Popular in Introduction to Physiology
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Cicero Villas Boas
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
verified elite notetaker
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Valerie Ho on Monday June 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 118 at University of Washington taught by Moon Draper in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 492 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Physiology in Biology at University of Washington.
Reviews for Exam Reviews
You can bet I'll be grabbing Valerie studyguide for finals. Couldn't have made it this week without your help!
-Graciela Hilpert III
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 06/15/15
BIOL 118 Spring 2015 Exam1 Topics This course is about structure and function of the human anatomy Additionally we will look at the mechanisms of action and regulation at several levels of scale atomic ionic molecular cellular tissue organ whole organism To study the various processes we will often look at what happens when the mechanisms fail I will use diseases as examples but for the first exam I do not expect you to know anything about the specific diseases that we discusses in class only the concepts that they illustrate As organisms one of our main mechanisms is a reflex This is an immediate response to a stimulus Nearly all systems in our bodies have sensors receptors that detect both external and internal conditions These receptors in turn cause the body to respond to changing conditions This response is usually to maintain the internal condition This response is not immediate but operates well within a range of values known as tolerance limits These resulting phenomenon is known as homeostasis which is the tendency to maintain conditions within normal physiological operating ranges or parameters A mechanism that establishes homeostasis is often negative feedback This is different from a reflex in that in response to a stimulus negative feedback will inhibit or excite a process A second difference is that the response to a stimulus will vary over time As the condition approaches a tolerance limit the response becomes smaller Negative feedback maintains conditions within tolerances while positive feedback specifically does the opposite Again this is different from a reflex in that the response to a stimulus increases over time In fact the result is to exceed the homeostatic tolerance limits This is usually done to bring about change The systems employing these mechanisms typically use signal molecules receptors and effectors The signal molecules can be almost any substance but in particular they can be as small as a single proton and are often individual ions lons are atoms or molecules in a charged state Other signal molecules include hormones both polar for example amino acid based and nonpolar for example cholesterol based Nonpolar molecules can enter cells without using a protein in the membrane for transport They are hydrophobic avoid water as is the interior of the cell membrane When hormones are based on nonpolar cholesterol known as steroids they can enter any cell of the body Polar molecules which carry a partial or complete charge must bind a receptor on the surface of the cell This most often is a protein Proteins are one of four main macromolecules found in living systems These include proteins which are made of amino acids lipids which include fatty acids and steroids carbohydrates which include sugars and many other carbonhydrogenoxygen containing molecules and nucleic acids Nucleic acids carry the genetic information You should be able to recognise the structure and know that ATP in particular is used to store cellular energy All of these macromolecules contain carbon and hydrogen Most have oxygen also The proteins are more complex as each amino acid also contains nitrogen and a couple have R groups which have sulphur Other elements found in living systems are typically found in ionic form charged and include Na Cl K Ca Mg Zn and interestingly H Since living systems are based on water H20 then H ions or protons are critical to many processes A measure of the number of protons in a water solution is called pH As pH changes it affects many macromolecules and in turn affects the systems that they regulate General conditions such as pH temperature salinity amount of salts dissolved and osmolarity amount of solutes dissolved also affect the processes of cells One of the direct way this occurs is to change the nature of the side groups R groups of the amino acids in the proteins that make up receptors and enzymes in the cell Because of this the body will either maintain these conditions or alter them to effect change The proteins change their behavior as the conditions change Enzymes or effectors bind to substrates These are usually either signal molecules or components of a chemical reaction By binding these substrates the enzymes control reactions and respond to changing conditions They can both accelerate a reaction and force the reaction to move in a different direction In general chemical reactions fall into two groups those that require the input of energy called endergonic and those that release energy called exergonic In both cases enzymes bind the reactants called substrates and control the rate of the reaction Enzymes can speed up a reaction by stabilizing the intermediate form which increases the likelihood that the reaction will move forward Another way of describing this is that the enzyme lowers the activation energy of a reaction This is the small input of energy needed to cause a reaction to occur An enzyme can also couple reactions This is the