics: What right even means UNIVERSAL STANDARDS: Ethical standards/trends…if T/F—go with UNIVERSAL STANDARD What are the challenges in international PR research? LANGUAGE- including shared meaning CULTURE- some methods inappropriate FIT- familiar methods may not work well EXPENSE/TIME- disadvantages and potential for bias favoring scholars in developing nation *Which is least important?* – answer: distance between countries Goals: More general outcomes, broad Objectives: Specific and measurable indicators What are the 5 elements of objective statements? accomplish what (direction + effect) amount of change target public timeframe/deadline measurement *Which is NOT?* – answer: How to AccomplishStrategy: Big picture (conceptualization) of HOW goal/objective could be accomplished Tactic: Specifics on HOW you will accomplish the goal/objective Homophily: The tendency of associating bonds with similar ones i.e. Jennifer Lopez and Hispanic culture, people are  easier to persuade when model looks like them Localization: McDonalds menu items change in geographic location Two Step Flow: Most people form their opinions under the influence of opinion leaders, who in turn are influenced  by the mass media (capitalizing on secondary public) Global Strategy: Share a coke / same strategy across globe Partnership: Multiple organizations working together to achieve a common goal Glocalization: (Think globally, act locally): Balance between global + local  Egocentrism: when we place ourselves at the center of the world Ethnocentrism: When we place our culture at the center Multinational Corporation: Has facilities and other assets (e.g., offices, factories, etc.) in at least one country other  than its home country. Usually has a centralized head office that co-ordinates global management 4 Categories of MNC’s 1. Multinational: decentralized in its management structure + strong home country presence 2. Global: centralized corporation that acquires cost advantage through centralized production whenever cheaper  resources are available 3. International: builds on the parent corporation’s technology or R&D 4. Transnational enterprise: combines the three approaches *Multinational Corporation can be categorized by?* – answer: (above) Corporate social responsibility: Glocalization, UNHATE campaign by Benetton, “Crazy for Good” campaign by  Coca Cola  What is an international organization? ◼ Drawing membership from at least three countries ◼ Having activities in several countries ◼ Members are held together by a formal agreement INGO: Members are associations IGO: Members are countries The PR Purposes of INGOs: To increase awareness of an issue/cause that they support  The two tactics of INGO’s: influencer engagement, Event in a box // EARTH HOUR CAMPAIGNStrategies of INGOs: ◼ Building advocacy networks and boomerangs ◼ Information ◼ Symbols ◼ Leverage: material leverage, moral leverage (“mobilization of shame”) ◼ Accountability *Scenario question about “Earth Hour”?* – answer choices: symbols, leverage, accountability (chose  accountability..not sure if right?) What is nation branding? ◼ Branding: giving products and services an emotional dimension that people can identify with ◼ Brand State: what people around the world think and feel about a state; association ◼ The articulation and projection of identity Nation Brands Index ◼ PEOPLE: people ◼ PRODUCTS: products  ◼ GOVERNANCE: government ◼ TOURISM: a holiday in (a country) ◼ CULTURE: the culture of (a country) ◼ IMMIGRATION AND INVESTMENT: immigrating to (a county) Challenges with nation branding? ◼ It’s about the mobilization of all of a nation’s forces that can contribute to the promotion of its image abroad  (⬄ public diplomacy: practitioners) Diaspora Mobilization: REMEMBER IMMIGRATION (movement of people) National days: The celebration of nation days// Irish: St. Patrick’s Day, Scottish: Tartan Day ???? Tartan Week Nation-brand ambassadors: a human face to the activities ◼ Officials ◼ Celebrities (e.g., sporting or cultural figures) ◼ Individual citizens  ◼ Citizen relationship management: governments need to engage with and respond to their citizens in a similar way in  which companies do with their customers The naming of nation-brands ◼ Gold Coast ???? Ghana ◼ The old Soviet Union vs. Russia ◼ UK vs. England ◼ Greece/Hellas, Holland/Netherlands Nation brand tracking studies ◼ The Environmental Sustainability Index: the quality of nations’ environmental stewardship ◼ The World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Index: a nation’s competitiveness in terms of  its institutions, infrastructure, macroeconomy, health and primary education, higher education and  training, market efficiency, technological readiness, business sophistication, and innovation.  ◼ Communicate a country’s positive performanceTraditional Diplomacy: Government-to-government communication Public Diplomacy: both governments and private individuals, influence directly or indirectly Soft power: achieve diplomatic objectives through the power of attraction, not coercion// Culture, cuisine What are digital diplomacy tools? Media diplomacy and “twiplomacy” PUBLIC DIPLOMACY = SOFT POWER & DIGITAL DIPLOMACY Public Diplomacy Strategies: · Entertainment business · Cultural and educational exchange programs · Visits by heads of state to other countries · Cultural and language institutes · Development aid projects · Non-political networking schemes · Building coalitions with other nations and non-state actors to achieve policy goals · Media diplomacy · Twiplomacy Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA) ◼ All legal, political, fund-raising, public relations, and lobbying consultants hired by foreign governments to  work in the U.S. must register with the Department of Justice.  