Exam 2 Ch5 CV system (supplies blood that carries O and nutrients and collects waste material from the cells) and lymphatic system (partners with CV to clean body) structure Composed of the heart and blood vessels (begin at heart and exDon't forget about the age old question of What refers to a natural altered state of consciousness?
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tend to body) • Arteries (carry blood away from heart) - blood vessels that transport O-rich blood away from heart to body tissues - branch into smaller vessels called arterioles, that deliver blood to joining microscopic vessels called capillaries • Capillaries • Veins (carry blood back to heart and lungs) - Receive blood from capillaries after the exchange of O and CO2 takes place, and transport waste-rich blood back to lungs and heart 4 chambers connected by 4 heart valves: • atria or upper chamber- collect blood returning to the heart • ventricle or lower chamber- pump blood out of the heart to the lungs and the rest of the body - thumping sound from heart is made from the 2 pairs of valves closing as blood moves through the organ - these valves are composed of thin fibrous cusps covered by smooth membrane called the endocardium and reinforced by connective tissue Layers and membranes of the heart • Endocardium, innermost layer that lines the heart and heart valves • Myocardium, muscular layer • Pericardium, outermost layer - Membrane that surrounds the heart as the pericardial sac and secretes pericardial fluid. - Heart is located within the pericardial sac. - Pericardial cavity contains serous fluid, which reduces friction between the pericardial membranes as the heart moves (contracts and relaxes) within them. Function • Circulates blood and delivers O2 and nutrients to cells - Right side for circulating blood to lungs for oxygenation (pulmonary circulation) - Left side for circulating blood to all body systems (systemic circulation) • Disposes of waste products • Aids lymphatic system in circulating substances Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Signs and Symptoms • Formation of a thrombus, usually in calf or thigh muscle• Part or complete block of blood flow • May cause pain, but often asymptomatic Treatment • Anticoagulants • Prevent future thrombi formation • Thrombolytics • Dissolve blood clots Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Signs and Symptoms • Angina • Shortness of breath (SOB) • Accumulation of plaque in arterial walls causing them to harden. • Complete blockage of arterial wall caused by blood clot formation or ruptured plaque. • Pieces of plaque break free, travel to the brain, and block blood vessels that supply blood to the brain. • Risk factors • Smoking • Hypertension, stress • Physical inactivity • Family history • Diabetes • Obesity • High cholesterol Treatment • Lifestyle changes: quit smoking, low-fat diet, regular exercise, weight reduction, and stress reduction. • Pharmacological treatment to control angina, hypertension, triglyceride levels, and blood clots. • Surgical intervention includes percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PCTA).Aneurysm Signs and Symptoms • Local dilation of an artery or chamber of the heart due to weakening of its walls. • May cause thrombus formation, hemorrhage from rupture, or ischemia. • Fusiform – dilation of entire circumference • Saccular – shaped like a sac, bulging on only one side • Dissecting – inner layer tear causes a cavity to form that fills with blood with each heartbeat) • Three common types: abdominal, thoracic, and peripheral artery aneurysms. • May be asymptomatic, but if the person is slender, a pulsating middle and upper abdominal mass may be detected on routine physical examination. • Symptoms may include mild to severe weakness, sweating, tachycardia, and hypotension. Treatment • Depends on the size, location, and the likelihood of its rupturing, as well as the general physical status of the individual. • Most are treated surgically. Varicose Veins (veins fail to circulate blood properly, pools of blood occur) Signs and Symptoms • Defective or incompetent valves in veins prevent blood from flowing freely toward the heart. • Buildup of pressure in superficial veins causes varicosities. • Could be due to inherited defect or to venous diseases. • May occur from conditions, such as pregnancy or jobs requiring prolonged standing or heavy lifting. • Person may be asymptomatic even though the varicose vein condition is severe. • Swollen, tortuous, and knotted veins, usually occur in the lower legs. • As the condition progresses, veins thicken and feel hard to the touch. • Develop gradually, with a feeling of fatigue in the legs followed by a dull ache.Treatment • Compression stockings. • Sclerotherapy, injection into varicose veins with a solution that scars and closes the veins. • Laser—laser treatments use strong bursts of light into the vein to close off varicose veins to make the vein slowly fade and disappear. Diagnostic Procedures Cardiac catheterization • Catheter is guided into the heart via a vein or artery. Cardiac enzymes • Test to measure levels of enzymes released into the blood during an MI. Holter monitor • Records ECG readings, usually 24 hours, on a portable tape recorder to document arrhythmias and link them to activities or to symptoms, such as chest pain. Stress test • Exercise tolerance test to determine the heart’s response to physical exertion (stress). • ECG is recorded under controlled exercise stress conditions using a treadmill. • Nuclear stress test uses a radioisotope to evaluate coronary blood flow. Doppler Ultrasonography (US) • US used to assess blood flow through blood vessels and the heart. • Handheld US transducer emits sound waves as it is placed on the carotid artery to produce images of blood flow. • Carotid Doppler creates detailed images of the inside of the carotid arteries in the neck to check blood flow caused by plaque or blood clots. Troponin I • Blood test that measures levels of proteins released into the blood when myocardial cells die (damaged heart muscle). EKG, ECG • Recording of electrical activity of the heart • with each heartbeat, electrical signals travel from the top to bottom of the heart, causing contractions and pumping of blood • doctor can determine how long it is taking an electrical wave to pass through your heart. This shows if the electrical activity is normal, fast, slow or irregular Medical and Surgical Procedures Automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD) • Device implanted in a patient who is at high risk for developing a serious arrhythmiaAngioplasty • Any endovascular procedure that reopens narrowed blood vessels. • Restores blood flow, usually using balloon dilation. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) • Vein taken from leg or other part of the body is grafted onto the heart to circumvent an obstruction in a coronary artery. Valvuloplasty • Surgical repair or replacement of a valve. If a balloon is used to open a defective valve, it is called balloon valvuloplasty. Pharmacology Beta blockers • Decrease heart rate and dilate arteries by blocking beta receptors. • Treat angina pectoris and hypertension. Nitrates • Treat angina pectoris. • Dilate veins, which decreases the amount of work the heart must do. • Dilate arteries to decrease blood pressure. Statins • Lower cholesterol levels in the blood. • Reduce cholesterol production in the liver. • Block the enzyme that produces cholesterol. Thrombolytics • Lyse (break apart) blood clots. • Used in acute management of myocardial infarction (MI) or heart attack. - Sudden blood clot needs immediate treatment to restore blood flow in the artey. If not, could cause MI • Used to treat ischemic stroke. Lymphatic system structure • Lymph nodes • Lymph vessels and lymph fluid • Lymphatic organs • Tonsils, thymus, and spleen • Network of vessels that depends on pumping action of the heart to circulate its substances throughout the body. Main functions • Drain excess interstitial fluid from tissues and return it to the circulating blood. • Absorb and transport digested fats to venous circulation. • Produce lymphocytes and other immune cells that protect the body from injury and disease, such as bacteria, viruses, and cancerous cells. Lymph nodes • Small masses of lymph tissue, also called lymph gland. • Tend to occur in clusters or chains. • Major groups of nodes are located in the cervical (neck), axillary (armpit), and inguinal (groin) regions of the body. • Lymph is filtered through these nodes as it passes through lymph vessels.