process of capturing the energy released in an exergonic reaction and directing it to an endergonic reaction This will drive a reaction in a direction that would not normally occur very often if at all Enzymes are not consumed or used up in a reaction They do not directly contribute energy to a reaction Enzymes work in concert with one another to create a metabolic pathway This can be a pathway to break down a substance or manufacture a compound Often the product of a pathway will bind to one of the enzymes in the pathway and alter its activity This is a case of feedback Another role of proteins is to transport hydrophilic substance across membranes They both facilitate and regulate this transport This is done using channels for ions and small molecules and carrier proteins for larger molecules One consideration is the specificity that the carrier or channel has for the molecules that pass through them This is similar to the binding of substrates to enzymes If the binding is more selective and more attractive then this is known as highaffinity binding Lastly proteins are often receptors found in the cell membrane or inside the cell Receptors bind to signals just like enzymes and transport proteins and communicate to other proteins that there is a signal present These can be excitatory or inhibitory The end result is usually homeostasis BIOL 118 Spring 2015 Exam 2 What we know so far This unit is about the structurefunction of bones muscles and neurons Throughout the unit we continue our study of the role of ions proteins membranes and different types of cells for each of these systems There are several commonalities between the systems in this unit Bones Structure Bones are living structures They are remodeled constantly and change composition over a lifetime Long bones are hollow They contain marrow which is a fatty soft cellular tissue that gives rise to blood cells Bones are comprised of cells cartilage and mineralized structures of Calcium Phosphate There are many blood vessels that feed into the marrow and along the length of the bone shaft The ends of many bones are called the epiphysis This is a spongy region that serves to form joints The cells that produce cartilage are chondrocytes These arise from a rapidly dividing region called a growth plate This region also gives rise to cells called osteoblasts which in turn give rise to osteocytes and osteoclasts Most bones have a protein layer surrounding the nonarticulating regions called a periosteum The general structure of long bones consists of long tubelike osteons each containing blood vessels and comprised of cylindrical mineralized cells Function Bones provide support for the body They also provide mobility and leverage In many cases bones are protecting internal structures particularly the brain spinal cord heart and lungs In the limbs bones give both postural support and leverage for lifting beer mugs Bones also protect the vital originating cells for blood tissue Bones are storehouses for phosphate and most importantly calcium ions To liberate these ions osteoclasts secrete protons to alter the pH of a discrete area under the cell This catabolic ability is also used to remodel bones after injury or in response to changing demands of the muscles New bone cells the osteoblasts reverse this process by secreting calcium and phosphate salts Once buried these cells become osteocytes and are an integral part of the bone matrix Before puberty bone growth is regulated by a series hormones two of which HGH and FGF control length and maturity respectively Calcium stores are carefully regulated by calcitonin and PTH parathyroid hormone These affect the deposition of calcium in bones the reuptake of calcium by the kidneys and intestines Vitamin D in the form of calcitriol is critical to the PTH signaling pathway Calcitriol is a metabolic product of pathways in the skin liver and kidneys Dietary VitD23 supplements endogenously produced VitD The UVB radiation from the sun is critical to this process ViD is a lipid A deficiency in VitD results in Ricketts Sex steroids are responsible for maintaining bone density Later in life you humans experience an odd loss of sex steroids that results in a loss bone mass called osteoporosis This is more common in the females of your species During embryogenesis bone development follows the formation of muscles which follow the formation of the nervous system In large part the bone structure is dependent on these other structures and the activity of the organism Diseases which affect neural or muscle development are often manifested in the bone structure 1 of 4 Pop tarts Muscles Structure Muscles most commonly attach to bones and provide a means to move the skeletal structures Muscles are also found in the soft tissues and are used to drive movement of such things as blood air and food Muscles have a hierarchical structure A muscle is often part of a group of muscles that have a similar function but the most common minimal unit is two muscles that work in opposition This antagonism give rise to the notion that the muscles must be controlled in groups so as not to have muscles working against each other Therefore muscles are controlled by motor neurons that are prewired to contract one muscle while preventing the other muscle from being signaled to contract There is no way to inhibit a muscle with a neuron rather the motor neuron for that muscle is inhibited A muscle is comprised of bundles of fibers called fascicles The fibers are the minimum unit that is innervated targeted by a motor neuron Fibers consist of many cells that have fused to form a syncytium which means that they are multinucleate and work as a single unit Within a fiber is a