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NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY / Psychology / PSYC 3404 / What branch of Psychology focuses on the study of childhood and develo

What branch of Psychology focuses on the study of childhood and develo

What branch of Psychology focuses on the study of childhood and develo

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Thus, at what times [in life] are resources allocated to each?




NOTE:​ How do people often help to create their own non-normative life events?




Note:​ How might a combination of the domains be intertwined?



]DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY (PSYC 3404) Professor Spikes Topic: ​The Life-Span Developmental ​(Chapter 1) I. Developmental Psychology​ (focus on childhood - relatively new field) A. Concerned with​ identifying and explaining the changes that each individual  undeDon't forget about the age old question of How can computers perform tasks?
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rgoes across the lifespan. B.​ Today those who study human development are referred to by the term  developmentalists. C.​ Implicit to the developmentalist is the idea that change is orderly or patterned. II. “Development” Systematic changes in the individual that occur between conception and death. 1. Developmental Processes: ​Change​ ​and ​Stability 1. Two (2) kinds of developmental change: - Quantitative Change… Change in numbers or amount ie/ language - number of words that a child speak - Qualitative Change… Change in kinds, structures, or organizations ie/ language - grammar, understanding 2. Stability ​(consistency of personality and behavior)… - Something that should remain, and want them to become more enhance, but some you don’t want to remain ie/ manner, social manner, compassionDomains ​(dimensions) of Development · Change and Stability occurs within the following domains. · Each domain is separate…though they all intertwine. 1. Biological Development… - Refers to the growth of the body and brain - Changes and remain in stablilty ( Motor skills) 2. Cognitive Development… - Changes and remains in mental ability (thinking, language, attention, learning, creativity) 3. Socioemotional Development… - Changes and remains in emotional, personality, and social relationship Note:​ How might a combination of the domains be intertwined? i.e/ Learning disability - biological development intertwined with socioemotional 1. Influences on Development There is both a universality and an individuality to our development! Example… 1. Heredity, Environment, and Maturation… - Heredity (parents ) - Environment ( outside contextual surrounding - schooling) - Maturation ( maturing of the brain and the body- natural changes that the body and the brain changes )2. Major Contextual Influence: Reflective of how “specific life experiences are different for different people”. Thus, such experiences influence development in different ways for different people! - Family… - Same-sex parents, single parent fam, divorce parents, etc - Family structure has big impact on who you are - Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Neighborhood… - Neighborhood, environment, or the resources can be limited or enhanced by the SES of most people in the neighborhood ie/ if you are in a neighborhood that is more resourceful you will prbly have better health care or school  * SES has an affect on such factors as income, education, occupation, etc. Thus, these are the factors that affect development…”not SES itself”! Meaning… A person SES alone may not be predictive developmental endevour - Culture and Race/Ethnicity… - Difficult to scientifically talking about development to race and ethnicity, because most of the scientific studies are based on dominant group (some is not applicatical to minor group) - The Historical Context…  * “The time in which you grow-up”. ie/ women’s right, technologies, global warming 3. Normative and Nonnormative Influences… * Normative Influences: Something that is experienced in a similar way by  most people in a group.  - Normative Age-Graded…highly similar for people in a particular age group. Can be biological or social…biological age graded is predictable (menopause) but social age graded is more flexible (marriage)- Normative History-Graded…common to a particular cohort (group born around the same time). * Non-normative Influences: “Unusual” events that impact our lives or development. a) Typical event happening at an atypical time. Example? - Losing a parent at a young age (big impact on your development) b) Atypical event. Example? - Being deaf due to some reason  c) “Unusually Happy” event. Example? - Winning a lottery NOTE:​ How do people often help to create their own non-normative life events? (often time they personally chose to engage in the event)4. Timing Influences: Critical or Sensitive Periods… 1.Critical Period: When the presence or absence of something has a specific impact on development. * Refers to… Early and late stages of development ( there are things that need to happened ) * Most visible… In the early stages * If not received…Normal development can be alter  * If needed stimulation received at the wrong time… It is not likely to have the same impact that if it would have occur in the critical period * Some researchers believe that for most aspects of development, the concept of critical period appears…to be too narrow (because children are flexible) ie/ death of a parent (children will be able to bounce back ) 2. Sensitive Period: A time that is optimal for the development of certain  behaviors or functions.  * A time that is optimal versus a time that is necessary!(different between critical and sensitive period)  * Acknowledges that it is possible for development to occur later, Although…it is ackownledge it is more difficult to do so and the recovery may be incomplete )III. Studying the “Life Span” Development goes throughout life…​a concept of a lifelong process of development known as “life-span development”! A.