• When bacteria accumulate in lymph nodes (as in a bacterial infection), nodes become swollen and tender. • Lymph fluid is rich in leukocytes, lymphocytes are part of these cells • Phagocyte is another type of leukocyte, it helps fight off infection by surrrounding engulfing and digesting micororgansism and cellular debree Spleen (removes microbes from body and destroys old or damaged red blood cells) • Organ similar in structure and function to a lymph node, but is much larger. • Filters lymph. • Manufactures lymphocytes and monocytes. • Destroys old erythrocytes. • Stores new erythrocytes for release into the bloodstream as needed. • Not essential to life. • If spleen is removed, other organs take over its function. Thymus • Secretes a hormone called thymosin. • Thymosin stimulates red bone marrow to produce T lymphocytes (T cells). • T cells provide a defense against disease. • Attack and destroy foreign or abnormal cells. Tonsils • Filter lymph. Destroy bacteria entering the mouth and throat Lymphedema Signs and Symptoms • Abnormal accumulation of lymph, usually in the extremities. • Symptoms eventually include pallor, weakness, lymph node enlargement, fatigue, fever, and weight loss. • Affected limb, in part or whole, is typically swollen and hypertrophied with thickened and fibrotic skin. • As disease progresses, tachycardia, palpitations, and an increased incidence of infections are common. Treatment • Control pain • Lessen swelling by moving lymph out of the affected limb. • Gentle exercise, massage, bandaging, compression garments. • Surgery to correct lymphatic obstruction and promote drainage may be necessary in some instances. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Signs and symptoms • Chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease.• Characterized by unusual antibodies in the blood that target tissues of the body. • Butterfly-shaped rash or erythema on the face. • Inflames and damages connective tissue anywhere in the body. • Most commonly produces inflammation of skin, joints, nervous system, kidneys, lungs, and other organs. • Degree to which these tissues are involved varies from patient to patient. • Similar rashes may appear on other exposed areas of the body • Exposure to sun can aggravate the rash. • Fever, fatigue, joint pain, and malaise may begin acutely or develop slowly over a period of years. • Occurs most often in young women in their 20s or 40s. Treatment • Anti-inflammatory drugs, including aspirin. • Corticosteroids for severe cases. • Sometimes antimalarials are added. • Immunosuppressive agents when life-threatening or severe crippling disease is present. Kaposi Sarcoma Signs and Symptoms • Lymphatic malignancy. • Composed of multiple red or purple macules, papules, or nodules on skin and mucous membranes. • First appear on lower extremities but spread to upper body, face, mucous membranes of throat, and internal organs. • Closely associated with HIV infection and is considered an “AIDS-defining condition.” Treatment • Depends on stage of HIV infection and degree of metastasis. • Common treatment modalities include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery, and immunotherapy. • Palliative treatment and good oral hygiene are essential. Diagnostic Procedures Bone marrow aspiration • Withdrawn for microscopic evaluation (usually from pelvic bone) • Used for stem cell transplant or chromosomal analysis. • Used to determine if a known cancer, such as Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, has spread to the bone marrow. • Part of staging process to determine if cancer has spread and how much has spread. ELISA • Blood test that detects antibodies in blood • Screening for an antibody to the AIDS virusTissue typing • Used to determine histocompatibility of tissues. • Used in grafts and transplants with recipient’s tissues and cells. • Also known as histocompatibility testing. Medical and Surgical Procedures Bone marrow transplant • Infusion of healthy bone marrow stem cells after diseased bone marrow is destroyed by chemotherapy or radiation. • Used to treat aplastic anemia, leukemia, and certain cancers. Lymphangiectomy • Excision of one or more lymphatic vessels, usually due to cancer. Pharmacology Antivirals • Inhibit development of specific viruses. • Used to treat HIV infections and AIDS. Immunosuppressants • Suppress immune response to prevent organ rejection after transplantation. • Slow progression of autoimmune disease. Ch6 Digestive system Structure Oral cavity • Teeth • Salivary glands Pharynx Esophagus Stomach • Pyloric sphincter Small intestine • Duodenum, jejunum, ileum Large intestine • Cecum is connected to small intestine by ileocecal valve. - Appendix hangs from the cecum. • Ascending colon, transverse colon, and descending colon - Sigmoid colon - Rectum - Anus Accessory organs • Liver • Gallbladder • Pancreas… Ch7 Urinary system Structure and Function Kidneys • Primary functional organs of the urinary system. • Filter urea and other waste products from the blood. • Shaped like a kidney bean. • Maintain proper balance of water and electrolytes in the body. - Maintain balance by removing waste products of metabolism from blood through urine formation. • Each kidney is comprised of an outer layer, the renal cortex; and an inner layer, the renal medulla. • Blood enters the kidney through the renal artery. Renal artery • Branches into smaller and smaller arteries, eventually leading to microscopic filtering units called nephrons. Nephron • Microscopic functional unit of the kidney • Forms urine in renal corpuscles and tubules by process of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion • Renal corpuscle is the site of blood filtration in the nephron and consists of the glomerulus and Bowman capsule. • Glomerulus, a cluster of capillaries. • Waste-containing fluids (filtrate) are absorbed into Bowman capsule. • Filtrate flows from the capsule into the renal tubule. • Renal tubule • Urine formation is completed in the tubules. • Urine flows from renal tubule to the renal pelvis. • Each renal pelvis (one from each kidney) narrows to form a ureter. Ureters• Approximately 12-inch-long tube that connects renal pelvis of the kidney to the bladder. • When muscles of ureters contract, urine is pushed from the kidneys into the urinary bladder. Bladder • Hollow, muscular sac in pelvic cavity. • Serves as a temporary reservoir for urine. • Expands as urine collects; contracts when urine is excreted. Urethra • Tube extending from the bladder to the external opening, urinary meatus. • Serves as a passageway for excretion of urine from the bladder. • Process of excreting urine is called voiding or micturition. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Signs and Symptoms • Irreversible stage with gradual, progressive deterioration of kidney function. • Kidneys lose ability to excrete nitrogenous end products of metabolism. • Progressive weakness, anorexia, diarrhea, pruritus, and polyuria. • Severity of signs and symptoms varies depending on extent of renal damage and remaining function. • Usually result of chronic renal failure (CRF), the gradual, progressive deterioration of kidney function to the point that the kidneys cannot sustain their necessary day-to-day activity.Treatment • Dietary restriction of protein, sodium, and potassium intake • Antiemetics for nausea • Control of hypertension Renal Calculi Signs and Symptoms • Concentration of mineral salts in the renal pelvis, in the calices of the kidney, or in the urinary tract. • Renal calculi patients may remain asymptomatic for long periods. • If stone or calculus fragment lodges in a ureter, there may be intense pain and urinary urgency. • If calculi are in the renal pelvis and calices, pain is duller and more constant. • Back pain and severe abdominal pain may occur. • Other symptoms include nausea, vomiting, chills and fever, hematuria, and abdominal distention. Treatment • Remove stones and prevent new formations. • Enhance elimination of stones and increase fluid intake. • Small stones pass spontaneously without treatment. Large stones may require surgical intervention. • Antibiotics may be prescribed if calculus build-up is due to bacterial infection. • Strong analgesics are prescribed for relief of intense pain. • Ultrasound is used to locate and monitor calculi as they are being destroyed. Hydronephrosis Signs and Symptoms • Distention of renal pelvis and calices due to pressure from accumulating urine. • Pressure impairs, and may eventually interrupt, kidney function.• If obstruction is above bladder opening, only one kidney may be affected and person may be asymptomatic for a prolonged period. • If both kidneys are affected, symptoms may include intense pain, nausea, vomiting, oliguria or anuria, and hematuria. Treatment • Remove obstruction, prevent complications, and treat underlying disorders. • Catheterization for immediate relief of urinary pressure. • Analgesics may be prescribed. • Antibiotics are required if infection occurs. • Surgery if needed to dilate a ureteral stricture. Diagnostic Procedures Cystoscopy • Examination of urinary bladder • Obtain biopsies or tumors, remove polyps. • Obtain evidence of a pathology. Bladder ultrasonography • High-frequency sound waves produce images of the bladder. • Determines bladder volume. • Identifies incomplete bladder emptying. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) • Laboratory test that determines amount of nitrogen in blood that comes from urea. • Used as an indicator of kidney function. Urinalysis • Urine screening test. • Includes physical observation, chemical tests, and microscopic evaluation. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG)• X-ray of the bladder and urethra. • Performed before, during, and after voiding using a contrast medium to enhance imaging. Medical and Surgical Procedures Catheterization • Insertion of a catheter into a body cavity or organ • Used to instill a substance or remove fluid • Most commonly performed through urethra into the bladder to withdraw urine. Hemodialysis • Patient’s blood is diverted into a dialysis machine for filtering. Peritoneal dialysis • Dialysis in which patient’s own peritoneum is used as the dialyzing membrane. Contaminated fluid drains out and is replaced with fresh solution. • Illustration: (A) Introducing dialysis fluid into peritoneal cavity. (B) Draining dialysate with waste products from peritoneal cavity. Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) • Powerful sound-wave vibrations break up calculi in urinary tract or gallbladder. • Administration of an oral dissolution drug removes the stones and their fragments during urination.Renal transplantation • Diseased kidneys replaced by transplanted kidney. Pharmacology Antibiotics • Treat bacterial infection of urinary tract. • Act on the bacterial membrane or one of its metabolic processes. • Type of antibiotic prescribed depends on the infecting organism and the type and extent of infection. Antispasmodics • Suppress spasms in ureter, bladder, and urethra by relaxing smooth muscles lining their walls. • Allow normal emptying of the bladder. Diuretics • Promote and increase excretion of urine. Ch8 Reproductive system Female Structure Ovaries • Two ovaries located on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity• Production of estrogen and progesterone, which affects puberty, menstruation, and pregnancy Fallopian tubes • Extend laterally at superior angle from the uterus • Pathway of ovum into uterus • Fimbria ― fingerlike projections that propel the ovum into the oviduct Uterus • Muscular, hollow, pear-shaped structure suspended by ligaments in the pelvic cavity (see illustration) • Responsible for housing and nourishing the embryo from implantation of the fertilized egg until birth Vagina • Muscular tube extending from the cervix to the exterior of the body • Organ of sexual intercourse • Passageway for delivery of the fetus Clitoris • Located anterior to the vaginal orifice • Organ of sexual response in the female • Composed of erectile tissue with sensory nerve endings Vulva • Structures of the external genitalia • Labia majora—thicker, outermost structures • Labia minora—smooth, thin, inner structures • Responsible for protecting the inner genitalsFunction Mammary glands • Glandular lobes located in the breast of females that contain milk ducts, which lead to an opening in the nipple of the breast • Not directly involved in reproduction • More important after delivery • Production of milk to nourish neonate after birth Female Reproductive System • Organs and glands produce and unite female sex cells (ova or egg cells). • Transport ova to site of fertilization. • Perpetuate the species. • Pass genetic material from generation to generation. Ectopic Pregnancy Signs and Symptoms • Fertilized ovum implants and grows in places other than the uterine cavity. • Common site is interior of the fallopian tube. • Other sites include the ovary, wall of the uterus, or anywhere in the pelvic cavity. • Signs of early pregnancy may be present. • Abdominal pain and tenderness, as well as slight vaginal bleeding. • Rupture of a fallopian tube is life threatening and may cause severe abdominal pain and intra-abdominal bleeding. Treatment • Laparotomy with attempts to save the ovary • Ruptured fallopian tube may require removal • All attempts are made to save the ovary • Blood transfusion may be necessary in severe intra-abdominal bleeding or hypovolemic shock.Breast Cancer Signs and Symptoms • Early symptoms include swelling, lump, dimpling, retraction of nipple, discharge from nipple, tenderness. • Advanced symptoms include nodularity, redness, edema, ulceration of skin, enlargement or shrinkage of breast. • Most common malignancy of women in the United States. • Appears to be associated with ovarian hormonal function. • High-fat diet appears to increase the incidence of breast cancer. • Family history of breast cancer. • Possibly use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), especially for prolonged periods of time. Treatment Lumpectomy • Excision of a small primary breast tumor and some of the normal tissue that surrounds it. Modified radical mastectomy • Excision of the entire breast, including lymph nodes in the underarm (axillary dissection) Other • Adjuvant chemotherapy may be indicated after surgery if malignant cells are found in the lymph nodes. • Any combination of surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy.• Most women who have mastectomies today have modified radical mastectomies. Endometriosis Signs and Symptoms • Growth of endometrial tissue in areas outside the uterus. • Most commonly within the pelvic area. • Dysmenorrhea with pain in lower back and vagina. • Severity of pain is not indicative of extent of the disease. • Dyspareunia, dysuria, and, sometimes, painful defecation. • Diagnostic Procedures Laparoscopy • Visual examination of abdominal cavity with a laparoscope through one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall, usually at the umbilicus.Colposcopy • Examination of the cervix, vagina, and vulva with a colposcope. • Used to detect signs of disease. Hysterosalpingography • Radiography, and usually fluoroscopy of the uterus and uterine tubes. • Radiography is performed following injection of a contrast medium. Mammography • Radiography of the breast to detect tumors, cysts, and microcalcifications, and to locate a malignant lesion. Pap test • Detects abnormal cells in cervix and vagina. Medical and Surgical Procedures Dilation and Curettage (D&C) • Widening of cervical canal with a dilator • Scraping the uterine endometrium with a curet. • Curettage (scraping) the uterine endometrium with a serrated uterine curet.Cerclage • Sutures are used to close the cervix. - Helps prevent premature birth. - Decreases chance of spontaneous abortion. - Sutures are removed before delivery. Amniocentesis • Transabdominal puncture of the amniotic sac under ultrasound guidance to remove amniotic fluid. Hysterectomy with structure shaded purple • Subtotal hysterectomy (cervix not removed). • Total hysterectomy (cervix removed) • Total hysterectomy plus bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy Reconstructive breast surgery • Tissue (skin) expansion• Breast reconstruction in which a balloon expander is inserted beneath the skin and chest muscle. • Saline solution is gradually injected to increase size, and expander is replaced with a permanent implant. Transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap - Surgical creation of a skin flap (using skin and fat from lower half of abdomen), which is passed under the skin to the breast area, shaped into a natural-looking breast, and sutured in place. Pharmacology Topical Antifungals • Used to treat vaginal yeast infections • Alter cell wall of fungi or disrupt enzyme activity • Results in cellular death Estrogens • Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) to correct estrogen deficiency • Chemotherapy for some types of cancer Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) • Used to correct deficiency of estrogen, progesterone, testosterone • Relieves symptoms of menopause • Prevents osteoporosis in women Oral contraceptives (OCPs) • Synthetic hormones used to prevent pregnancy • Used to treat menstrual disorders • Also known as birth control pills Male Structure and function • Produce and nurture male sex cells (sperm). • Transport sperm to sites of fertilization. • Secrete hormones vital in development and maintenance of sexual characteristics.Testes • Located in the scrotum. • Produce sperm, the male sex cell. • Secrete testosterone, hormone that develops and maintains maleness. Epididymis • Located on top of the testes. • Storage for sperm before ejaculation. Vas deferens • Transports sperm from epididymis to the ejaculatory duct. Seminal vesicle • Helps produce a large portion of semen. • Joins with vas deferens to form the ejaculatory duct. Ejaculatory duct • Transports semen to the urethra. • Urethra, tube through which semen is expelled from the body during ejaculation. Prostate gland • Glandular structure beneath the urinary bladder and surrounding the urethra. • Produces an alkaline fluid that promotes sperm motility. • Muscular tissue of prostate aids in the expulsion of sperm during ejaculation. Bulbourethral glands (Cowper glands) • Located below the prostate. • Secrete thick mucus that acts as a lubricant during sexual stimulation. Penis • Composed of erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra. • During sexual activity, the penis becomes erect, and semen from ejaculatory duct is expelled through the urethra during ejaculation. • Production of male sex cells (called sperm) • Transportation of sperm to sites of fertilization • Secretion of hormones vital to development and maintenance of sexual characteristicsBenign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Signs and Symptoms • Overproliferation of cells within the inner portion of the prostate. • Common in men older than 50 years of age with increased incidences with age. • Clinically significant if the enlarging, hyperplastic portion of the prostate obstructs urinary outflow. • Urinary obstruction includes difficulty in initiating urination or in completely emptying the bladder. • Dysuria, nocturia, dribbling, urinary frequency, weak urine stream, or urinary or fecal incontinence. • Symptoms of hydronephrosis or pyelonephritis in severe cases of urinary obstruction due to BPH. Treatment • Depends on severity of symptoms of the urinary system. • Symptomatic treatment may include prostatic massage, catheterization, and avoiding caffeine and alcohol.• Various medications to shrink the prostate or relax the muscles in the prostate. • Nonsurgical options to shrink or destroy excessive prostate tissue include transurethral: - microwave therapy (TUMT) using microwave heat. - vaporization of prostate (TUVP) using high-frequency electrical current. - needle ablation (TUNA) using radio waves. - Surgical interventions to remove obstructing tissue include: - laser surgery. - transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Prostate Cancer Signs and Symptoms • Malignant neoplasm of prostatic tissue. • Majority of prostatic neoplasms are classified as adenocarcinomas. • Most men with prostate cancer are asymptomatic on diagnosis. • When symptoms are present, they are typically those of urinary tract. • Tends to metastasize, often spreading to the bones of the spine or pelvis before it is detected. • Disease is rare before age 50. • Hip or back pain may be present in advanced stages. • Presymptomatic tests include a blood test for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and periodic digital rectal examinations (DREs). Treatment • Course of treatment depends on stage of the disease and patient’s physical condition and age. • Surgery to remove the prostate and adjacent affected tissues. • Hormonal therapies to limit prostatic cell growth, including orchidectomy and estrogen therapy. • Radiation therapy to relieve bone pain. • Chemotherapy in advanced stages of the disease. Diagnostic Procedures Digital rectal examination • Examination of prostate by finger palpation through the anal canal and rectum • Used to detect prostate enlargement • Should be done yearly in men older than age 40Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test • Blood test to screen for prostate cancer • Elevated levels of PSA are associated with prostate enlargement and cancer Transurethral ultrasound and biopsy of prostate • Ultrasound probe inserted into the rectum to obtain images of prostate and collect multiple needle biopsy specimens of abnormal tissue • High-frequency sound waves are recorded and transformed into video or photographic images of the prostate • If cancer is detected, a plan of treatment is determined Medical and Surgical Procedures Transurethral resection of prostate (TURP)• Relieves obstruction caused by prostatic hyperplasia • Prostatic tissue is chipped away and flushed out Vasectomy • Sterilization procedure • Bilateral ligation of vas deferens to prevent passage of sperm • Commonly performed at outpatient clinic Pharmacology Gonadotropins • Hormonal preparation • Used to increase sperm count in infertilitySpermicides • Birth control that destroys sperm • Creates a highly acidic environment in the uterus. Clinical Exercise Bob and Mary have been trying to conceive for over 3 years. The physician prescribes Bob a hormonal preparation used to increase sperm count that is known as (estrogen, gonadotropin, testosterone). George uses a method of birth control that destroys sperm by creating a highly acidic environment in the uterus. The name of this agent that kills sperm is called a spermicide. Joseph is diagnosed with BPH and is scheduled for a surgical procedure that uses a resectoscope to chip away at the prostate. The abbreviation for this surgical procedure is TURP. Michael is scheduled for TURP. He asks the physician to explain how the procedure is performed. The physician explains that an instrument called a resectoscope is inserted through the urethra, and a small loop “chips away” some of the obstructing tissue. James comes to the urologist’s office for consultation. After the birth of their third child, James and his wife decide that he should undergo a method of male contraception in which the vas deferens is excised. This surgical procedure is called a vasectomy. Kyle sustains a severe laceration of the left testicle in a construction accident. The urologist advises a surgical repair of the testicle, commonly referred