What is required under the FARA act? To file reports with the Attorney General listing all activities on behalf of a foreign principals, compensation received,  and expenses incurred. What is the VOA? (Voice of America) ◼ Broadcasts news, sports, and entertainment ◼ Supplies programming free of charge ◼ Exports culture Four Paradoxes of European PR ■ Recognizes need for Euro models, but relies on U.S. model ■ Desires prof. respect, but client expectations are limited ■ Avoids term “public relations” ■ Desires focused research, but unsure that research Western Europe Regional Characteristics: Above average freedom in gov interference, high income, open borders Von Ruler and Verčič’s PR Functions ■ Reflective: Horizon scanning and issues management ■ Managerial: Strategic communication; relationship building; reputation management ■ Operational: technical tasks plus channel development ■ Educational: Improving communication skills of organizational members Australia: Individualistic, egalitarian(believe people are equal/equal rights), honest, direct approach, avoid hyperboleGermany: generation gap (old prefer tradition, young prefer spontaneity), facts over emotions, direct approach UK Cultural Characteristics: “sensational” tabloids popular, political affiliations with newspapers (bias); Broadcast  media impartial; in depth coverage Mistakes studying PR in West Europe: Assume homogeneity of all countries, US models are influential in PR  Russia: Critical impact of Gorbachev’s Glasnost (openness) and Perestroika (restructing) in 1985 to modernize  Soviet communism Russia PR: ”Black PR” (manipulative methods, political PR), “Golden age of free press” replaced by central control,  pay for media coverage– zakazukha – is widespread Poland: Catholic (87%), concern of national security, interpersonal relationship importance, open to change Poland’s PR: Mass media largely in the hands of foreigners East Europe PR Context: nations “break up/come together”, new states but old cultures, PR linked to propaganda East Europe Role of PR: Establishment of professional associations, but little cooperation among them, CSR not  seen as important responsibility // not as emphasized as in Latin America or Africa  East Europe “Transitional” (countries): Democratization/market economy development, communism lingers,  participation in NATO and the EU Eastern Europe: Communism left people distrustful of gov, media viewed as propaganda, word-of-mouth more  effective than media Issues in Latin American PR (cultural differences): Physical presence preferred, media going from “pay for coverage” to ethical, women struggle for management jobs, personal contact/building relationships ???? partnership,  targeting influencers first--seeking brand awareness among publics Mexico’s Culture: Formal courtesy conceal true feelings, importance of family/nepotism(family in authority give  fam members jobs), business unhurried, punctuality not a hallmark, individual dignity valued; don’t criticize in public Brazil’s Profile: Largest & most populous country in South America, leading economic power,  Jeito = preference for going around the rules when barriers arise; calling in favors  Brazil’s PR Environment: PR is “legalized”: credentials required to practice Latin American Concerns: Environmental, unequal distribution of wealth, cultural identity, Remnants of colonial  experience such as corruption, nepotism Latin American “School” of Public Relations: An approach, not a physical campus, serve society, collaborativeSimöes’ identified six approaches: (Latin American PR) – journalistic roots – sales support – Organizational “conscience” – Boosting organizational morale – Promotional networking – Event planning Rarely appear in isolation; frequently intertwined Africa Colonial Legacy: European colonization from early 1800s to the 1990s, source of problems Africa Political Profile: Stable governments: Kenya, Tanzania // Since the mid-1990s ???? democratic governance Africa Economic Profile: Natural resources controlled by the state or foreign corporations, heavy foreign debt Africa’s Importance For Future: Strategic assets, Changing: democratic governments, market economies Africa Primary Languages: English, French, Portuguese Africa Technology: Lack of access to phone and web, largest growth rate of cellular subscribers PR in South Africa: Western influence (e.g., Britain, US), Helping build trust, Corporate Social Responsibility PR in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prior to the mid-1990s—National-building programs, government sector, field staff, folk  media, “pavement radio” PR in Sub-Saharan Africa: In the mid-1990s—International pressure, multiparty democracy, stable systems,  moderate economic growth, access to the Internet, cable, and satellite.  