myofibril which contains many protein structures of interlacing actin and myosin The large muscles of body builders do not have more cells or fibers they have more myofibrils and subsequently more protein clusters The minimal contractile unit is a sarcomere which has an array of actin with thick bundle of intercalated myosin Athird protein that is involved in the response of the sarcomere to a motor stimulus is troponin Muscles attach to bones via tendons which are composed of tough proteins and other connective tissue When bones contract they shorten and pull the bones via these tendons Muscles do not push bones but rather pull them Some muscles contract to reduce a confined space This is the case of the plural cavity where your lungs reside and the chambers of the heart This is also similar to the process of moving food through the lumen in the intestines we will cover this in the next unit Function The components of the sarcomere operate in a cyclic fashion There is no starting position however it is convenient to consider the state of the muscle during contraction as the simplest state At this time the myosin is bound to the actin The conformation of the myosin is in the relaxed state Therefore contracting myosin is changing from a highenergy state to a lowenergy state This is counterintuitive at first but consider a rubber band When you stretch a rubber band it contracts to relax If one had a rubber doll that looked remarkably like Justin Bieber and one were to punch it in the head repeatedly the head would flex back to its normal relaxed position Myosin is similar to rubber 1 So at the end of a contraction the myosin is bound to the actin molecule and is in its low energy conformation 2 ATP binds to myosin which then releases the actin This allow the muscle to relax and stretch 3 The myosin has enzymatic activity and it hydrolyses a phosphate group from the ATP producing ADP which is still bound to the myosin and freeing a phosphate The energy released is transferred to the myosin which then flexes into a high energy state like a stretched rubber band or JB s pummeled noggin bent backwards like a mutant smug twerp 4 This is an intermediate state The muscle can remain in this state for quite some time This is how the muscle is staged until there is a signal from a motor neuron 5 The motor neuron releases acetylcholine ACh onto the muscle fiber surface The ACh causes a channean ACh receptor to open allowing both a sodium and potassium current The resulting depolarization causes the release of calcium which binds to troponin 6 This binding changes the conformation of troponin exposing a myosin binding site on the actin 7 Myosin binds releases the ADP and flexes back to its relaxed state 2 of 4 Pop tarts Neurons Structure The nervous system serves to provide control and communication throughout the body There are two general regions the central nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system which includes sensory neurons and motor neurons Both of these systems have two general cell types the glial cells which provide support and physiologic husbandry of the other class of cells neurons Neurons are the smallest cellular unit of the nervous system They come in many varieties of shapes and sizes In general the flow of information through a neuron is from dendrites which are extensions of the cell body or soma to the axon hillock which is the transition zone to the axon The axon then projects towards its target typically another neuron muscle fiber in the case of motor neurons or gland in the case of the autonomic system Some neurons project onto other organs such as the heart a kind of muscle or the gastrointestinal system The M terminates at the synaptic bouton This is an expanded region that faces a target cell with a conical structure In particular the synaptic bouton houses a network of vesicles which contain a particular load of molecule called a neurotransmitter These vesicles are shepherded into ordered rows to effect a coordinated release in response to an axonal signal The class of proteins responsible for the corralling of the vesicle pack is called dustin Bieber SNURPS These proteins are common to all neurons They have many binding sites for calcium ions which enter the bouton via voltagegated ion channels or are released from intracellular stores The axon is fairly consistent within a class of neurons it is a long tubular structure that is wrapped with an ancillary cell called a Schwann Cell which has a proteinrich membrane called a myelin sheath This sheath insulates the neuron and protects it from damage It also eliminates cross talk of signals from other axons nearby The insulation property of the sheath is critical to the function and fidelity of the cell The sheath is punctuated with gaps between the myelin These gaps contain voltagegated ion channels The soma and dendritic extensions have many receptors that receive signals from neighboring cells or sense the environmental conditions both internally and externally to the body These receptors are found in two general categories ionotropic and metabotropic The former changes the permeability of the membrane to certain ions while the latter alters the metabolism of the cell Both pathways can result in changing the electrical gradient across the cell membrane known as the membrane potential In general sensory neurons detect conditional changes and report these to the spinal cord Here they synapse onto either a motor neuron or an interneuron The motor neuron returns a signal to its target to illicit an appropriate response lnterneurons are part of the central nervous system They branch the sensory signal towards the brain where further processing