Final Study Guide 1. Pedagogy of the Oppressed by Paulo Friere a. Pedagogy- the teaching or the way someone is taught b. Critical theory and pedagogy- style of teaching that forces students to analyze their station in life, challenge their state of oppression, and become critical thinkers. c. The oppressors seem to be responsible for the creation of knowledge. d. The teacher teaches and the students are taught. 2. Crick Crack by Merle Collins a. “Tales of hunting will always glorify the hunter.” b. How do we differentiate reality from the story told c. Things are seen as facts but they are really not. 3. Fact Making and Feminism by Ruth Hubbard a. People who are not in power are not in control of making facts. People in power make facts as validity that they are in power. b. Making facts is a social enterprise. 4. Unfinished Migrations by Tiffany Patterson & Robin Kelley a. The African Diaspora studies redress the problem of false history and European narratives of white superiority. b. Black Atlantic/Trans Atlantic refers to the slave trade across the atlantic ocean. c. Racial Capitalism- the process of deriving social and economic value from racial identity. d. People included in the diaspora are people from Africa and those of African descent (includes Afro-Latinos, African Americans) 5. Shifting Contexts by Beverly Guy Sheftall a. Sheftall wants us to look at how African Diaspora affects gender and sexuality. b. Gender- what you identify as. c. Sexuality- what you are attracted to. d. Womanist vs. Feminist- Womanism is a deeper, more intense form of feminism. “Womanist is to feminist as purple is to lavender.” 6. Racial Formations by Michael Omi & Howard Winant a. Race has been a matter of political contention. b. Europeans were distinguished from the others. c. Race was thought of as a biological concept (cranial capacity, gene pools, etc.) d. Hypodescent- requires Americans to believe that anyone who is known to have a negro ancestor is negro (anyone with 1/32 “negro blood” is declared black). e. Racial Formation- refers to the process by which social, economic, and political forces determine the content and importance of racial categories, which are then shaped by racial meaning. f. We utilize race to provide clues about who a person is. g. Without a racial identity, one is in danger of having no identity. h. Race must be understood as an unstable and “decentered” complex of social meanings, constantly being transformed by political struggle 7. Dyaspora by Joanne Hyppolite a. Dyaspora describes the condition as Haitian American. b. “You have the choice of passing but you don’t.”- Author has the option to pass as an American, but instead she claims her dyaspora status. 8. Gender as an Analytic Category by Beverly Guy SheftallFinal Study Guide a. Gender asymmetry- the assignment of different tasks and roles to men and women b. Patriarchy- mechanisms by which men in general manage to dominate women in general (perpetuates the notion that men are physically and intellectually similar to women). Divides the world into public (male) and private (female). c. Patriarchy- father or oldest man is the head of the family and in control. d. Matriarchy- a system of society or government ruled by women or a woman e. Egalitarian- of, relating to, or believing in the principle that all people are equal and deserve equal rights and opportunities. f. Gender constructs - cultural definitions of masculinity and femininity g. Gender socialization - how a group defines masculinity and femininity, the attributes it attaches to being male or female Essential questions What is woman? Is this notion of “woman” a social construct? Biological? Both? How does gender change based on race, class, ethnicity, heterosexism, etc? Are demarcations based on gender solely practiced in the west? Why or why not? What institutions perpetuate gender as a social construction? How is gender an essential component to identify? Major Themes Gender as an essential category of identity Gender as social construct vs. biological determinants of sex How feminist discourse in academy changes academic discourses How women experience gender differently based on variations in identity (race, class, sexuality, geographic location, etc) Useful questions to understand cultural construction of gender in any society ● Gender is a social construct designed by society ● We are raised and socialized to be a certain gender ● Gender is a mythical cult created within society ● Women in ghana vs black women in mississippi Gender as Social Construction ● Development of “separate spheres” doctrine, that’s embedded in social, political, and economic systems ● Notions of how femininity versus masculinity determine gender, not biological differences ● Gender functions a historical process based on “social responsibilities” ● Women defined based on their relationship to men and their space in male hegemonic structures ● How social institution reiterate gender as a social construction ○ Family - first institution we encounter, determines how we behave outside of our family, rules set ○ Schools - uniforms/what can and can’t be worn, how much education you receive depending on country ■ “The tradition of oppression” ○ Religion ■ ○ language, media Two spheres ● Women: domestic, home, femininity, XX, estrogen ● Men: outside, provider, masculinity, XY, testosterone ● Paternity leave vs maternity leave 9. The Complexity of Identity: Who Am I? by Beverly Daniel Tatum a. How does society view me? b. How do I see me?Final Study Guide c. How other people see you is how you see yourself. #thepowercircle Black man wom Fat en Asia Hispan n ics lgbtqi a jewis h poor uneduca Sub circles created ted White Male/men Christian Heterosexual Cisgendered Masculine? Wealthy Beautiful Ableism Educated uglyatheis t immigran ts musli ms Black men, black women, black queer women Identity ● looking/reflecting glass self ( who am i ? ) ○ How does he world see me? ■ Race, gender ( social constructs ) ( perception ) ○ Do I agree with what they say I am? Inner circle = dominant group Outside circle = subordinate group ^POV makes you look at things differently Health insurance is privilege Probably having the best insurance, private doctor Black women die earlier w breast cancer, white women diagnosed earlier w it Black people less likely to trust doctors, ex: tuskegee experiment
DOMINANT (inner circle)
Greatest influence on society -Economic, cultural norm, political laws
Sees world based on status
Hold Power & Authority
Define themselves based on how they are different/similar to dominant
Unfamiliar with inequality and/or experiences of the subordinate
Knowledge of the dominant (very familiar with)
Considered an anomaly (“speaking proper”, educated, dress, speech pattern, basically if you act like the dominant)
How does gender change based on race, class, ethnicity, heterosexism, etc?