​ The study of lifespan development is interdisciplinary…it draws from many themes and fields (persons from different field has contributed too) B.​ Baltes’s Life-Span Developmental Approach 1. Development is lifelong…is never ending until you die 2. Development involves both gain and loss…not just about change but also stability 3. Relative influences of biology and culture shift over the lifespan… biological influence becomes weaker as we get older, but the culture influence become stronger as we get older 4. Development involves a changing allocation of resources (for growth, maintenance/recovery, and loss). Growth refers to improving one’s skills. Maintenance/Recovery refers to practicing to maintain or regain proficiency. Loss happens when maintenance/recovery is not possible. Thus, at what times [in life] are resources allocated to each? Childhood and Adolescence…Allocative primary to growth Old Age…allocative primary to loss Midlife…maintenance / recovery 5. Development is modifiable… flexible (core of the critical vs sensitive period ) 6. Development is influenced by the historical and cultural context…many core hearts in environmental influences on development psyIV.​ SUPPLEMENTARY-ASSIGNMENT #1 1. Complete the “Identity-Wheel Exercise” [on next page]. You ​will not​ be “required” to share your responses with me or anyone in the class! 2. Briefly describe in writing (or mentally reflect on) your physical, cognitive and socioemotional development during the following periods of your life. You ​will not​ be “required” to share your responses with me or anyone in the class!  a. ​Age 8​… - My parents worked really hard to get me into a private elementary school that really shaped me  b. ​Age 13​… c. ​Senior Year of High School​… NOTE:​ Pleae keep this exercise (do NOT throw it away)! We will address it again later in the semester. IDENTITY-WHEEL EXERCISE We are all made up of multiple identities. Below is a list of a few of the major characteristics that make up people’s identities.As you think about yourself, think about the ways in which these identities play out in your life. Use the paper plate and indicate by the size of each slice in your identity wheel (pie) how much importance each of these “identities” plays in your life. NOTE:​ Some, most or all of the following may not necessarily be included on your personal identity wheel/pie! *Race *Gender *Religion *Ethnicity *Sexual Orientation *Social Class *Age *Nationality *Other (Ex., family, illness, school) Think about and discuss: 1. Were any of the “identity slices” of your pie influenced by some aspect of your biological, cognitive, and/or socioemotional development [thus far]? 2. Through which “identity slice” of your pie have you been best able to find support? Why? 3. Through which “identity slice” have you experienced conflict with others? Why? NOTE: Please keep this exercise (do not throw it away)! We will address it [again] later in the semester.V.​ Course Preface Message… VI. Putting Developmental Theories into Perspective A. How Are The Theories Similar? 1. Concerned with identifying and explaining the processes involved in human behavior and development. 2. Assume that there are predictable and regular patterns of growth and development. B. How Are The Theories Different? (different frames of references ) 1. They differ in terms of the aspects of development on which they focus. 2. They differ in terms of nature of the explanation offered for any given behavior or  process. C. Theories of development attempt to explain​ four characteristics of age-related change: 1. Orderliness ( pattern ) 2. Directionality (predictability ) 3. Cumulativeness ( growth ) 4. Increasing differentiation and integration ( change / stability )VII. The Implications of Theoretical Perspectives Developmental theorists differ on five very basic issues: 1. Is the human organism good, neutral or inherently bad? Early views… - Focus on the individual either inherently bad, (sin) good ( doctor of purity) or neither good or bad (tabula rosa - blank slate) Today’s theorists… - In general there is an emphasis on the positive or the negative - Focus on the combination of both ( inherently good and bad) - Some still focus on the early view 2. Is nature (biological forces) or nurture (environmental forces) the primary influence on human development? - Today most believe in the interactive perspective ( how nature and nurture work together ) 3. Is the human organism actively involved in the developmental process? Are we passively influenced by social and biological forces? - Depends on your personally theortically perspective, and in that manner we make sense of our own world and meaning 4. Is development continuous or discontinuous? Continuous…regards development as a cumulative process of adding on more of the same types of skills with which the organism began. “Gradually and Smoothly”. Discontinuous…assumes that new and different ways of interpreting and responding to the world emerge at particular time periods (stages). “Sudden Shift” . (organize info in a meaningful way - advantage ) (tendency to look over something - disadvantage )· Example: “Child’s First Step”… - Discontinous perspective (monday he is crawling and wed is walking his first step) - Continous ( he is certain way that he is kicking so he is prbly going to start walking soon, now he is crawling, then he starts handing on the furniture, then step, and then walking ) · See Diagram 1 ( dynamic of both ) 5. Do humans follow similar or different developmental paths? - Depends on your theorically explanations - Discontinous - stages are universal although the timing may differ across culture - Other theories - differ from culture to culture VIII. Seven Major Theoretical Perspectives of Development  To effectively evaluate and interpret research, it is important to recognize the theoretical  perspective on which it is based. Refer to Tables 1-4, Figure 1 and 2

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