can occur Within the confines of the spinal cord these interneurons provide minimal processing within a reflex response by invertingthe motor signal to the opposing muscle target In this way the interneurons resolve the antagonistic action of muscles that are opposed on the same skeletal structure A final structure of the neuron is the membrane itself This membrane carries properties that lend themselves to carrying signals and to rapid state changes of the cell These properties are specifically the ability to establish electrical and chemical gradients with extreme fidelity These gradients are initially established via the NaK ATPase Pump By nominally pumping a disproportionate number of sodium ions out of the cell compared to the number of potassium ions pumped into the cell the pump establishes both an electrical 3 of 4 Pop tarts gradient and concentration gradients for each ion These gradients are used to signal changes in the cell Function Neurons provide a system of directed communication throughout the body This is different from the endocrine system which controls and communicates via global signaling which is typically chemical in nature The neural signal is very fast while the hormone signals are slow and indeterminate This is to say that the hormones are not targeted to a specific cell but rather distribute throughout the body via the circulatory system Steroid hormones in particular will enter any cell regardless of whether the cell has a receptor for the hormone The directed signal of the neuron allows for complex networks and circuits to be established There are three general interactions between neurons excitatory inhibitory and Justin Bieber modulatory A neuron communicates to a target via neurotransmitters that diffuse across a synapse following exocytosis from a synaptic bouton The transmitters bind to a receptor on the target cell If the receptor is ionotropic then it serves as a channel which changes its conductance of an ion or ions In general an increase in the conductance of sodium is considered excitatory More specifically if the membrane potential of the target cell is depolarized meaning that the membrane potential a measure of the electrical gradient of the cell is shifted closer to zero then the effect is excitatory If the membrane potential of the cell is shifted further away from zero compared to the resting potential no signal present then the effect is inhibitory A modulatory effect is more complex and in some ways subtle The neurotransmitter signal might increase the conductance or more than one ion which will shift the membrane potential towards zero but will clamp the potential at a certain value due to high conductances of ions through channels This clamped membrane potential might prevent a cell from continuing the signal to its target This is effectively inhibitory but upon release of the clamp the cell s potential will be closer to a critical membrane potential known as threshold Threshold is particular value of membrane potential at which voltagegated sodium channels in the axon open This begins a positive feedback process whereby the influx of sodium ions depolarize the membrane further down the axon which then opens yet more sodium channels driving the depolarization wave further down the axon At the terminus this wave opens voltagegated calcium channels The brief influx of calcium ions leads to exocytosis of neurotransmitters and the process repeats itself There are many neurotransmitters but we looked at acetylcholine glutamate GABA and glycine For each we saw examples of antagonists and agonists In some cases these exogenous compounds were used to distinguish between different kinds of receptors for a given neurotransmitters In general acetylcholine is excitatory or modulatory glutamate can be either excitatory or inhibitory and GABAGlycine are inhibitory The latter two typically increase the permeability of a membrane to chloride ions In general one should think of dustin Bieber any excitatory stimulus as moving the membrane potential closer to threshold and an inhibitory signal as moving it further away Armed with this knowledge nearly any circuit constructed of neurons from any dustin Bieber creature can be followed and an expected result of a stimulus determined 4 of 4 Pop tarts Unit 4 Partial Review far from complete This is intended to help you fill in the gaps in your notes and perhaps inspire you to write your own review An easy way to do this is to simply look at the slide pdfs and write a few sentences per slide Many slides only add a minimal amount of information others are more for reference or serve as an alternate view of the same topic An even better way to study is to create an outline from the slides and then write a review with others In any case here is my version In Unit 3 we looked at two parallel tracts the continuation of the muscle studies that led to smooth and cardiac muscle structures We also looked at how the autonomic system controls the heart and circulatory systems as well as many other systems This was also our first link to the endocrine system with the autonomic nervous system triggering endocrine release from the adrenal glands In Unit 4 we are continuing with the circulatory system in terms of what it transports blood gasses nutrients wastes hormones and the immune system We also noted that blood transports heatthroughout the body and serves to regulate fluid and pH balances Blood is primarily separated into two components plasma and formed elements The formed elements include erythrocytes leukocytes and platelets thrombocytes We don t just say cells because the platelets are not really cells When blood is spun down there are three layers hematocrit