We also discuss several other topics like _________ are diagrams that visually show the organization’s work specializations, official positions and formal lines of authority.
9/13/16: DROP CLASS NOTES HERE (Dr.Hall) Final Study Guide ● Everyone has a different experience. ● Things to pay attention to in the video: Underground ○ How did slavery affect the context/complexity of who we are? ○ How are the lines of race and skin privilege still skewed (blurred) because of slavery? ■ The light skin girl probably got more, privilege and the darker skin men have resentment to her because she is lighter skin and probably got better treatment ● Racial capitalism: Slaves costing money and slaveholder wanting the slaves not because of their hard work but their monetary value ● Definition: Black folks being used as capital. Slavery becoming a justification for their greed. ○ How people of color have made money for white people. Race became the justification for capitalization. (Your black so you can only do work like this, you're not smart enough) ● Divisiveness: Puts black people against black people but also whites against whites. ● Psychosis: A sick way of thinking Video: Gender- The Enduring Paradox ● Such physical human (male/female? Characteristics create stereotypes ● Pink was much more decisive/ powerful, while blue was more serene ● Both genders are referred to as more powerful, but men rule the world ● “The slave always understands the master better than the master understands the slave.” ● Men as a group are of power. ● Some are privileged by gender, while others aren’t. ● Men are breadwinners. Are expected to sacrifice and nurture society (with their bodies), and provide children. ● Expendability for men is phrased as courage ● A man’s place is anywhere he wants to be, but where is a woman’s? ● Educational programs reenact moments in women’s history ● Women are perceived to be controlling and nagging bitches ● Women nurture children--- it is their job. ● Females are homemakers, males are breadwinners ● The concern for women is to get their children to reach the 2nd generation ● Fathering is different than mothering (i.e. babies cry when fathers may babysit). ● Rape is a crime of anger against all women ● God loves everybody for who they are because he is the creator- indian ● You get respect from American-Indians ● Black men have been economically emasculated in America, so it is then a woman’s job to support. Reversing Sail ● Old World Provenance ○ African world before the Europeans take over ○ Part 2 old world provenance is an attempt by Michael Gomez that begins with a couple chapters where he outlines the early history of the continent to when the european take over the slave tradeFinal Study Guide ● Gomez, Michael, Chapter 1, “Antiquity” ○ African Diaspora did not start with the atlantic slave trade ■ Africans had a history before the rise of American slavery(forefront of human civilization) ○ Egypt ■ Ancient Egypt → Starts in “3500 BCE and by 1700 BCE it was connected with urban-based civilizations in the Indus Valley” ■ Advanced system ■ Egypt has a global crossword for various populations and cultures ● Modern views on Egypt are clouded by race ○ Student scholars of the african diaspora have attempted and exceeded to undo and offer an alternative to eurocentric construction of history ■ Millennia of rich robust history of complicated political systems ■ the incredible contributions of people of african descent to history making ● Placing Egypt in Africa(not the middle east) ○ Civilizations of Antiquity ■ China, India, and Egypt ○ Old kingdom(3400-2180) Middle Kingdom (2080-1640 BCE) ○ Nubian Ascendency ■ Nubian woman played a large role in government ● Went against modern day patriarchy ○ Europeans didn’t start out seeing race when coming to Africa yet as time moved on they started to classify africans by skin color and diets ■ This came about from classifications that africans already gave themselves ○ Graeco-RomanWorld ■ Rise of Greece and Roman empire ● Greeks, Phoenicians, and Romans ● Mediterranean world ○ The worlds that the mediterranean sea baths ■ For centuries this was a trade hub ○ Conquered by Rome ■ Contributions of Rome ○ Africans entered the mediterranean world from both Egypt and Nubia. ● Romans admired people of the African Diaspora ○ Through this text Gomez is defying the mythical norms of the ancient world and africans ● Gomez, Michael, Chapter 3, “Africans and the Islamic World” ○ Spread of religion throughout Africa ■ Gomez’s position on religion in Africa is that the main monotheism which played a role in the movement of Africans throughout the area was Islam. ○ Spread of Islam in Africa ■ The spread of this religion led to the spread of tradingFinal Study Guide ■ Many Africans seeking the religion of Islam at the time of its spread were slaves ● Al Quran ○ The holy text of Islam ■ Muhammad united Arabian Peninsula ● Arab empire emerges in 7th century, spread to India, through Africa to Western Europe(Iberian peninsula) ● Integrated knowledge and then spread it ○ Arab Empire ■ Significant