to as orchidoplasty. Mr. L has a 3-year history of prostate cancer and wants to avoid surgery. The physician recommends hormonal therapies to limit prostatic cell growth. A female hormone is prescribed for this treatment and is known as a/an (antidiuretic, estrogen, progesterone). Mr. J arrives at the emergency department and has been unable to urinate for 16 hours. The physician notes the patient’s bladder is distended. Based on this finding the physician suspects an enlarged prostate known by the medical term prostatomegaly. A 50-year-old male presents for his annual physical. He is concerned about his risk of prostate cancer and asks the physician to explain the symptoms of this disease. The physician explains that early stages are often asymptomatic. When symptoms occur, they include dysuria, difficulty in voiding, urinary frequency, and urinary retention. A 45-year-old male patient complains of frequent urination at night. The physician documents this finding as nocturia.Tyler is diagnosed with a benign tumor of the prostate. The doctor explains that benign tumors are not cancerous and are not life threatening. However, severe cases may include an infection of the renal pelvis and kidney known as pyelonephritis. Results of Fred’s pyelography indicate urine retention and obstruction of urinary flow due to prostate enlargement. The medical term when urine accumulates in the renal pelvis is known as (hydrocele, hydromyoma, hydronephrosis). Barney is diagnosed with BPH. He asks the nurse to explain BPH. She explains that BPH refers to a benign prostatic hyperplasia. It is a nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate gland caused by excessive growth of prostatic tissue. Tom presents complaining of fever, chills, urinary frequency, and urgency. On examination, the prostate is soft, swollen, and tender. The physician suspects an inflammation of the prostate gland and bladder and charts a diagnosis of prostatocystitis. Lauren, a 22-year-old, is sexually active with her husband but wants to wait a couple of years before having children. The nurse practitioner explains the most effective option to prevent conception is to use an agent known as an (antifungal, estrogen, OCP). Mrs. C is postsurgical total hysterectomy plus bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The gynecologist prescribes HRT now that the ovaries are removed and unable to produce estrogen and progesterone. The HRT abbreviation means hormone replacement therapy. The patient presents with a vaginal yeast infection. The physician prescribes a suppository (antifungal, estrogen, HRT). Mrs. A is menopausal and has symptoms of vaginal dryness and hot flashes. The physician writes her a prescription for an agent known as an (antifungal, estrogen, OCP). Ms. Y presents with heavy bleeding over the last 6 months and is scheduled to have a a scraping of uterine endometrium with a curet after dilation of the cervix. The abbreviation for this procedure is D&C. Susan is considering reconstructive breast surgery following her mastectomy and is considering the TRAM flap procedure. What is the meaning of the abbreviation TRAM? transverse rectus abdominis muscle The patient is scheduled for a transabdominal puncture of the amniotic sac under ultrasound guidance to remove amniotic fluid to find out if her baby has any genetic abnormalities. The physician documents this procedure as an amniocentesis. The patient is scheduled for removal of her uterus with the cervix, ovaries, and fallopian tubes intact. The physician charts this surgical procedure as a subtotal hysterectomy.Mary presents to the obstetric clinic in her early third trimester with symptoms of premature labor. The physician recommends a procedure to suture the cervix to prevent premature labor and decrease the chance of spontaneous abortion. This procedure is called cerclage. Patient is scheduled for removal of her uterus and both fallopian tubes. The physician charts this surgical procedure as a total hysterectomy plus bilateral A: salpingo oophorectomy. A 15-year-old arrives at the clinic for birth control counseling. After weighing her options, she decides that birth control pills are her best option because they are highly reliable and easy to use. The abbreviation for the oral contraceptives is OCPs. June comes into the clinic complaining of pain during sexual intercourse. The medical assistant documents this complaint as (dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dysuria). Joan, a 22-year-old, presents to the office with severe pain with menstruation. Her complaint is documented as dysmenorrhea. During laparoscopy, ectopic deposits of endometrial tissue are noted within the pelvis. The doctor charts this condition of endometrial tissue outside of the uterus as (endometritis, histometrial, endometriosis). Mary is scheduled for a modified radical mastectomy to treat her breast cancer. This surgical procedure involves removal of the entire breast and excision of the underarm lymph nodes. The medical term for removal of the lymph node is lymphadenectomy. Sasha is diagnosed with breast cancer and asks the doctor the types of treatments prescribed for breast cancer besides surgery. The physician explains that radiation, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy are the treatments other than surgery. Mrs. S had a mastectomy because of breast cancer. The doctor explains the postsurgical adjuvant chemotherapy he is recommending. Can you explain the purpose of adjuvant chemotherapy? Chemotherapy is used to enhance or extend the effects of surgery and to eliminate any possible metastasis. Lisa detects a lump in her breast while performing breast self- examination. After mammography shows a small tumor, an excision of the breast tumor is performed. This is known as a lumpectomy. The nurse explains that a common cause of scarring or blockage of the fallopian tubes is due to infections such as PID. This abbreviation is defined as pelvic inflammatory disease.Jean is diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy in the fallopian tube. The obstetrician informs her of the risks involved with this type of pregnancy. What are some of these risks? The fallopian tube may rupture, which is life threatening. It may also cause severe abdominal pain and intra-abdominal bleeding. Ellen presents to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen reveals an ovum has implanted in her fallopian tube. A pregnancy for an implanted ovum outside of the uterine cavity is known as an ectopic pregnancy. The doctor diagnoses Heather with ectopic pregnancy. She asks her to explain what causes this condition. The doctor explains that it is caused by a blockage or scarring of the tubes which prevents the fertilized egg from being transported to the uterus. Mrs. T is diagnosed with a urinary tract infection. To treat the bacterial infection, the physician prescribes an (analgesic, antibiotic, antispasmodic). To relieve the patient’s nephralgia, the physician prescribes an (analgesic, antibiotic, antispasmodic). A chest x-ray reveals an accumulation of fluid in the lungs. The doctor prescribes a drug to stimulate production and flow of urine. The drug is a/an (antispasmodic, antidiuretic, diuretic). Mr. Q was catheterized for surgery and now experiences spasms in the urethra and bladder. To decrease the spasms and allow normal emptying of the bladder, the doctor prescribes a/an (antispasmodic, antidiuretic, diuretic). The patient is in ESRD and requires his blood to be diverted into a machine and filtered, twice a week, since his kidneys are no longer functioning. The procedure to have blood filtered outside of the body by a dialysis machine is called hemodialysis. Mrs. M is diagnosed with kidney failure and she must receive peritoneal dialysis. She asks the doctor what the difference is between peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. Peritoneal dialysis uses the patient’s own peritoneum as the dialyzing membrane. Hemodialysis uses a dialysis machine as the dialyzing membrane. Mr. M is diagnosed