PSY 402 – Cognitive Neuroscience
Final Study Guide
∙ Describe the different stages of learning and memory. (p. 381)
-the processing of incoming information that creates memory traces to be stored.
-Two separate steps:
*acquisition – during this period the stimuli are available for processing. This state is known as a sensory buffer. Only some of these stimuli are sustained and make the cut into short term memory, the acquisition. Don't forget about the age old question of Will the effort reveal any new insights that will help reduce risk?
*consolidation – changes in the brain stabilize a memory over time resulting in a long-term memory
-is the result of acquisition and consolidation and represents the permanent record of information
-involves accessing stored information and using it to create a conscious representation or to execute a learned behavior, such as a motor act.
∙ Explain the importance of memory duration for memory distinctions. (p. 380) Don't forget about the age old question of What is the consumer surplus transferred to domestic producers?
Sensory memory – milliseconds to seconds
Short-term memory – seconds to minutes
Working memory -
Long-term memory (nondeclarative) [implicit memory] – days to years. (can’t be reported verbally. There is no conscious knowledge to these memories. Memories from conditioning and simple learned behaviors are in this category) - Long-term memory (declarative) [explicit memory] – days to years. (memory is focused on personal and general events and facts we are conscious of and can be reported verbally) (Memories from an event that happened on a special holiday are in this category.) -
If you want to learn more check out What are the three metrics that could be put in place to determine the impact of the existing?
∙ Explain the importance of the type of information being stored for distinctions between different types of memory (p. 381, 393, 394)
Sensory memory – has a high capacity and can retain a good amount of information, however, it will only last for a very short time
Short-term memory – Short-term memory last longer than sensory, but its capacity is more limited than sensory memory. Short-term memory is involved with the maintenance We also discuss several other topics like What did watson believe about behavior?
Working memory (p.393) – working memory is involved in the mental process. Like short-term memory, it is limited. Working memory extends the concept of short-term memory: it contains information that can be acted on and processed, not merely maintained by rehearsal.
Long-term memory (p. 393) – (nondeclarative/implicit) – (can’t be reported verbally. There is no conscious knowledge to these memories. Memories from conditioning and simple learned behaviors are in this category) nondeclarative memory is memory we cannot consciously access, such as motor and cognitive
skills, and other behaviors derived from conditioning, habituation, or sensitization Long-term memory (p. 393) – (declarative/explicit) - memory is focused on personal and general events and facts we are conscious of and can be reported verbally) (Memories from an event that happened on a special holiday are in this category.) declarative memory is memory we can consciously access, including personal and world knowledge.
Various Memories on pp. 393, 394; under Take-Home Messages If you want to learn more check out Is any body movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure?
∙ Explain anterograde and retrograde amnesia. (p. 382)
Anterograde amnesia – the loss of memory for events that occur after a lesion Retrograde amnesia – a loss of memory for events and knowledge that occurred before a lesion
∙ Describe the brain areas involved in memory and memory-related functions. (p. 381, 382)
-The medial temporal lobe memory system is made up of the hippocampus and the surrounding rhinal and parahippocampal cortices.
-other areas involved with memory include the prefrontal cortex (involved in storage and retrieval of memories), the parietal cortex, and subcortical structures.
∙ Explain the link between brain damage and resulting language deficits. (pp. 382 - If you want to learn more check out Why is there a black hole at the center of our galaxy?
Memory deficits and loss can result from brain damage caused by surgery, disease, or physical or psychological trauma, and are known collectively as amnesia.
Amnesia is a form of memory impairment that affects all of the senses.
∙ Describe language and how it is represented in the brain. (p. 471)
-Language processing is located primarily in the left hemisphere. Many regions on and around the Sylvian fissure form a language processing network. -Language areas include the left temporal cortex, which includes Wernicke’s area in the posterior superior temporal gyrus, portions of the anterior temporal cortex, the inferior parietal lobe (which includes the supramarginal gyrus and the angular gyrus), the left inferior frontal cortex, which includes Broca’s area, and the left insular cortex. Collectively, these bran areas, and their interconnections, form the left peri-sylvian language network of the human brain.
-the left hemisphere may do the lion’s share of language processing, but the right hemisphere does make some contributions. The right superior temporal sulcus plays a role in processing the rhythm of language (prosody), and the right prefrontal cortex, middle temporal gyrus, and posterior cingulate activate when sentences have metaphorical meaning.
