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SPELMAN / Political Science / POLS 112 / spelman college moodle

spelman college moodle

spelman college moodle

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- To what extent do gendered power relations create or constrain opportunities for activisms?




● West and Blumberg= continuum of gendered social movement patterns ● Most theoretical approaches to social movements are male based assumptions ● Where does YOUR story lead everyone else?




” I wondered in life what actually time would they allow for me to be a woman?



 \=\ey everyone, let me know if you can’t get into any week! -Adesuwa H. Joseph| ajoseph9@scmail.spelmDon't forget about the age old question of rlcl
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an.edu or (615)818-4548  ADW 112 Notes:. Link to Google Slide with the readings:  https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/18YzrnppNwVYdncszuCTx4JJjx HMPqIZnj9zZNmiB\] =[-p0o987654321`34567891`Os/edit?usp=sharingFire!! : [click here] Discourse on Colonialism: [click here] Nervous Conditions: [click here] ADD YOUR NAME TO WHATEVER YOU CONTRIBUTE as you write notes that you find helpful or necessary for understanding. Also include critical questions you have after reading.  (Please use horizontal lines to separate your work) Contribution is necessary for access to the document! If you do not contribute to this, YOU WILL BE REMOVED. WEEK 2:   The Scramble for Africa - “Excerpt From Bismarck, Europe, and Africa:  The Berlin Conference 1884-1885 and the Onset of Partition” 1● Berlin conference November 15, 1884 ended February 26,1885 in Berlin,  convened by Otto Von Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany ● Purpose was to discuss free trade amongst europeans in Africa led to  economic monopoly for Europe ○ Conflict over Egypt between France and Britain had international  dimension  ○ Situation aggravated by Egypt's financial state -Bismarck used to his  advantage against British in 1883 and 84 ○ International situation further aggravated by de Brazza of France in  west Africa near Congo with King Leopold of Belgium trying to take  Congo saying "free trade to foster humanitarian purposes" ○ French threatened what British thought was informal preponderance  so British encouraged Portugal in Congo and undermined Germany’s  moves making everyone angry and call a conference  ○ Clash between France and Britain over Egypt, clash between Britain  and Germany over angra pequena, clash between France Portugal and  Belgium over Congo  ● shows important mark of European imperialism and international relations ○ Legitimized European expansion in terms of international law ● Berlin conference began free market trade we still use today ● some scholars deny had any effect on partition but it started or accelerated it  or gave it seal of approval from Europe  -Clark Sykes Lecture Notes WEEK 3: WEEK 4: WEEK 5: WEEK 6: WEEK 7: 2WEEK 8: WEEK 9: SPRING BREAK  WEEK 10:  WEEK 11: WEEK 12:  WEEK 13:  WEEK 14  WEEK 14:  1. Kuumba, M. Bahati, “You’ve Struck a Rock” a. https://libcom.org/files/You've%20Struck%20a%20Rock.pdf 2. Hamer, Fannie Lou, “We’re on Our Way” 3. Griggs Fleming, Cynthia, “Black Women Activists and the Student   Nonviolent Coordinating Committee” 4. Foot Soldiers Class of 1964 (film available on Moodle) You’ve Struck a Rock: Comparing Gender, Social Movements, and Transformation in the  United States and South Africa: Kuumba, Women’s Research and Resource Director, Professor - Comparative Women’s Studies Abstract: In the Montgomery bus boycott and the South African anti-pass campaign, women's  autonomous organizations initiated actions that catalyzed the mass movements for racial justice and  national liberation. The activism of women and their organizations sprang from their particular  positioning within systems of multiple oppressions simultaneously experiencing racial/ethnic, class,  and gender oppression. In both the United States and South Africa, the particular structural location  and autonomous resistance of women of African descent was an important aspect of the political  opportunity structure and served as a catalyst that catapulted their respective movements for racial  justice and/or national liberation to higher levels.  Women’s experiences within movements are rarely included in the master narrative and  are often invisible and submerged. V  Two different types of movements: Full gender-integration movements and Gender parallel movements. Gendered Movements: Nature of social movements neither undirectional nor  straightforward.  GR, ideologies and power systems can inhibit social movements, activities, and processes.  - Women’s Political Council, a semi autonomous women’s organization, started the  Montogomery bus boycott. Their successful example inspired a cycle of direct  3action and an antiracist struggle in the Southern regions of the US.  - South African anti-pass campaign was revived by the Federation of South African  omen in the early 1950s, jump-started and redirected the male-led “official”  national liberation organizations of the period. There was a lack of urgency by  black male South Africans to participate in the anti-pass movement because they  were already required to carry passes.  TERMS to KNOW:  Montgomery Improvement Association: Coordinating body for boycott. However, it took  WOMEN mainly, to press ministers and congregations to support the movement.  Gender Parallelism: Adaption to maneuver around gender constraint and hierarchies in  the main movement organizations. This parallelism created gender struggles.  + FSAW + ANCWL The narrative we’ve been fed of Rosa Parks is lacking. It is a nice fit for Western stereotypical  images of women, traditionally of women as passive and emotionally driven.  Fannie Lou Hamer - “We’re on Our Way” FANNIE IS THE SHIT Y’ALL Background: BEFORE A MASS MEETING HELD AT THE NEGRO BAPTIST SCHOOL IN INDIANOLA, MISSISSIPPI (SEPTEMBER 1964) Audio of this transcript: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ex45Hw11JBQ FANNIE GEMS:  - “we can no longer ignore the fact that we can’t sit down and wait for things to  change because as long as they can keep their feet on our neck, they will always do it. But it’s time for us to stand up and be women and men. Because actually, I’m  tired of being called “Aunty.” I wondered in life what actually time would they  allow for me to be a woman? Because until I was thirty-six I was a girl: “Girl this.”” - “I don’t want to hear you say, “Honey, I’m behind you.” Well, move, I don’t want  you back there. Because you could be two hundred miles behind. I want you to say, “I’m with you.” And we’ll go up this freedom road together.” - Fannie spoke of being jailed, harassed, and dehumanized simply because she and  others wanted to vote.  She and a bus of people travelled in MS to go register to vote. They filled  out the form but did not successfully complete the application process as  their bus was stopped by police. She remarked that the police ticketed them because of their “bus color”. People lost their jobs. People were shot and  killed.  I say dehumanized because of Ms. Hamer’s story of being beaten in the jail. She was subject to being beaten by 5 men. 2 being black male prisoners,  forced to participate in the violence. Ms. Hamer recalls her dress coming  up, trying to push it back down--- just to have it pushed as high as it could  go by a white male officer. This is a form of dehumanization for multiple  reasons. 1) Hamer was being beaten senselessly for her act of trying to  4register. Her womanhood (being of woman) was ignored as she was  brutally assaulted. 2) The act of her dress being shoved upward was the  officer’s way of trying to make her feel lesser and even embarrassed.  “Black Women Activists and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee”: Comparing Gender, Social Movements and Transformation in the United States  Lecture Notes Naomi Gross ● Women share similar experiences in relation to their structural location and semi autonomous resistance ● Gender and women’s participation becoming central in movement analysis ● It is important for us (as women) to talk about our past and our struggles ● women -driven campaigns were major players in the mobilization and strategic  direction of the civil rights movements. ● Gender roles, ideologies and power systems inhibit social movements ● There is neither a unidirectional nor straightforward nature of the “gendered”  perspective of social movements ● West and Blumberg= continuum of gendered social movement patterns ● Most theoretical approaches to social movements are male based assumptions ● Where does YOUR story lead everyone else? OUTLINE • Activism and gender power relation • Activism and gender power structure Women’s Activism and the organizations they belong to were at the  intersection of several forms of oppression: o Racism/ethnicism o Classism o Gender o Ageism In using intersectionality as an analytical tool B.Kuuma raises the questions: - Do the same political opportunities equally drive activism for men and  women? - To what extent do gendered power relations create or constrain  opportunities for activisms? 5- How do gendered structures/networks, identities, ideologies, and  meaning systems affect the movement process, strategies, and/or outcomes? 