dimension of life in the arab empire was commors/trade ■ Ancient trade routes connecting north africa to east africa and north africa to west africa ■ Islamic sladers linked up with ancient trade routes and made their way into west, east, and central Africa ADW TEST REVIEW ● Diaspora- the dispersion of Africans or people of African descent ● Pedagogy- the teaching of or the way someone is taught ● Elite- small, minuet few, top of the ladder ● Critical Pedagogy- style of teaching that forces students to analyze their station in life, challenge their state of oppression and become critical thinkers ● Colonization- the process of settling among and establishing control over the indigenous people of an area (driven by finances) ● Racial Capitalism- the process of deriving social and economic value from racial identity. Making money off of minorities. ○ Black people through the system of slavery continue to make money for white America. ● Modernity- the way thing currently are ● Framework- basic structure of an underlying system, concept, or text ● Pan Africanism- pro black ideology in different areas ● Dyaspora- simultaneous connection and disconnection between person and homeland. ● Mythical Norm- standard for humane treatment in society. Societal guidelines that tell us what is normal, typical or the standard ● Hypo Descent- requires Americans to believe that anyone who is known to have a negro ancestor is a negro (one drop rule, 1/32nd) ● Racial Formation- refers to the process by which social, economic, and political factors determine the content and importance of racial categories ● Gender Asymmetry- the assignment of different tasks and roles to men and women. ● Code Switching- 2 different ways of acting around certain people (being one culture in one place and a different culture in another)Final Study Guide ● Code Merging- merging of two different cultures ● Counter Culture- refusing the culture that tries to oppress ● Cultural Assimilationist- blending cultures to resemble the dominant group (one who tries to fit in with the dominant culture). ● Colorism- where lighter skin has more value and darker skin is deemed as unattractive ● Psychosis- a sick way of thinking (specifically black people); A mental disorder characterized by a disconnection from reality. ● Psychological Strategism (psychological warfare)- an intentional methodical plan to leave out the true history of African people (antiquity) in an effort to cause them to view themselves as the conquered and the Europeans as the conquerors. ● Antiquated- outdated/ no longer relevant ● Colorism- the hierarchy of color between people in the same racial/ethnic group ● Monogenesis- the theory that all humans have a common ancestor ● Monotheism- believing in one god ● Miscegenation- mixing regions/races ● Aberration- a deviance from the norm ● Nepotism- Opportunities based on family connections. ● Antiquity- the ancient past ● Friere “to be is to be like”- Referring to how the oppressed believe that to be successful they have to become like the oppressors. · 11/3/2016 Critical Essay: Make up your own title 1Paragraph: intro, summarized information of the book, brief overview of the work that is analyzed, explanation of the relevance of your own analysis, what the author intended purpose is and the writers intended purpose to the paper (no announcements), clear thesis that ties all the info together and lays the foundation for the work. -Use in-text documentation to validate the point you’re making, and to cite it. -When you paraphrase, cite directly, and using the same general idea, YOU MUST CITE - example of an intro and citations on cell phone -Can use other sources besides ADW booksFinal Study Guide Pathology- deals with the way someone thinks that isn’t healthy Michael Gomez: Asserting the right to be ● Reflects the chapter: Autonomy ● Autonomy- self-governance ● Maroons- rebellious group, maintain some sort of freedom because they knew the land better ● Nanny and the maroons: rebellious group, wore locks for rebellion and solidarity, where the term dreadlocks stems from ● Asserted autonomy through religion through vodon/voodoo ● Becomes a spiritual revolt and physical revolt (running away) ● Voodoo- Jamaica, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, Haiti ● Slavery throughout the Caribbean: psychological stratagem, heads on poles, force women to work through labor, burn body parts, cut off body parts ● In order to break them down they had to break them down mentally, showing them life had no value ● Santeria: catholicism based by the slaves in Spanish territory ● Misogyny: Enslaved women were raped, it was used as a tool of power and destruction (divided loyalties) ● Sex farms: …? ● rape destabilizes the black family ● I,Tituba ● The Cult of White Womanhood- White women being worshiped as white women for being dainty and pure compared to black women ● Tituba was always needed by the white women for her to help them. She is the caregiver and when it should be the other way around. ● Abigail, Betsy, Goody Paris - White women that turned