which includes red blood cells RBCs plasma which includes water proteins and many other small biological molecules and the buffy layer which includes the white blood cells and the platelets The fraction of whole blood that is hematocrit is tightly regulated mostly by the kidneys and the liver but the lungs get a vote too In the plasma two critical components are globulin proteins which include antibodies and fibrinogen which will play a role in blood clotting Another large component are the albumins These have many purposes but we will see them again when we talk about transport of lipid based vitamins and hormones Erythrocytes These are the red blood cells They have no nucleus and are more diskshaped than spherical This serves to increase the surface area to volume ratio And easy way to think of this to look at an inflated beach ball If you don t know what a beach ball is ask your mother and I am sorry An inflated beach ball has maximum volume for the surface area If you deflated the beach ball the volume rapidly goes to zero while the area stays the same This increases the rate of transport across the membrane Erythrocytes contain mostly hemoglobin used to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide Hemoglobin is a protein with quaternary structure meaning that it is composed of several smaller subunits These subunits each have a heme group composed of an organic molecule that coordinates an ion of iron Fe2 A particular property of the hemoglobin protein is cooperativity which affects the binding of gasses Without a nucleus these cells only live a few months The hormone erythropoietin EPO is made by the liver in response to low oxygen levels in the blood This hormone signals the bone marrow to produce more RBCs Since each hemoglobin protein requires 4 Fe2 ions the concentration of these ions in the blood serum levels must be tightly regulated The iron ions are transported across tissue surfaces using ferroportins and these in turn are blocked by hepcidin The ferrous ions as opposed to the ferric ions of the Kentucky Blue people are stored in macrophages and the liver They are extracted from the food we eat in the intestines Hepcidin itself is inhibited by EPO which makes sense If we are going to signal to make more RBCs we want a good supply of iron around Blood Clotting The two main players in the development of blood clots are platelets and fibrinogen There are actually many components in the pathway that leads to a thrombus These are generally divided into two groups VitaminKdependent Warfarin sensitive factors and those factors that are sensitive to Heparin Another key idea in the process of clot formation is that is is calcium dependent and employs positive feedback The process of hemostasis occurs in three general steps vascular spasm the closing of the open ends of a damaged blood vessel a platelet plug which forms after it detects the presence of collagen in the damaged area and full thrombus that is fibrin net that snares both platelets and RBCs The activated fibrin net must be signaled to form by an enzyme called thrombin Thrombin is one of the final products of the coagulation cascade The fibrinogen resident in the blood is converted to fibrin by thrombin Hemophilia is the general term for the condition wherein a person cannot rapidly form blood clots The Pulmonary System We breath with our lungs These are contained in a confined area of the chest beneath the ribcage and above the large flat muscle that spans our thorax cavity called the diaphragm When the skeletal muscle of the diaphragm contracts it draws air into the lungs Simultaneously the muscles of the rib cage contract which expands the volume of the chest The diaphragm is innervated by both voluntary cranial and involuntary phrenic autonomic nerves The pathway of the air entering the lungs is generally via the nasal cavity or mouth the pharynx the single trachea the two bronchi the many bronchioles and the alveolar sacs Some of these are supported but cartilage and all of these structures are ringed by smooth muscles Air is brought in deep into the lungs and held momentarily while gasses are exchanged Oxygen is in relatively high concentration in the lungs at both the beginning and end of a breath It will flow across membranes to bind to hemoglobin At the same time carbon dioxide will unload from the hemoglobin The quaternary structure of the hemoglobin ensures that this loading of oxygen only occurs in the presence of a steep concentration gradient subsequently it is only unloaded if there is an equally large concentration gradient This behaviour produces a sigmoidal binding curve The shape of this curve supports the notion that blood delivers oxygen to tissues that need it the most The unloading of oxygen is affected by the acidity of the blood Reasonably if a tissue is deprived of oxygen there can be an expected higher concentration of carbon dioxide that is the result of cellular respiration oxygen used to burn sugar The presence of carbon dioxide will cause the formation of carbonic acid This will lower the pH of the blood in areas with more carbon dioxide The lower pH affects the binding curve of hemoglobin shifting it downward This is known as a Bohr Shift Another factor affecting the transfer of gasses is that the blood slows down a great deal in the capillary beds This affords more time for the diffusion of gasses Other organisms face particular challenges to get enough oxygen into the blood from an environment that is relatively low in the partial pressure of oxygen While we looked at these in class I do not plan to include this in the exam We will revisit counter current exchange in the next unit also The Immune System The