with multiple renal calculi. The doctor explains that the treatment of choice is to use powerful sound-wave vibrations to break up the kidney stones. The abbreviation for this procedure is ESWL. Mrs. A has a history of bladder carcinoma and presents for an endoscopy of the urinary bladder. Any growths that are present will be removed and biopsied. This visual examination of the bladder is a medical procedure called cystoscopy.Mrs. C is unable to urinate after surgery so a catheter is inserted through the urethra and into her bladder to remove urine. This therapeutic procedures is known as catheterization. Mr. G is diagnosed with nephrolithiasis. The medical assistant explains that the kidney stones need to be crushed into smaller pieces so they can be expelled in the urine. Crushing of stones is a surgical procedure called lithotripsy. Radiographic studies of a patient’s kidneys reveal enlargement of the right kidney. The radiologist documents this as nephromegaly. Mr. J undergoes surgical repair of the renal pelvis. Before obtaining informed consent, the physician charts this surgical procedure as pyeloplasty. Mary presents at the clinic concerned because she only urinated once in the past 24 hours. The medical term for this symptom is (anuria, dysuria, enuria). Mrs. M presents because her urine is red. The nurse documents this finding as hematuria. Upon diagnosis of ureterolithiasis, the doctor informs Mrs. S that she may experience pain and have difficulty urinating. The medical term for painful or difficult urination is dysuria. Mrs. H presents with complaints of pain, nausea, and hematuria. Based on her past history of nephrolithiasis, the physician orders an imaging technique that utilizes high frequency sound waves to detect presence of calculi. This imaging procedure is called an ultrasound. Mrs. J develops kidney stones even though various treatments were undertaken. The patient must undergo a surgical procedure in which an incision is made to remove the stones. This procedure is called lithotomy. A patient diagnosed with renal calculi presents to the office complaining of pain in the kidney area. The medical term for this symptom is nephralgia or nephrodynia. Mrs. M is diagnosed with ESRD and is given dietary restrictions of food with protein, potassium, and sodium or salt. A 38-year-old female is admitted with pyonephrosis. A key finding of the inflammatory condition is the accumulation of pus in the kidneys. Mr. J requires renal transplantation because his kidneys no longer filter toxic wastes from the blood? His disease is charted as ESRD, or end-stage renal disease. Mrs. M is diagnosed with ESRD. Her symptoms include progressive weakness, diarrhea, pruritus, polyuria, and loss of appetite. The medical assistant charts her loss of appetite as anorexia. Mr. X is a postsurgical patient who complains of soreness in his right calf muscle. The doctor assesses the right calf and finds it to be warm and red. What is the likely diagnosis for Mr. X? DVT The physician prescribes medication for Mr. X to dissolve his DVT. This type of medication is called a thrombolytic. To prevent the patient from contracting a viral infection, the physician prescribed a/an (corticosteroid, antiviral, immunosuppressant). Treatment of HIV infection and AIDS includes the use of (corticosteroids, antivirals, immunosuppressants). To prevent rejection of Mary’s recently transplanted kidney, the physician prescribed a/an (anticoagulant, immunosuppressant, thrombolytic). The American Medical Association (AMA) recommends vaccination of immune globulins to induce immunity to certain infectious diseases. These vaccinations are known as (anticoagulants, immunizations, immunosuppressants) An MRI reveals a lymphangioma. The physician explains that the tumor needs to be excised. The term for excision of a lymph vessel is lymphangiectomy. Bill is diagnosed with leukemia. His physician recommends irradiation and chemotherapy of the bone marrow followed by replacement of healthy blood cells. This type of treatment is called (bone marrow aspiration, bone marrow biopsy, bone marrow transplant). Jason undergoes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that reveals a tumor composed of lymph vessels. This tumor is known as a lymphangioma. The patient is diagnosed with KS and asks the physician what type of medical treatment is needed. The physician explains that treatment depends on the stage of HIV infection and degree of metastasis. Some common treatment modalities include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery, and immunotherapy. John is diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and asks the medical assistant to explain this disease. He explains it’s a malignancy of connective tissues, especially the tissue found under the skin, mucous membranes, and in the lining of lymph vessels; usually associated with HIV. Mr. Z with a history of HIV+ presents with purplish brown papules on both arms and legs. The doctor suspects he has a cancer that is associated with AIDs. This type of cancer is known as Kaposi sarcoma.Ms. Z suffers from SLE and states that aspirin is no longer working. The physician prescribes other drugs to reduce inflammation that are called (analgesics, antithyroids, corticosteroids). When SLE becomes life threatening the physician may order drugs to suppress the immune system. These drugs are called (antithyroids, immunosuppressives, NSAIDs). Ms. Z is diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus. The medical assistant charts the abbreviation as SLE. The patient asks the physician about the typical symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus. The physician explains that more noticeable symptoms include fever, fatigue, joint pain, and malaise. These symptoms develop over a period of time and may appear suddenly. Symptoms may include rashes on exposed areas of the body, including a “butterfly” rash on the face. Mr. G presents with swelling and excessive accumulation of lymph in his right leg. The physician diagnoses this condition as (lymphoma, lymphomegaly, lymphedema). Dr. J detects lymphedema as he examines Mrs. L after her surgery. Dr. J explains that this condition is due to a blockage in the lymphatic system which prevents drainage of lymph fluid. It is also a common complication following removal of the breast, a surgical procedure called mastectomy. The patient has a history of lymphedema and presents with a swollen, red area of skin that feels hot and tender in the right arm. The physician diagnoses this as skin infection, which is called (cellulitis, hepatitis, lymphadenitis). Mary is diagnosed with lymphedema in her right arm and asks the nurse what can be done to lessen the swelling. The nurse explains that swelling can be decreased by moving lymph out of the right arm through gentle exercise, massage, bandaging, and compression garments. Mrs. S. presents with angina pectoris and is prescribed a drug to relieve her pain. It is called a (beta blocker, nitrate, statin). To lower blood pressure, the doctor prescribes a (beta blocker, nitrate, statin). Mrs. T is diagnosed with deep vein thrombosis in her lower leg. She is prescribed a drug that dissolves a blood clot. It is known as a (beta blocker, nitrate, thrombolytic). Mr. B is diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia and advised to follow a low-fat diet. He is prescribed a drug that reduces cholesterol levels and is known as a (beta blocker, nitrate, statin).Lily is scheduled to have surgery on her mitral valve. The surgeon charts surgical repair of the valve as valvuloplasty. Ms. B is diagnosed with ventricular fibrillation. The treatment of choice is to implant a battery-powered device that monitors and automatically corrects tachycardia by sending electrical impulses to the heart. The abbreviation for this defibrillator is AICD. Mr. T is scheduled for surgery to bypass one or more of his blocked coronary arteries in order to restore blood flow. This surgery is charted as coronary artery bypass surgery. Mr. D is diagnosed