on tituba ● Tituba becomes a voice for the voices ● Tituba's skin was her scarlet letter ● Whites used christianity in such a negative way that it made it evil ● Gives the difference on the way to treat a white woman vs. a black womenFinal Study Guide ● Tituba has an inherited goodness about her- relationships, compassion, empathy and moral code ● “We wear the mask”- Paul Laurence Dunbar ● Tituba- the black witch\ ● John Indian- Tituba’s husband ‘ ● Foils- Hester Prin, John Indian, Good Paris ● Tituba is a loner, infatuated w/john, needy, childlike, fearful and independent, vulnerable, gets a reality check ADW Helpful Final Notes: Recaps of everything: Vocabulary: https://quizlet.com/61006842/adw-11 1-flash-cards/ https://quizlet.com/31246522/adw-111-final-quiz-flash-cards/ GroupThink- everyone has the same mindset, mentality and/or ideas Elite- Small and the few that run a lot of things, they maintain wealth they control the minds of the other and they use money as power. Critical Consciousness- Being awaken in our thought processes and analysis in education. Critical Theory- This is a style of education, allowing them to critically think and forces the students to analyze their station of life, challenge their state of become critical thinkers oppression and become critical thinkers. Black Atlantic/ Trans-Atlantic 1. What happened as a result of the slave trade 2. Race is ever changing Moynihan Report: black matriarch; shifts the root of the problem of the black family from white people to black women; 1960s; link to Angela Davis’ piece The Banking Method of Education: students go into a classroom and idea that teacher know everything, student knows nothing; so information is just “deposited” into students and it’s bad because there’s no critical thinkingFinal Study Guide “Enslavement was a process & a condition”: Frederick Douglass said to be a slave you had to be okay with being a slave The Veil (DuBois): it’s used in relationship to washington in relation to the statue about whether he’s lifting the veil (which is a good thing) and allowing black people to open their eyes and be enlightened or pulling the veil further down and allowing black people to further be oppressed; “black people are separated by a veil”-DuBois https://docs.google.com/a/scmail.spelman.edu/presentation/d/16vAdXvG1Wx8OQ9Y9- JbWluceS0kgmWRxqgFiNJEjTw0/edit?usp=sharing https://docs.google.com/a/scmail.spelman.edu/presentation/d/1x439rt1qvOhXTuiZp2M9HfDr9C 4JazWUOrNexJVxRu0/edit?usp=sharing ADW Notes 1/23 1. Berlin Africa Conference - time: 1884; slave trade legally ended in 1873 - reason: free trade; power balance (Congo, Angra Requiña, Egypt, Crimea) - diplomacy 1. KLC (King Leopold) - democracy (or the lack of) - natural resources & commodities - Humanitarian Reasons - Civilizing Mission > Civilization v. Barbarism - Labor (free) - positive law v. natural law - private investors - Dictatorship -> Motobú -Liberation -> Lumumba 1. Yinka Shonibane ● KLC Documentary (who helped liberate the Congo) 1. Lumumba: negotiated with Belgian government to make the Congo a free state and became its prime minister after independence. 2. George Washington Williams: establishes solidarity with people in Africa and writes an open letter to the king about the conditions of the Congo to the king. He uses his position as a reporter in the United States to write about the atrocities in the Congo ADW Notes 1/30 1. Common Ideas 2. Concepts 3. Goals - Explanations: False v. Real (internal v. external) Indicators ● Cultural Colonialism ● Wealth: labor and resources <-> Capital ● Development v. Underdevelopment (does NOT equal developing) ● (skilled people, $) v. (advancement) ● a relationship of dependency created by the division of labor ● factories and industry v. raw material and resources ● Development = Innovation and Consumption ●Final Study Guide https://docs.google.com/a/scmail.spelman.edu/presentation/d/1OAe5L0PARNJ5rxbn7RmUkjYp 991h57WoulxRtIWnZb8/edit?usp=sharingFinal Study Guide WEEK TWO Final Study Guide Week 2: The Scramble for Africa
Negation: the action or logical operation of negating or making negative
Demagogue: political leader who seeks support by appealing to popular desires and prejudices rather than using a rational argument
Discourse: a mode of organizing knowledge, ideas, or experience that is rooted in language and its concrete contexts Counter Discourse: Othering: isolating a group because they are not a dominant group Subjectivity: the quality of being based on or influenced by personal feelings, tastes, or opinions.
Fascism: authorization and nationalistic right wing system of gov. And social organization Nationalism: devotion and loyalty to one’s own country Anti-Colonialism: control or governing of nation territory/people Geopolitics:
What institutions perpetuate gender as a social construction?
If you want to learn more check out a 1.0g mass is tied to a string from a pivot. an electric field of 1000n/c is applied to the right as shown in figure 4, and the mass deflects to an angle of 30°as shown. what is the charge on the mass?