3 patterns in gender social movements  • The gender-independent model ( involves women & men in completely  separate actions & organizations with different projects and objectives) • The gender parallel model ( includes women and men in the same  movement but in separate structures and activities • The gender-integrated model( engages women & men in overlapping  movement structures and tasks to achieve common social transformational  goals) The civil Rights movement and anti-apartheid movements experienced  phase’s gender integration and parallelism but nethat ver completely gender  autonomous. The movements were strongly gender-integrated, with men and women fully  involved as participants and members  However, women played different roles and enjoyed different statuses ` Rosa Parks is known for he stand on the bus which started the boycott but  people don’t know the extent of her activism - She was an active member of the NAACP - She was trained in social resistance by Septima Clark right before the  bush boycott - Before Rosa’s action, the WPC, a Black professional women’s civic  group had been discussing and planning for a boycott  - While the executive board of the MIA was comprised mainly of males,  the female-majority congregations urged the ministers to support the boycott - Semiautonomous women’s organization worked alongside the MIA to  raise funds and coordinate transportation) The Women’s Anti-Pass Campaign -In 1952, the apartheid regime in the South Africa decided to extend to women 6passes. - Women didn’t gain membership and voting privileges in the ANC until 1943  through the setting up of the ANC Women’s League - Even after 1943 they enjoyed no representation  -In 1952 government comes up with decision -1954 women start planning - in 1958, while the movement was in full swing and more women were  contemplating arrest the Congress Alliance lead by the ANC called for an end  to the civil disobedience  Kuumba, M. Bahati, “You’ve Struck a Rock” Jasmine Turner ● Women's Political Council (WPC) pg. 251 ○ Started the montgomery bus boycott ● Federation of South African Women (FSAW) pg. 252 ○ Jumpstarted the official liberation organization ● Grounded in Intersectionality ● 3 Models of gender social movements model ○ Gender integration---both men and women in overlapping movement  structures ○ Gender parallel---both men and women in separate structures and  activities ○ Gender independent---men and women separate with different projections and objectives ● Most movements were highly gender integrated ● Rosa Parks ○ NAACP ○ Training in social resistance ● Political Process Model ○ Neglect of gender structures ○ Underemphasis on networks of communication ○ Stress male dominated politics ● Increase in labor force and population in 1940s and 50s ● Most violent bus incident in 1952 7● Dichotomous model (Leaders vs. Followers) ● Normative western sex division of labor ● Women focused on grassroot level ● Women joined through ○ Self help ○ Family security ○ Common concerns WEEK 15  http://challengingmalesupremacy.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Black-Sexual-Politics-Chapter 3.pdf ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -  Serenity Gikonyo  Hill Collins, Patricia, “Prisons for Our Bodies, Closets for Our Minds: Racism, Heterosexism, and Black Sexuality” AFRICAN AMERICANS AND THE RACIALIZATION OF PROMISCUITY  - The most important concept to me that Patricia Hill Collins touched on was  something we’ve all known to be an ignorant truth in history – and that is  that the terms black and white hold emotional meaning. Not only in relations to race but across sexuality. - The terms white and black plainly imply the contraries of literal “right and  wrong” - Right and wrong set by bounds of societal normalcy or what was also  mentioned; governmentally. - To keep a certain hierarchy or RIGHT should I say - [areas of state where other races have advantages bc of housing placement  or job opportunity > making certain that prosperity of a certain kind of  person > WHITE MALE] 8- “Before colonization, white and black connoted purity and filthiness,  virginity and sin, virtue and baseness, beauty and ugliness, and God and the  devil” pg. 317 - Therefore, society has placed a label on each of these as kind of the “right  and wrong” as ultimatum and it has been followed for such a long time.  Patricia points out that the White heterosexual male is the most “normal” of  all choices and pretty much any deviation after that is unfortunately  inferior. Week 13: Notes from Mekerta’s Lecture (Makayla Stokes) Not Just an American Problem, but a world Problem Malcolm X ● Malcolm X wanted a society where everyone could live as human beings  ● Discussed the Black Revolution, the manner in which it is taking place, the impact it is  having on black communities in America, England and France ● The Problem: In the Western Hemispheres we (blacks) aren’t exactly a minority.  