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1st Midterm Essay topic and notes

by: Valerie Ho

1st Midterm Essay topic and notes 372

Marketplace > University of Washington > Sociology > 372 > 1st Midterm Essay topic and notes
Valerie Ho
GPA 3.53
Introduction to Criminal Justice
Jonathan Wender

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About this Document

My professor gave us the essay topics for the 1st midterm and I specially chose two to work on and thus made notes on it beforehand. I hope you find them useful since I got an A for the midterm :)
Introduction to Criminal Justice
Jonathan Wender
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Valerie Ho on Monday June 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 372 at University of Washington taught by Jonathan Wender in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 409 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminal Justice in Sociology at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 06/15/15
SOC372 Midterm 1 Revision Midterm Essay topics 1 Problematization Criminal justice system social science effacement turning people into problems Tragedy of Power 2 3 InclusionExclusion Douglas Durkheim Bauman all systems are bounded have boundaries of one kind or another Boundary in the society has an ethical factor 4 Urban Strangers Simmel Notes How they apply in our daily lives Refer to the readings show that you understand and have read the readings quotMary Douglas arguesquot De nition of some key terms quotDe ne and Explainquot De ne and then explain why it is importantsigni cant to someone who may not be in this class Revision of chosen topics Problematization Inclusion Exclusion Main point Understanding and controlling crime by bureaucracy and social scientist through a common set of presuppositions Problematization When individuals are translated into measurable manageable bureaucratic or scienti c problems KEY point Problematization is not the processing of seeing people as a particular quotproblemquot but to try to readpredict if this person is going to be a problem Le a potential to commit crime in the next 10 yrs for example Problematization may lead to effacement The process of erasing concealing or removing one s unique identity Eg students in school that are given an ID number a class standing an associated major etc yet these data doesn t provide enough info into fully understanding a person Every system has their own boundaries The only difference between the biological and social system is the existence of ethical issues Similarly a criminal justice system also draw boundaries Mary Douglas Purity and Danger Chapter 2 quotSecular De lementquot The Havik Brahmin pollution rules 3 degrees of religious purity 1 Highest State Only gained by a rite ceremony of bathing 2 Middle State The expected normal condition 3 Lower State State of impurity Contact with a person in the middle state will cause a person in the highest state to become impure Applying this Their fear of dirtiness or quotmatter out of placequot can be related closely to how we perceive our society directly linking this to the idea of Thinking point What is the ultimate reality of crime and criminals beyond our analyses and descriptions of them Le do we truly know a person even if we have all the informationdata on them No No matter how much info we have on a personcriminal there is always imperfect knowledge Yet a fair and just justice system must have the most info about a crime before a decision is made Problematization however enables the bureaucratic to efficiency apply power and make decisions yet it is violent gt V of A Violence of abstraction The use of dehumanizing practices and thinking people in categorical general terms eg using numbers such as percentages and rates to identify individuals effacement Application to reading In Wender s quotThe Policing of Childhood Encounters with juvenilesquot several cases where children try to make sense of their own life rejecting the dehumanizing factor by bureaucratic processes Example Laura as a runaway quotThe logic of bureaucratic problematization dictated that Laura needed to be 39placed as one places an object 39Transfer of Custody and legally shifts responsibility for the child from a law enforcement officer to a state social exclusion amp inclusion We also classify people into quotstatesquot Upper Middle and Lower class Where each class re ects the expectations and culture of that particular group May create solidarity sense of unity and belonging BUT can lead to unnecessary categorizing and stereotyping eg Association of quotlower classquot uneducated dangerous strange highly likely to commit a crime etc Dirt quotMatter out of placequot quotWhere there is dirt there is systemquot quotDirt is the byproduct of a systematic ordering and classi cation of matterquot 0 Dirt and crime are related closely 0 We fear crime just the same way to how we fear quotdirtquot Medical Materialism Attempting to explain methods of ritual cleansing through a scienti c or medical way For example the reason for why Muslim don t eat port is due to the climate and temperature since hot weather makes it unhealthy to do so Emile Durkheim Social Solidarity The forces that hold a society or other collectivity together as a cohesive group A social groups establish themselves by constraining what is permittedexpected within it thus by choices of order and norms social groups draw boundaries to either include or exclude For example expectations of students workerquot Leading to the struggle of a child to seek a sense of purpose and place JW s approach to Problematization Use aesthetic forms to reveal what might be effaced is it the use of words Or particular images Use phenomenology focus on one s experience thus setting aside people s basic info we look at one s real self B These things are important since they are both morally and practically useful in any effective approach to crime Weber Ethics of conviction and Responsibility A set of principled that guide our acUons EoC quotDo the right thing as a followerquot ldealistic trying to line