Connection to Readings:
Europe and Africa: The Berlin Africa Conference 1884-1885 and the Onset of Partition
Yinka Shonibare: Of Hedonism, Masquerade, Carnivalesque and Power”: A Conversation with Okwui
The Ghost of King Leopold (the movie)
The conference divided the continent of Africa between European powers that is Colonialism. Europeans wanted Africa size, surface feature, climate, resources, and strategic resources. Connect this to King Leopold who dehumanized Africans by cutting off limbs and forcing labor.
The determination of Africa and European discourse and how othering of Africa manifest in the hybrid culture. Shonibare speaks about the fabric of negation, celebration and also decolonized Africa stating that there are no Africans just specific cultures.
- Colonization - Europeans into Africa and the Congo - Imperialism - Europeans made Africans work as Indentured servants - Europeans come to Africa for imperialism of their land; steal African land and resources - Decolonization - After this Africans fight for decolonization, liberation, freedom, etc.
How is gender an essential component to identify?
Don't forget about the age old question of consider a closed triangular box resting within a horizontal electric field of magnitude
Final Study Guide Final Study Guide WEEK THREE Week 3 | Perspectives from the Diaspora: Colonialism in Africa Readings: ● Excerpts from “Worlds of Color” by W.E.B. DuBois ● Excerpts from “Some Questions of Development” from How Europe Underdeveloped Africa by Walter Rodney
“World’s of Color” by W.E.B DuBois
Twentieth Century Problem - The Color Line
“Some Questions of Development” from How Europe Underdeveloped Africa by Walter Rodney
“The race problem is the other side of the labor problem; and the black man’s burden is the white man’s burden.” - W.E.B DuBois The colonization of Africa by European powers for commercial interests was to achieve three things: 1. control of land and natural resources; 2. exploitation of cheap/uncompensate d labor; 3. establishment of a captive market for manufactured goods from Europe.
“World dissension and catastrophe still lurk in the unsolved problems of race relations.” ● DuBois said “that nearly every great European country has cast a dark colonial shadow” ○ Examples: the Portuguese, France, Belgium, England ○ Shadows other countries harsh casts and the effects left on Africa and people of the African diaspora ● The exploiter becomes developed while the exploited become underdeveloped ● Believed that modern imperialism = modern industrialism ● Each country during the Berlin Conference casted a shadow over Africa ● Africa was developing
“The whole import-export relationship between Africa and its trading partners is one of unequal exchange and of exploitation.” - Walter Rodney ➢ Rodney expresses that “underdevelopment makes sense only as a means of comparing levels of development” and that it is obvious for every group of people to “have developed in one way or another and to a greater or lesser extent.” ➢ He discussed the concept of modern underdevelopment and, specifically, as it relates to the continent of Africa and its inhabitants. ➢ Exploitation has an analogous relationship to underdevelopment ➢ Blamed imperialist systems in Africa as
We also discuss several other topics like which one of the curves shown in the figure best represents the variation of wave speed v as a function of tension for transverse waves on a stretched string?
Final Study Guide
before Europeans took over
one of the reasons for Africa’s underdevelopment “African and Asian societies were developing independently until they were taken over directly or indirectly by capitalist powers.” - Walter Rodney
Week’s Key Concepts/ Terms:
freeing a country from being dependent on another country.
exploitation; taking control on another country’s land, inhabitants, and resources
left people of the African diaspora with a sense of inferiority
concept of country defining itself and generating a self-sustaining society (starts with economy then moves to political, social, etc.)