AFRICA Challenges for Public Relations: Gov control over media in many countries, more than 2,000 languages  and dialects spoken Israel: WESTERN STYLE nation, STATE SECURITY dominates official activities including business, KIBBUTZ /  metaphor (community worked together with agriculture), EGALITARIAN (all people are equal); COLLECTIVISM PR in Israel: Media follows Western independence, but low SENSATIONALISM, Existence of “PIRATE” RADIO  STATIONS, PR retains a degree of PRESS AGENTRY, [Importance of HASBARA – the effort to convey Israel’s  situation to outsiders] Saudi Arabia: OIL DOMINATES ECONOMY, A MONARCHY, ISLAMIC law and practice prevalent ???? (FOREIGNERS SHOULD FOLLOW AS WELL), Strict Gender roles, High Collectivism/Low Individualism How is United Arab Emirates different from Saudi Arabia? ■ Actively seeking INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIP ■ More open to FOREIGN INVESTMENT AND TOURISM ■ A federation of member emirates ■ Heads of state elected (by DELEGATES – not CITIZENS) ■ More freedom for WOMEN(MIDDLE EAST) PR –Some Say “No” ■ AUTHORITATION model dominates ■ GOVERNMENTS control communication to varying degrees ■ CULUTRE OF DEMOCRACY lacking ■ PUBLIC OPINION not often a factor in policy ■ PR is often one-way, limited in scope and influence, publicity-focused (MIDDLE EAST) Extremely Complex & Volatile Characteristics: Oil “haves” and “have-nots” PR IN MIDDLE EAST: (two models) ■ Kruckeberg & Vojunovic’s Organic Model ■ PROCESS TRUMPS OUTCOME  ■ RELATIONSHIP, NOT PERSUASION ■ Zaharna’s observations ■ SYMBOLISM preferred over explicit language ■ INDIRECT communication pattern; embellishment ■ BEING, not DOING stressed ■ REPITION, IMAGERY, NON-LINEAR arguments India Characteristics: second most populous country, Caste system (hindu’s divided by 4 poor/rich societies),  Bollywood (India’s motion picture industry) India PR Strategy: Building “personal relationship” with Indian community  Thailand Characteristics: Highly collective, low in masculinity/assertiveness, More gender-equality Thailand PR: Aim to promote national interests and policies, Limited education for practitioners Singapore: Awareness of Kiasuism– “to be afraid to lose out”, Committed to conformity, Gum-chewing outlawed,  penalties for littering, flower pots containing water forbidden under the country’s strict mosquito-control rules PR in Singapore: Roots in journalism, individual web use is subject to government scrutiny Singapore 21 Report: Girls should be enlisted into military service just as men, ideas should flow from workforce. Asia Confucian Influence: Order/stability through respect + obedience; purposeful inequality (age, family position),  proper behavior at all times, education, hard work, thrift, modesty, patience Asia Characteristics: high power distance, high collectivism Broadest PR characteristic in Asia: its role in development communication, Asymmetric vector not always negative PR Malaysia “Look East” policy???? all publications renew their licenses annually (gov control of print media) (PR in Malaysia) Rukunegara: national ideology that all people are informed of gov policies and encourages  participation in measures undertaken by the gov to achieve goals of unity, integration, and national developmentNOT ON LEE’S REVIEW BUT WERE ON PAST EXAMS OR MENTIONED IN CLASS Relationships = Satisfaction, commitment, trust, and mutual control and Interaction Reputation = leadership, financial *What is a characteristic of reputation?* – answer choices: leadership, corporate citizenship, financial,  satisfaction (Where does corporate citizenship fall?) UIA: Union of International Agencies (provide information)// PURPOSE IS TO MAINTAIN AND FACILITATE Secondary Public: One that we can reach who will, in turn, influence the public whose behavior or thoughts can  actually advance the client’s organizational goals, grassroots lobbying Which one is least relevant to legal system? (answer choices: commercial speech, real estate law..I chose  Commercial speech but I am not sure if that is right??) freedom of speech (#1) censorship defamation copyrights and trademarks access and disclosure commercial speech (answer on exam #1, just not sure on exam #2) contracts agency law new media Where can you find PR codes of ethics? PRSA & IABC What are the categories to examine in the study model by Zaharna? political  economic mass media infrastructures (education, transportation, etc.) legal social cultural Publicity: Media relations; deliberate attempt to MANAGE PUBLIC PERCEPTION Advertising: PAID for the purpose of—PERSUADE PERSON TO BUY, ATTEND OR SUPPORT Marketing: INCREASE COMPANY SALES Journalism: Balance and objectivity (OBJECT-can’t argue an “object”..its an object)..CAN’T ARGUE BASED ON  FACTS Is PR Planned? (NEED TO FIGURE OUT ANSWER!?) Definition of PR: mutual understanding, management function, mutually beneficial relationshipsSelective exposure: All people only expose themselves to only a small amount of the available information.  Selective attention: Our ability to only pay attention to some events in our environment while ignoring others  Selective perception: Even if we are exposed to a message and pay attention to it, we tend to perceive it in ways that  are filtered through our own belief system.  Selective retention: A natural tendency to forget some things Why is dissonance a challenge? When confronted with information that is inconsistent with their existing beliefs,  people will ignore the information or will reinterpret it so as to make it conform to their preexisting beliefs.  Intercultural Competence: The ability to have successful communication with people of other cultures What are the characteristics of a person with intercultural competence? Understands people from other cultures with their perceptions, thinking, feelings, and actions Not prejudice Motivated to continue learning Adaptability sensitivity? (ANSWER I CHOSE) Expressions of Culture: signs and symbols, imagery and music Excellence Theory: Based on the western perspective \\ But dominant values globally (70%) are Interdependence,  collectivism QUANTITATIVE: gender, ages, % of population // SURVEY QUALITATIVE: audience environment, influence, behavior changes // FOCUS GROUPS Japan’s Unique Media ■ Print media strength; strong newspaper circulation ■ Media family owned ■ Role of NHK ■ No “watchdog” role ■ Press Clubs

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