Throughout LAtin America, the Caribbean, US, and Canada there are people of African  origin  ● High standard living in France & England have urged blacks to migrate to France &  Great Britain from the French and British West Indies  ● Common problem between US, France, & Britain is the mood reflected in the overall  behavior pattern of blacks  ● There have been numerous black leaders that have risen up in the Western Hemisphere mand created a spirit of militancy that has frightened nthe American whites, but is absent in france and England  ● Malcolm believes in the brotherhood of man, but realizes that America doesn’t practice  brotherhood ● Organization of Afro American Unity allows active participation of Afro Americans, Black  Americans, and aims to eliminate the negative political economic, and social evils that  blacks are confronted by in society  ● Tokenism were token efforts made by whites that were created to solve problem but left  problems stagnant or worse  ● Tokenism: the very minimal integration. Ex. Placing one or two blacks in a white  institution  9Final Exam Review and Study Guide: Concepts: 1. Scramble For Africa -People (King Leopold) -he was a liar, and was sent Sir Henry Stanley -Places (Belgium,Congo, Berlin (African Continent)) -Berlin African Conference (1884) The purpose was to discuss free trade and divide African  between European Countries in Africa. -14 Nations -Africa is a cake, and everyone wants a piece of it. (Leopold started) -Europe trying to make claim things that were not there’s. -Control of land -Exploitation captivated labor -KING LEOPOLD WHOLE ASS STOLE AFRICA -KING LEOPOLD IS A FINESSER. -He is why The Congo is in Shambles -Leopold also privately controlled the Free State of Congo (1885-1908) -After 1908 became Belgium’s continent -”King Leopold’s Ghost” symbolic to the devastation he left, (SHAMBLES) -10 million died in 40 years Cutting off right hands, symbolic to African society -George Washington Williams (was black) Vs. King Leopold (white man) -Evan Morel, A white investigator who was exposing Leopold and all of his wrong doings. -Once Leopold was caught, he burned all of the Congo African Archives. -Patrice Lumumba was assassinated, Democracy was assassinated in the country. (first  democratic elect in the Congo, in the shambles of it.)  -He was trying to fix what was broken.  -Congo was exploited. -Underwent 32 years of war. -Sankara to the Congo 2. Neo-Colonialism/Colonialism 10-Neocolonialism- - the dominance of strong nations over weak nations not by direct political control (traditional colonialism.) but by economic and cultural influence.  -Colonialism- direct political control (Class Struggle) -Nkrumah (Class Struggle) -Marxism- -Neocolonialism (indirect effect culture of colonialism) -Walter Rodney (Important Person) -Cause Vs. Effect -Separat/ ion of Classes 1. ‘Privileged Class (Bourgeoisie) 2. Oppressed Class (Prostitutes, Labor Workers, Agricultural Works,Peasants, proletariat) 3. Armed Forces 4. Politicians 5. Government 6. Lawyers 7. Intellgensia Sneaky Colonialism with finances. Oppressed -Their finances were given to the privileged class -The privileged gave their finances to their oppressors. (ALL WITHIN THE BLACK UPPER CLASS, THE BLACK COMMUNITY WAS HEAVILY AFFECTED) -Colonialism- direct political control of a colonized control, colonized by the colonizer. “The problem of the 20th century is the problem of the color line.” Thingification Worlds of ColorU4 Race is the main issue White people felt as though they were more empowered, they thought they were pure. Capitalism is the force of colonialism Cesaire-martinique Inferior vs. Less Inferior  A/B system of oppression  a= privileged and colonizer b= oppressed, black people  Brought out a poisonous relationship Thingification and Commodification Colonialist ideals led to the rise of fascism (Cesaire) Colonization does not equal Civilization  ● Slavery vs Colonialism ○ Slavery is to snatch the able bodies to put them into boats and sent them all  over the world 11○ Colonialism is to come into Africa and stay to change the society’s structure  and steal their resources  ■ force languages and histories upon African people while native tongues  were forbidden ■ colonized are made to learn that their culture is inferior ■ colonized are divided, some know their country’s history and want to  restore their independence, others only know colonizer’s history and are comfortable under their rule ● Imperial powers need to justify their robbing and exploitation of African people and  their resources ○ use Bible to justify ● clear relationship between capitalism, color, and labor ● Those who are rich in wealth are poor in natural resources and vice versa ● few people control / own wealth while majority is poor and laborers ● development depends on economic standing, wealth, and pyramid of capitalism ● capitalism is the accumulation of things ● unequal distribution of power and wealth ● divide and conquer tactic ○ chosen blacks who are allowed to have wealth and capital ○ create culture to keep division among blacks ● underdevelopment of Africa is a direct  ● result of capitalism and imperialism Marxism The method Socioeconomic Analysis That looks like class struggle 3. Development/Undevelopment - African and Western Europe Walter Rodney (some questions of develop and underdevelopment) Africa and Asia were the original “blood” countries Most undermined countries are always and unsatisfied because they do not have enough Society buying things we do not need, Georgia Dome Hidden Colors Imperialism justifies itself through  Undeveloped African Nations result of capitalism and other countries.  