with CAD. Treatment for his condition involves an endovascular procedure that will reopen the narrowed blood vessels and restore blood flow. The blocked vessel is usually opened by balloon dilation. This surgical procedure is known as a/an (anastomosis, angioplasty, endartotomy). Mrs. T presents with chest pain that radiates to her left arm. She is pale and is perspiring profusely. An ECG reveals necrosed heart tissue. The physician diagnoses Mrs. T with (fibrillations, MI, palpitations). The nurse explains to Mr. X, who is diagnosed with CAD, that lifestyle changes could reduce risk of further heart complications. Lifestyle changes include exercise regularly, lose weight, quit smoking, reduce stress, and maintain a diet low in saturated fat. A 50-year-old male presents to the clinic complaining of pressure and pain in his chest. After a brief exam, the doctor concludes that his symptoms are due to lack of oxygen to the heart. This condition is called angina pectoris. Mr. S complains of chest pain, nausea, and SOB. A diagnostic test to record electrical activity of his heart is ordered. This diagnostic test is called a/an electrocardiogram (ECG) or electrocardiography (ECG). Walter is scheduled for balloon angioplasty to crush fatty deposits in the coronary vessel and improve blood flow. He is told this is known as PTCA, the abbreviation for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. An aneurysm may cause weakness, sweating, tachycardia, and low blood pressure, also known as (hypotension, hypertension, hypothymia). During a physical examination, the doctor palpates and feels an abnormal dilation of a blood vessel. This may be diagnosed as a/an (aneurysm, carcinoma, tumor). Mr. J is advised that he needs to have his aneurysm removed. The surgical procedure to excise an aneurysm is known as a/an aneurysmectomy. During surgery, the doctor discovers a spindle-shaped aneurysm in the patient’s artery. This type of aneurysm is known as a/an (dissecting, fusiform, saccular) aneurysm.After four pregnancies, Mrs. X noticed twisted enlargements of the veins in her lower legs. She complains of pain that is not relieved even when she elevates her legs or uses compression stockings. Dr. D recommends a chemical injection into the varicosities to destroy and close the veins. This procedure is known as (sclerotherapy, ligation and stripping, laser ablation). An 87-year-old nursing home resident has a history of vascular problems and dependent edema. Recently, he developed skin ulcers on his lower legs. His daughter asked what caused the ulcers. The nurse explains that skin ulcers are a complication associated with (varicose veins, advanced age, skin allergies). Structure and Function Exercise Name four organs of the urinary system: Kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra What is the name of the structure that stores urine until it is voided? Urinary bladder What is the main function of the kidneys? Remove toxic products from blood by forming urine What structure in the nephron forms urine? Renal tubule Urine is transported from the kidneys into the urinary bladder via the ureters. Urine is formed through the process of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. Where are the ovaries located? Pelvic cavity, one on each side of the uterus What is the biological role of mammary glands? Secrete milk for nourishment of the newborn What do the terms gestation and parturition mean? Gestation is the period from the fertilization of the ovum until birth; parturition refers to the process of giving birth. What structure is known as the birth canal? Vagina What is the purpose of the male reproductive system? All organs and structures are designed to produce and deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract, so fertilization can occur. What are the sperm-transporting organs? The epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and urethra. What are the accessory glands of the male reproductive system? Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glandsWhat is the copulatory organ of the male reproductive system? The penis, which contains erectile tissue Vocabulary Challenge Exercise hydrocele: painless accumulation of serous fluid in the sac that contains the testes, usually due to malabsorption of the serous fluid hypospadias: malformation in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis sterility: inability to produce offspring, usually due to a deficiency in semen circumcision: removal of all or part of the foreskin, or prepuce, of the penis epispadias: malformation in which the urethra opens on the dorsum of the penis erectile dysfunction: inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse curet: instrument used to scrape the endometrium of the uterus during a D&C fistula: abnormal connection or passageway between two organs or vessels that do not normally connect gametes: reproductive cells of the male and female that fuse during fertilization; in the female it is the ovum, and in the male, the sperm gestation: length of time from conception to birth; normally 36 weeks in humans retroversion: state of being turned back or a tipping, especially an organ, such as the uterus sterility: inability of the female to become pregnant or the male to impregnate the female polycystic kidney disease: hereditary condition in which the kidneys are enlarged and contain many cysts that develop over time, requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation uremia: increase in concentration of urea and other nitrogenous wastes in the blood Wilms tumor: malignant neoplasm of the kidney that occurs in young children, usually before age 5 azoturia: increase of nitrogenous substances, especially urea, in urine diuresis: increased formation and secretion of urinehypospadias: abnormal congenital opening of the male urethra on the undersurface of the penis mononucleosis: acute infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) characterized by a sore throat, fever, fatigue, and enlarged lymph nodes pathogen: any disease-producing microorganism, including virus, bacterium, and fungus phagocyte: cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign substances Hodgkin disease: malignant disease characterized by painless, progressive enlargement of lymphoid tissue, splenomegaly, and the presence of unique Reed-Sternberg cells in the lymph nodes lymphadenitis: inflammation and enlargement of the lymph nodes, usually a result of infection lymphocyte: type of white blood cell (leukocyte) that is responsible for immune responses in defending the body against disease arrhythmia: irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat; also called dysrhythmia bruit: soft blowing sound heard on auscultation caused by turbulent blood flow heart block: interference with normal transmission of electrical impulses through the conducting system of the heart heart failure (HF): inability of the heart to circulate blood effectively enough to meet the body’s metabolic needs hypertension: consistently elevated blood pressure that is higher than 140/90 causing damage to the blood vessels and ultimately the heart ischemia: inadequate supply of oxygenated blood to a body part due to an interruption of blood flow CF vesicul/o: seminal vesicle perine/o: perineum (area between scrotum [or vulva in the female] and anus) gonad/o: gonads, sex glands hidden: crypt/o spermatozoa, sperm cells: spermat/o, sperm/o dilated vein: varic/o epididym/o: epididymis vas/o: vessel; vas deferens; duct orch/o, orchi/o, orchid/o, test/o: testis (plural, testes)andr/o: male prostat/o: prostate gland glans penis: balan/o nat/o: birth galact/o: lact/o: milk gynec/o: woman, female men/o: menses; menstruation salping/o: tube (fallopian or eustachian mamm/o, mast/o: breast vulv/o, episi/o: vulva oophor/o, ovari/o: ovary colp/o, vagin/o: vagina hyster/o, uter/o: uterus ur/o, urin/o: urine, urinary tract urethr/o: urethra metr/o: uterus (womb); measure meat/o: meatus, opening glomerul/o: glomerulus nephr/o, ren/o: kidney pyel/o: renal pelvis