country that depends on other countries; has limitations of social and economic development; typically has shorter life expectancy, large infant mortality rates, and high levels of malnutrition
phase of capitalist development when capitalist countries establish political, economic, military, and cultural hegemony over other parts of the world
how what one can gain from a geographic area affects political decisions; focuses solely on gaining something from the land and resources, i.e. Africa’s relationship to Europe
We also discuss several other topics like consider a closed triangular box resting within a horizontal electric field of magnitude
Final Study Guide Final Study Guide WEEK FOUR Week 4 : Perspectives from the Diaspora: On Colonialism in Africa and the Americas Discourse on Colonialism - Aime Cesaire Colonialism: The process of having political control over a country, exploiting it economically, and occupying the land for the benefit of another country ● Excerpt from Bismark, Europe and Africa: the Berlin Africa Conference 1884-1885 and the Onset of Partition - W.J. Mommsen, S. Forster… ● King Leopold’s Ghost ● Some Questions of Development - Walter Rodney ● Class Struggle in Africa - Kwame Nkrumah Thingification: Process of turning the colonized into objects, dehumanization ● King Leopold’s Ghost ● Chapter 5: Enslavement - Michael Gomez ● Racial Formations - Michael Omi and Howard Winant Discourse: Ubiquitous ways of knowing, valuing, and experiencing the world, the cultural voice ● Crick Crack - Merle Collins ● Fact Making and Feminism - Ruth Hubbard ● Pan Africanism, Negritude and the Currency of Blackness - Darien J. Davis and Judith Michelle Williams ● How to Write About Africa - Binyavanga Wainaina ● Controlling Images and Black Women’s Oppression - Patricia Hill Collins Negritude: Affirmation of black consciousness and pride set out to attack the colonial culture ● Pan Africanism, Negritude and the Currency of Blackness - Darien J. Davis and Judith Michelle Williams ● Negritude: Black Poetry from Africa and the Caribbean - Norman Shapiro, ● Yinka Shonibare: Of Hedonism, Masquerade, Carnivalesque and Power ● Fire! Capitalism: Economic system spread by colonialism and imperialism and used as an oppressive force ● Some Questions of Development - Walter Rodney ● Class Struggle in Africa - Kwame Nkrumah ● Worlds of Color - W.E.B. DuBois Europeanization: The assimilation of european/ western culture ● Yinka Shonibare: Of Hedonism, Masquerade, Carnivalesque and Power ● Atlanta Exposition Address - Booker T. Washington ● Excerpts from Negritude: Black Poetry from Africa and the Caribbean - Norman Shapiro ● Class Struggle in Africa - Kwame Nkrumah Marxism: An economic theory and the basis for communism ● Class Struggle in Africa - Kwame Nkrumah ● Worlds of Color - W.E.B. DuBoi ● Discourse on Colonialism - Aime Cesaire ● What Lessons on Fascism Can We Learn from Africa’s Colonial Past? - Leslie JamesFinal Study Guide Final Study Guide WEEK FIVE Week 5 - Pan-Africanism: Garvey, Africa and the Americas
“Introduction,” Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey - Hollis R. Lynch
Excerpt from Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey - Jacques-Garvey
➔ Marcus Garvey Founded the UNIA (United Negro Improvement Association in Jamaica; to establish unity among the race) UNIA’s motto: “Africa for the Africans” ● Marcus Garvey Movement of the 1920 = Pan-Africanism ● Primary motive for Pan-Africanism was that African people everywhere faced similar problem and need to unite to find a solution. ● Goal: to seek respect for black everywhere through political and economic power. ● Garvey wanted black empowerment so we could stand on our own.
● There was wide agreement that the Pan African political base should be in Africa. Sierra Leone was the first country considered for the base. Liberia soon took Sierra Leone’s place ● Main critiques of Africa meetings: not much representation of darker people, only “lighter skinned blacks”; conferences barely discussed solutions to help black. ● Liberia → groundbreaking independence (A haven for blacks)
Don't forget about the age old question of light in air is initially traveling parallel to the face ac of an equilateral triangular prism, as shown in the figure. the prism is made of glass with an index of refraction of 1.52. if the light does not strike the face ac, what is the angle between the
Final Study Guide WEEK SIX Week 6 : The Negro Movement, Negritude and Negrismo Concepts: 1. New Negro Movement 2. Negritude 3. Black Aesthetic/ Black Art 4. Resistance Pan Africanism, Negritude and the Currency of Blackness - Darien J. Davis and Judith Michelle Williams FIRE - Thurman Wallace Efflorescence - Michael Gomez Negritude: Black Poetry from Africa and the Caribbean- Norman Sharpio New Negro Movement: Negritude: set out to attack the colonial culture of France imposed and copied by the conservative Antilleans ● Aime Cesaire and Leon Dama ● Negritude began celebration of blackness evolved into a call for inclusion, self awareness, and attention to the black’s role in international struggles Negrismo: the unity of blacks and whites in forging of the Cuban community ● Negritas were spokesman and guides of blacks, and as patriots of the Cuban nation ● Negristas boasted of the African past as well as the African’s Natural cultural ability, sense of patriotism, and endurance similar to Negritude Negro Movement: Overarching artistic movement to promote black pride, black consciousness and social equality ● Negritude ● Negrismo ● The Teatro Experimental do Negro ● Harlem Renaissance Resistance: black artist used black art to reveal the racism that blacks experienced across the Diaspora ● Teatro Experimental do Negro: Theater ● Negritude: Black poetry ● Negrismo: black poetry and music Final Study Guide WEEK SEVEN Misc Notes: Week 7: The New Negro Movement, Négritude, & Negrismo
Negrismo- an aesthetic movement in Latin America and Caribbean that affirms the nature, quality, and validity of black culture