up a set of ideals Holds onto moral values EoR When consequences has to be considered for one s actions examples are Politicans And in the process one might diverge from ideals in order to achieve good ends within a university class will certainly be different from expectations of people on the Ave Why Because there are certain things that are allowed in the classroom certain code of conduct respect for the teacher etc This demonstrates a strong solidarity where there are higher mutual expectations between students in the classroom for example Applying that in the criminal justice system a stronger solidarity can be understood as the stricter standards of crime that are expected by others On the other hand a weaker solidarity will mean that there will be lower mutual expectations and lower standards of crime within the system But Douglas also talks about the Liminal State ie How about people who are quotstuckquot in between boundaries Some may be stuck in between categories like a newly released pnsoner This liminal state for one produces anxiety thus there will be rituals and symbols aimed at creating and maintaining order eg 1 it is believed that no contacts should be made with any identi able criminals 2 We are taught not to talk to strangers 3 Pregnant women are isolated at home most of the time etc 0 0 Section review Key terms and concepts Terms De nitions Effacement Erasing someone s face ignoring the individual s personality Problematizati Seeing a potential problem in a person attach that person to on a set of risks Violence of When the bureau put people into categories when the police abstraction or the criminal justice system uses effacement or problematization 3 Decisive I Passion deep commitment for things at hand quanties of a ll Sense of Responsibility politician III Sense of Proportion Sense of balance following moral rules instead of personal feelings Ethics of ldealistic it has a moral value As if doing the right thing and conviction leaving the rest out of one s hands Weber Eg quotA Christian does what is right and leaves the outcome to Godquot Ethics of Always think of the consequence of your actions Politicians responsibility have to hold this because they will be responsible for their own actions Farrell39s Five tests 1 Preliminary evidence 2 Crossnationlity 3 Prior crime increase 4 Phone Theftecrime 5 Varying trajectories 4 purposes of punishment 1 Deterrence 2Incapacta on 3 Correction 4 Retribution Functionalist theory of crime Durkheim What a certain practice works for the general functioning of the entire society The real function of crime Increase solidarity by creating boundaries excluding some to emphasize the included Social control Formal controlling individuals within a society through formal vs formal constitutions ie the criminal justice system informal Informal control regular individual exert control eg family Social The forces that hold a society or other collectivity together Solidarity as a cohesive group Liminal State In between categories or boundaries something that does not belong in either categories something that is stuck in the middle And since this produces anxiety amongst people wherever there s a liminal state there will be rituals and symbols aimed at creating and maintaining order Examples A Stranger heshe is part of a society but heshe doesn t belong in one exact group A pregnant women when they are just women yet they contain something in there body that is why they have to be quotcontainedquot A released prisoner one is released one is part of the society yet one does not belong in either criminal Or normal person Medical materialism Using a scienti c or medical way to explain ritual cleansing eg why Muslim don t eat pork because the hot weather makes it unhealthy to do so Dirt Matter out of place de ned by a particular system where different societies are going to de ne different objectspeople in a particular way Thus when something doesn t follow this pattern it is considered dirty An analogy between dirt and crime both are something that39s quotout of placequot Douglas s suggested methods of getting rid of dirt Cleaning in the form of a ritual Physical removal Reclassify Taboo Society attribute danger to quotmattersquot that are quotout of placequot Taboos help control social order by confronting ambiguity and categorizing it as quotoff limitsquot Ritual The process of cleaning things quotdirtquot to restore balance and Cleansing feelings of control Urban We are in a crowd but we are not necessary known anonymity We may have liberty and freedom but this idea also creates Bauman tension Simmel Proximity VS Distance Urban cities we live next to strangers close distance but mentally far we don t know them Onthological Modern things are different Bauman we lack safetynet Eg insecurity if we feel like we don t know what to do with our lives for the next 5 years we might feel lost that is We are afraid of our own existence we then channel our fear onto the fear of crime thus creating this general anxiety of things that we are unfamiliar of in order words fearing the wrong things Estrangement General feeling of being distance from people we share the Bauman same space with Simmel says that Eventho we don t know the stranger we are capable of distinguishing between or nding certain common characteristics more positive view Bauman We don t recognize the common characteristics with people we share the physical space with that is strangers If our property is damaged we tend to blame strangers thus highly likely to sue them but if it was someone close with us we tend not to sue them Ideological Explanation given for certain actions by the actors narratives themselves VS We explain why we do something it comes from within a Critical system narratives When you take a step back and see the bigger picture and then explain how a certain action ts into the society In Durkheim IN the 4 explanations given for punishment Case Law Decisions that are made by the judges in the past Statutory Law Written laws they are on the books Suggests a sense of ambiguity


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