-language production, perception (lip reading and sign language), and comprehension also involve both motor movement and timing. Thus, all the cortical (premotor cortex, motor cortex, and supplementary motor area – SMA) and subcortical (thalamus, basal ganglia, and cerebellum) structures involved with motor, movement, and timing.
∙ Explain language comprehension. (pp. 480 – 495)
Language comprehension is the ability to extract intended meanings from language. (http://www.intropsych.com/ch07_cognition/comprehension.html)
Understanding what other people say and write (i.e., language comprehension) is more complicated than it might at first appear. Comprehending language involves a variety of capacities, skills, processes, knowledge, and dispositions that are used to derive meaning from spoken, written, and signed language. In this broad sense,
language comprehension includes reading comprehension, which has been addressed in a separate tutorial, as well as comprehension of sign language. (See Tutorial on Reading Comprehension.) Deriving meaning from spoken language involves much more than knowing the meaning of words and understanding what is intended when those words are put together in a certain way. The following categories of capacity, knowledge, skill, and dispositions are all brought to bear in fully comprehending what another person says.
Language comprehension is an important aspect of day to day functioning in adulthood. Comprehension of written and spoken language relies on the ability to correctly process word and phrase meanings, sentence grammar, and discourse or
text structure. (http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/encyclopedias-almanacs transcripts-and-maps/language-comprehension)
∙ Define cognitive control. (p. 508; p. G-2)
Processes that facilitate information processing. Control operations are thought to help coordinate activity across different neural region for example, the representation of a current goal in the prefrontal cortex can help control the retrieval of information in long-term memory.
∙ Describe goal-oriented behavior. (p. 511; p. G-6)
-Based on the assessment of an expected reward or value and the knowledge that there is a casual relationship between the action and the reward. (action – outcome) Most of our actions of this type.
Behavior that allows us to interact in the world in a purposeful manner. Goals reflect the intersection of our internal desires and drives, coupled with the current environment context.
∙ Explain the neural bases of decision making. (p. 522)
-To understand the neural processes involved in decision making, we need to understand how the brain computes value and process rewards. Some rewards, such as food, water, or sex, are primary reinforcers. They have a direct benefit for survival fitness. Their value, or our response to these reinforcers, is to some extent hard wired in our genetic code. Bur reward value is also flexible and shaped by experience. If you are truly starving, and item of disgust – say, a dead mouse – suddenly takes on reinforcing properties. Secondary reinforcers, such as money and status, are rewards that have no intrinsic value themselves but become rewarding through their association with other forms of reinforcement. -Reward value is not a simple calculation. Value has various components, both external and internal, that are integrated to form an overall subjective worth. Establishing the value of options requires considering several factors, all of which contribute to the representation of value:
∙ Define and differentiate between consciousness, blindsight, subliminal processing, preconscious processing, and conscious processing. (pp. 610, 620, G-2; 612 – 618))
Blindsight – residual abilities within s field deficit in the absence of awareness. Blindsight can be observe when there is damage in the primary visual cortex. The residual function is usually observed with indirect measures such as the prodding the patient to look at or point to the location of the stimulus, even if the patient denies having seen the stimulus. Blindsight happens outside of the realm of consciousness.
Subliminal processing – brain activity evoked by a stimulus that is below the threshold for awareness when processing is subliminal, the information is inaccessible to awareness.
Preconscious processing – the brain state in which stimulus-driven activity is strong enough to generate significant sensory processing, but in the absence of top-down attention to amplify the signal, it does not teach the threshold for awareness.
Conscious processing (awareness) – occurs when stimulus salience is sufficiently strong and the signals are amplified by goal driven attention such that they exceed the threshold for awareness.
∙ Describe the human interpretive system and the role of beliefs. (p. 620, 621, 623)
-The human interpretive system is in the left hemisphere, most likely cortical based, and works outside conscious awareness. It distills all the external and internal information bombarding the brain, into a cohesive narrative, which becomes our personal story.
-The interpreter looks for cause and effect of internal and external events and, in so doing, enables the formation of beliefs.
-Beliefs and mental constructs that allow us to engage in goal-directed behavior and free us from reflexive, stimulus driven behavior.