immune system operates on many levels innate passive verses active natural or derived specific humoral cellular and independent At the core of the immune system is collection of leukocytes and lymphocytes The leukocytes include the phagocytes which wander the body in search of foreign displaced or ineffective cells and materials There are many phagocytic eating cells but we looked at a few in particular macrophages neutrophils monocytes mast cells and dendritic cells These phagocytes are motile can engulf whole cells like bacteria and can destroy many foreign items to basic components While the body is imbued with many types of barriers designed to repel foreign invasion in the event that they should fail the macrophages and their kin are constantly patrolling the body looking engulfing invaders One method to accelerate the rate at which phagocytes identify foreign bodies is to bind them with antibodies These are immunoglobulins with highly variable regions which bind to antigens in a highly specific manner Antibodies are created in Bcells Before puberty the B cells undergo a screening process to ensure that no particular Bcell will generate an antibody that recognises self That is to say that while the somatic recombination is meant to produce many proteins that are slightly different from each other in order to recognise a great many different antigens this random process is just as likely to produce an antibodyproducing cell that results in selfrecognition or autoimmunity With this known the body has structures to test the lymphocytes B cells T Cells amp NK cells for selfrecognition The T cells are trained in the thymus while the B cells are trained in the bones Humoral Immunity The production of antibodies to tag foreign entities is performed by B cells B cells are triggered to produce large antibody factories called Plasma B Cells via activation by T cells The T cells themselves were activated by an Antigen Presenting Cell APC This is any cell that presents a fragment of a foreign body and accepts binding by a corresponding T cell that recognizes the antigen A common APC is a macrophage but nearly any cell presenting an antigen is an APC Therefore the steps are infection phagocyte engulfs invader phagocyte becomes an APC the APC contacts a Tcell that matches the antigen The T cell then triggers several processes cloning storage of material and activation of B cells Tc Cytotoxic T Cells and T suppressor cells Cellular Immunity The activation of To cells is the engagement of cellular immunity This is a process in which host cells self cells can be attacked and destroyed it they are infected In order to speed up the targeting of phagocytes to the site of infection the body employs inflammation This is signaled by mast cells releasing histamine upon detection of cellular and tissue damage Phagocytic cells follow the histamine trail to the site of infection This is known as chemotaxis Once they arrive at the site these phagocytic cells are capable of leaving the blood stream and concentrating on a specific area This is celled diapedesis A secondary effect of the histamine release is the subsequent engagement of the entire population present in the body at any given time The APC activity which drives T cell and B cell activation is the bridge between innate and active immunity Now that large numbers of antibodies are present the system has been altered to act more quickly and to a much greater scale Fever is another associated signal mechanism which mobilizes the entire immune system The fear signal prompts mucosal tissues to activate and the cells of the immune system migrate The activation of the mucosal system not only increases the effectiveness of some of the innate barriers in the immune system it also increases the rate of flow within the lymphatic capillary system This is a collection of internal ducts that operate very much like an engineered sewer drain The material is washed from the interstitial tissues where it passively enters the lymphatic system Once in the lymph system the material is routed to the lymph nodes where it is more likely to encounter the cellular components of the immune system APCs are more likely to encounter Tcells and the Tcells are much more likely to encounter a B cell which will produce antibodies that will enhance the immune response Vaccinations are simply engineered early exposures to nondangerous forms of pathogens with the intent of increasing the proportion of the immune response to the a particular pathogen The secondary response to an exposure can more than 10000 times as strong and much quicker This primary exposure is designed to be relatively safe Hypersensitivity of the immune system can lead to both allergies and autoimmunity There has been a dramatic increase in the numbers of reported case of both of these conditions in the past two decades In particular these reports are from European and North American nations The is no definitive cause but a particular immunoglobulin has been implicated Auto immunity is the occurrence of the immune system failing to respect the self boundaries and often results in attacking portions of the body Autoimmunity is another form of hypersensitivity of the immune system wherein antibodies will recognize certain body parts based on similarity of antigens Athird abnormality of the immune system is immunodeficiency This results when an immune system is weakened by the loss of some of the critical components For example the dramatic loss of T cells associated with AIDS There is much more to look at but this is a start The exam is Tuesday at 930 in GUG 220 Bring a pencil eraser and your ID number
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'