Pan-Africanism - “the belief that peoples of the African diaspora had endured a similar set of social experiences resulting from the trans Atlantic slave trade” (78)
Negritude- a movement in France that affirms the nature, quality, and validity of black culture Cesaire - communism
New Negro Movement (Harlem Ren-1920s 1930s)
Efflorescence: migration & integration; the migration back to Africa; Garveyism
Resilience - the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties; toughness
Disenfranchisement - the state of being deprived of a right or privilege, especially the right to vote
Imperialism: the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies
Currency of Blackness - important issue in redefining Blackness by Black people for Black people
Miscegenation - the interbreeding of people considered to be of different racial types
Connection to readings:
“Pan-Africanism, Negritude, and the Currency of Blackness” Cuba, the Francophone Caribbean, and Brazil in Comparative Perspective, 1930-1950s
Darién J. Davis and Judith Michelle Williams
Construction of Knowledge, Resilience - Equal integration of blacks - Mulatos - TEN - promoting Negritude, blackness
Excerpts from Négritude: Black Poetry from Africa and the Caribbean
Norman Shapiro, editor/translator
Resilience (Black Woman, All day long), Pan-Africanism (The totem) New Negro Movement
“La balada de los abuelos” &
New Negro Movement
Final Study Guide
- Redefining the Af. Cuban
Misc notes:Final Study Guide WEEK EIGHTFinal Study Guide WEEK NINEFinal Study Guide WEEK TENFinal Study Guide WEEK ELEVEN Week 11: Transnationalism: Diaspora meets continent 1. Colonialism/Colonization: The occupation of a land by a foreign power; uses methods of subordination to accomplish this a. Words Of Color - W.E.B DuBois b. Excerpt from Bismarck, Europe, and Africa: The Berlin Africa Conference 1884- 1885 and The Onset of Partition - WolfGang J. Mommsen, Stig Forster, Ronald Robinson and German Historical Institute in London 2. Resistance/Resilience: the ability to not succumb to adversities a. We’re On Our Way- Fannie Lou Hamer b. Excerpt from Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey 3. Remembering & Forgetting: The process of keeping aspects of your culture and letting some go for the purpose of assimilation a. We Need New Names - NoViolet Bulawayo b. Flame - Film c. Ballad Of My Two Grandfathers- Nicolas Guillen d. Yinka Shonibare: Of Hedonism, Masquerade, Carnivalesque and Power 4. Patriarchy: a society that is male-led where women are made to be subordinate a. Fire! - Wallace Thurman b. Black Women Activists and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee: The Case of Ruby Doris Smith Robinson - Cynthia Griggs Fleming c. A Black Feminist Statement - The Combahee River Collective d. Message for the Negro Women of the World - Mrs. Estelle Matthews, Negro World Newspaper e. September 1969 Panther Sisters on Women’s Liberation 5. Transnationalism: Connections and communications that defy cultuires and physical country borders a. We Need New Names by NoViolet Bulawayo b. “Pan-Africanism, Négritude, and the Currency of Blackness: Cuba, the Francophone- Darien J. Davis and Judith Michelle Williams c. Yinka Shonibare: Of Hedonism, Masquerade, Carnivalesque and PowerFinal Study Guide WEEK TWELVE Week 12: Liberation Movements and Anti-Colonial Struggles (Part I)
Resistance: the refusal to accept or comply with something; the attempt to prevent something by action or argument Resilience: the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or significant sources of stress. It means "bouncing back" from difficult experiences. Decolonization: Defined as the act of getting rid of colonization, or freeing a country from being dependent on another country. Citizenship: the state of being vested with the rights, privileges, and duties of a citizen. Liberation Movement: an organization leading a rebellion against a colonial power or national government, often seeking independence based on a nationalist identity and an anti imperialist outlook.
Connection to readings:
Movement People-Michael Gomez
Black Power: Its Need and Substance - Stokely Carmichael and Charles Hamilton
Letter from a Birmingham Jail-Martin Luther King Jr.
Movement people focused on liberation movements. The reading begins by setting the time frame where social protest arose. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) were highlighted in this reading due to their nonviolent actions and protest against discrimination. There were collectively against decolonization. Another organization was the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, which was founded by Dr.Martin Luther King Jr. That had the same goals to desegregate the south. Women in the movement were also brought up, proving their resilience in
Black people decided to redefine themselves and reclaim their history and identity. They wanted to stray away from white supremacy so they elected their own leaders. Black people decided that they needed to retaliate from city planning commissions, the urban renewal commissions, boards of education, police departments, and other existing structures do not represent or speak up for them. The more black people need to be more politically active and broaden the base of political participation.
Martin Luther King Jr. revealed that he was in jail because of the injustices in Birmingham. In his letter he forced the people to take direct action that would affect the economy. MLK also introduces the white moderate and how they are the negroes stumbling block for freedom. He claims that they are more devoted to order than justice. In order to keep the peace they constantly ask black people to wait to protest until the “right time”. In Martin Luther King’s letter, time is neutral and there will always never be a right time for white people if they don’t act now.
Final Study Guide
fighting desegregation. During the 1950s and 60s black people began to embrace their blackness and redefine themselves. They achieved this through new descriptors and art. Black Power was expressed in literature, Music, Dance, and Theater.