ureter/o: ureter cyst/o, vesic/o: bladder agglutin/o: clumping, gluing angi/o: vessel (usually blood or lymph) vas/o: vessel; vas deferens; duct aneurysm/o: widened blood vessel lymphangi/o: lymph vessel lymphaden/o: lymph gland (node) lymph: lymph/o phleb/o, ven/o: vein varic/o: dilated vein gland: aden/o phag/o: swallowing, eating aort/o: aorta arteri/o: artery arteriol/o: arteriole atri/o: atrium ather/o: fatty plaque cardi/o, coron/o: heart thromb/o: blood clot splen/o: spleen py/o: pus pyel/o: renal pelvis Prefixestachy- rapid brachy- slow crypt: hidden Suffixes -ism, -ia: condition -osis: abnormal condition, unspecified -iasis: abnormal condition, specified -rrhaphy: suture -plasm: formation, growth -stomy: forming an opening (mouth) -para: to bear (offspring) -salpinx: tube (usually fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tubes) -tocia: childbirth, labor -arche: beginning -cyesis: pregnancy -gravida: pregnant woman -pexy: fixation (of an organ) -ptosis: prolapse, downward displacement -tripsy: crushing -phylaxis: protection -poiesis: formation, production -cardia: heart condition -gram: record, writing -graph: instrument for recording -graphy: process of recording -stenosis: narrowing, stricture -ectasis: dilation, expansion -us: condition or structure -um: structure -endo: within -scler: hardening -rrhexis: rupture -gen: forming, producing,origin Build Medical Words Pyelopathy: any disease of renal pelvia process of recording (radiography) the urinary tract: urography pertaining to the bladder and prostate gland: vesicoprostatic forming or producing male (hormones): androgen enlargement of the prostate gland: prostatomegaly urination (that is) scanty: oliguria (process of) urination (that is) difficult or painful: dysuria pertaining to urine and the organs of reproduction: urogenital inflammation of the glans penis: balanitis excision or removal of the prostate gland: prostatectomyexcision of the prostate: prostat/ectomy inflammation of the prostate: prostat/it is (agent that) kills sperm: sperm/i/cide resembling a male: andr/oid hernia or swelling of the glans penis: balan/o/cele disease of the gonads: gonad/o/pathy enlargement of the prostate: prostat/o/megaly destruction of spermatozoa: spermat/o/lysis excision of (part of) the vas deferens: vas/ectomy discharge from the glans penis: balan/o/rrhea slit or fissure under or below (undersurface of the penis): hypospadias condition of urine (containing) spermatozoa: spermat/uria pertaining to male origin: andr/o/gen/ic condition of hidden testes: crypt/orchid/ism condition of scanty sperm (production): olig/o/sperm/ia incision of the vulva: episiotomy surgical repair of the breast: mammoplasty, mastoplasty visual examination of the abdomen: laparoscopy excision or removal of the breast: mastectomy visual examination of the vagina: colposcopy process of recording (radiography) the uterus and fallopian tubes: hysterosalpingography instrument to examine the abdomen: laparoscope surgical repair of the vagina: vagin/o/plasty, colp/o/plasty herniation of the uterus: hyster/o/cele suture of the perineum: perine/o/rrhaphy tumor of an ovary: oophor/oma visual examination of the uterus: hyster/o/scopy, uter/o/scopy excision or removal of the breast: mastect/omy inflammation of the cervix uteri (neck of the uterus): cervic/itis surgical puncture of the amnion (amniotic sac): amni/o/centesis hernia(tion) or swelling of a fallopian tube: salping/o/cele bad, painful, or difficult labor or childbirth: dys/tocia to bear (offspring) many times: multi/para pertaining to (the period) before birth: pre/nat/al pregnant woman (for the) first time: primi/gravida pregnancy (that is) false: pseud/o/cyesis surgical repair of the renal pelvis: pyeloplasty incision of the urethra: urethrotomy protein in urine: proteinuria visual examination of the bladder: cystoscopy process of recording (radiography) the bladder and urethra: cystourethrography process of recording (radiography) the renal pelvis: pyelography tumor of the kidney: nephr/oma urine with blood: hemat/uria urine with pus: py/uriaexcessive urination: poly/uria scanty urine: olig/uria stone or calculus in urinary tract: ur/o/lith disease of the renal pelvis: pyel/o/pathy incision of the meatus: meat/o/tomy crushing of a calculus or stone: lith/o/tripsy inflammation of the glomerulus and kidney: glomerul/o/nephr/itis fixation of a kidney: nephr/o/pexy pyonephrosis: pus in kidney instrument to examine the bladder: cyst/o/scope inflammation of the renal pelvis: pyel/itis expansion of the ureter: ureter/ectasis narrowing or stricture of the urethra: urethr/o/stenosis X-ray visualization of internal anatomy of the heart and blood vessels: angiography Procedure that widens coronary arteries: angioplasty structure within the heart: endocardium rapid heart rate: tachy/cardia suture of a widened blood vessel: aneurysm/o/rrhaphy Restorative surgery on a heart valve to correct a prolapse or stenosis: valvuloplasty Mass of undissolved matter (blood clot, plaque or air bubble) in a blood vessel: embolus inflammation of heart and blood vessels: angiocarditits inflammation of an arteriole: arteriol/itis Hardening of veins: venosclerosis involuntary contraction of blood vessel, preventing blood from reaching areas:vasospasm dye injected into heart, making visible on xray to evaluate heart pump: ventriculography pertaining to the atrium and ventricle: atri/o/ventricul/ar abnormal condition of fatty plaque hardening: ather/o/scler/osis abnormal hardening of arterial walls: arteriosclerosis narrowing or stricture of an artery (as a result of plaque): arteri/o/stenosis destruction or loosening of a thrombus (blood clot): thromb/o/lysis excision of an embolus: thromb/ectomy tumor of the thymus gland: thym/oma tumor of fatty plaque: ather/oma tumor (composed of) fatty plaque: atheroma enlargement of the heart: cardi/o/megaly process of recording electrical activity of the heart: electr/o/cardi/o/graphy record of electrical (activity) of the heart: electrocardiogram enlargement of the spleen: splen/o/megaly surgical fixation of the spleen: splenopexy tumor (composed of) lymph: lymph/oma tumor of lymph that is fleshy (cancerous): lymphosarcoma tumor of a lymph vessel: lymphangi/oma process of recording lymph vessel(s): lymphangiography process of recording lymph gland(s): lymphadenography disease of lymph glands: lymphaden/o/pathy or lymph/aden/o/pathy inflammation of a lymph gland (node): lymphaden/itis or lymph/aden/itisformation or production of lymph:lymph/o/poiesis cell that swallows or eats (ingests):phag/o/cyte process of recording (radiography) a vein: venography, phlebography process of recording (radiography) the aorta: aortography process of recording (radiography) vessels (after injection of a contrast dye): angiography process of clumping, gluing: agglutin/ation abnormal condition of arterial (walls) hardening: arteriosclerosis Heart disease caused by accumulation of fatty substances in arterial walls: atherosclerosis Structure and Function Exercise What is the purpose of the lymphatic system? Transports excess fluid from interstitial spaces in tissues and returns it to the blood and defends the body against foreign invaders and harmful substances. What is the purpose of leukocytes? Defend the body against foreign invaders and harmful agents. What role does the hormone thymosin play in the lymphatic system? Thymosin stimulates the red bone marrow to produce which are important in the immune process. What organ destroys bacteria entering the mouth and throat? Tonsils What is the main function of the heart? Pump blood through blood vessels to all the cells of the body What heart structures control blood flow to and from the heart? Heart valves List two major functions of the CV system. Delivers oxygen, nutrients, and other essential substances to body cells and removes waste products of cellular metabolism. What function does the CV system perform for the lymphatic system? Transports excess fluid from interstitial spaces in tissues and returns it to the blood.