Final Study Guide WEEK THIRTEEN Week 13 Themes from the week:
● written or spoken communication
● adapting to modern needs
● connection of people across nations (socially, economically, etc.)
● overlapping characteristics that marginalize an individual
● Black Radicalism
● Blacks fighting against established structures and institutions of society
● following the teachings of Garvey and his pan-Africanist approach to Black revolution
● The circumstances that an individual has faced that shaped their view on life
What Life Has Taught Me by Haile Selassie
● Haile Selassie (1892-1975) = was the regent and Emperor of Ethiopia ○ Worked to modernize Ethiopia, abolished slavery ● Suggested that the class structure needed to be eliminated (against Marxism) ● Wanted toward working toward the dream of “lasting peace, world citizenship and the rule of international morality.” ● Supported the fight of the African continent against whites who did them wrong
Not Just an American Problem, but a
● Malcolm X (1925-1965)
Final Study Guide
World Problem by Malcolm X
○ Pan-africanist (worked to decolonize Africa and traveled the Middle East) ○ ○ Joined the Nation of Islam but separated himself after conflict with Elijah Muhammad ○ Garveyite parents ○ Founded OAAU (Organization of Afro-American Unity) = desired Black civil rights to be acknowledged as human rights ● Highlights that the problems in the Black community were not only affecting people of African descent in America, but also in England and France. ● United States civil rights’ movement influenced French and English activist. Caused Malcom X to be denied entry to Paris (white fear) ● Focused on the Black revolution on an international level ● Points out that blacks are not the minority and have a common problem globally ● Four spheres of influence in the Western Hemisphere due to colonization ○ Spanish influence ○ French influence ○ British influence ○ United States influence ● More leaders had risen to the task in the United States than in France and England ● P.179 “And after accepting the oneness of God, I believe in the brotherhood of man.” ● P. 179 “We’re antiwrong. We’re antidiscrimination. We’re antisegragation.” ● Says that Whites determine the “image” of Blacks and determine their economy (image making)
Final Study Guide
● Mentions the assassination of Lumumba and how it relates to the reason for revolution ● Tokenism= benefited only a handful of Blacks ● “Religious-political hybrid” p.190 ○ “...the government tried to maneuver us [the Black Muslim Movement] and label us as political rather than religious so that they could charge us with sedition and subversion.” ● Mentions the purpose of the UN’s Declaration of Human Rights
Garveyism: following the teachings of Marcus Garvey and his Pan-africanist approach to black revolution. Thought dubois was practicing elitism and being opportunistic. DuBois: Came up with the color line (race) and said that it is the 20th century issue. Bourgeois came into play. And they all had a problem with Garvey because that thought he was too aggressive and not educated enough. Gender Parallelism: When men and women are fighting for the same cause but separate Gender Independence: women and men work separate on different movements Black Panther Party: A revolutionary group of black people who fought for the civil rights of african americans for encouraging the community to fight back. Fannie Lou Hamer: A writer and poet who wrote “We’re on our way”. Pan-Africanism: A political and social movement that sought to galvanize those of African descent worldwide by creating a global black identity. It considers Africa the home-land for everyone in the diaspora. ● Three beliefs: People of african descent have similar experiences ● Necessary to challenge white oppression and western domination for example white jesus in black church ● Necessity for unity of these people other culture are their race before anything else so africans (black people) should be black too. Putting aside petty differences to make sure race is okayFinal Study Guide The Harlem Renaissance: The cultural, social, and artistic movement that blossomed in Harlem between the end of WW1 and the mid 1930's. During the time, it was known as the "New Negro Movement." The movement drew in black writers, artists, musicians, photographers, poets, and scholars. It showed how African art is more than for arts sake. African art teaches lessons (dyadic) and has usefulness (utilitarian) Negritude: A movement started by French speaking Africans, primarily black intellectuals, who sought to start a cultural revolution; ( currency of blackness); using the arts to redefine 'negro' and re-image Africa; they connected through their shared experience of Africa; influenced by Marxist ideology. The Berlin Conference: A conference that was meant to set up parameters for going into Africa, but ultimately became a meeting that allowed European powers to devise different strategies of dividing up and conquering Africa King Leopold/ Belgium: The Shadows in Africa: The European influence/ impact left of Africa ● France- the most humane, creation of “white Negroes”, no color line, educated blacks, more blacks in French Army than actual french ● Portugese- no racial antipathy, blacks are basically equal, blacks are students and citizens ● Belgium Black Feminism: Underdevelopment: Yinka Shonibare: The Underdevelopment of Africa: UNIA:United Negro Improvement Association Aime Cesaire: French poet, author and politician. Wrote Discourse of Colonialism ADW Quizlet Links https://quizlet.com/205188777/adw-112-flash-cards/Final Study Guide https://quizlet.com/136869803/adw-112-flash-cards/