4. 5. Communism -Everyone has the same resources -palm of the negro woman -we all want to be equal -EX: Labor workers getting less compensation -EX: It is going to help the inferior, and hinder the superior -The inferior would have an advantage 12-Economic advantage -Communist Party Focus    6. Diaspora 7. Pan-Africanism 8. Garveyism -Concept of the liberation movement -Importance of Education -Sense of Identity -Unity and Nationhood -Philosophy, Theology 9. Patriarchy 10. Environmental Justice- -Social Movement for safe and clean living conditions -Advocates for safe and clean -Poor living conditions -Hurricane Katrina -Health Disparities (Asthma)|Black getting set  -people of color/poor -takes away your homes and things of that nature -Global Warming -Universal Problem -People in lower class areas are heavily affected -85 Mile (Cancer Alley) Strip in the Gulf Region -Waste/Pollution -Trash/ landfills/located in minority communities.  -Public Policies - 11. Intersectionality- the interconnectedness of things such as race, age, class, etc. that  overlap as a part of discrimination (Jess) 12.Transnationalism 13.Non-Violence Resistance 14.Liberation Movements 15.Women’s activism in civil rights movements and struggle 16.Negritude/Negrismo 17. New Negro Movement (Harlem Renaissance)   13Notes from Jada Irving A) In six complete sentences, define each of the following terms and give a specific  example related to each B) General to specific 1. Racial terrorism  * Define racial terrorism  * KKK 2. White supremacy  * Malcolm X reading (against it) 3. Race consciousness  * Pan Africanism  * Being aware of your standings in society and how it affects your being  * Garvey-  * Conference where people from all nations realized European nations were colonizing  everyone else (they are the problem)  *Stone Mountain- White Supremacy rally 4. Black power 5. Pan-Africanism 6. Environmental Racism 7. Black consciousness 8. Environmental justice 9. Citizenship 10. Resistance 11. Colonialism 12. Slavery 13. Cultural efflorescence  A) New Negro  B) Negrismo  C) Negritude 14. Globalization 15. Neocolonialism 16. Imperialism 17. Liberation movements 18. Decolonization 19. Development 20. Underdevelopment  * Environmental racism- Katrina: disorganization, exploitation, safety 14 *Change 21. Transnational 22. Black Nationalism 23. Marginalization 24. Domination 25. Exploitation 26. Heterosexual patriarchy 27. Patriarchy domination 28. Male supremacy  , Terms: ❖ The Scramble for Africa: 1. Sub-oppressor/Overseer: A person who is a part of the oppressed class but acts on  behalf of the oppressor  2. Adhesion: Commitment to a person or thing; loyalty, allegiance, and devotion (Paulo  Freire). Oppressor needs the oppressed just like the oppressed needs the oppressor.  Example: The oppressed needs the oppressor in order to survive. 3. Liberation: Having freedom/ not adopting ideologies of the oppressed. (Paulo Freire)  Example: A painful childbirth. Just like childbirth, becoming liberated contains a lot of  struggles and just because one because liberated/ gives birth, doesn’t mean that the  fight is over. 4. Fear of Freedom: Afflicts the oppressed where they fear recognizing their authentic  existence. Example: The oppressed wants to gain liberation and freedom, but at the  same time they are scared to gain this liberation because they are so used to being  defined and told what to do they do not know what to do with this new freedom. 5. False Charity: A means of “softening” the power of the oppressor to help the weakened  state of the oppressed. Example: The slave master would give the slaves scraps of food, family bonding time, clothes, etc to make it look as if their situation was not as bad, but  he was really doing all of this benefit himself.  6. Autonomy: State of being self governed in defining oneself independently of any outside  influences.  7. The mindset/ motto of the oppressor: “To be is to have” 8. Thingification: Oppressor thinking of everyone as objects or property ] 9. Pan Africanism: 10. Negrismo: Opened the door for investigating African influences on cuban culture 1511. Negritude: Was a cultural movement that took the negative connotation away from negre and transformed into a philosophy that celebrates blackness and Africa’s contribution to  world history.  12. Prescription: One of the basic elements of the relationship between oppressor and  oppressed, where the behavior of the oppressed is already prescribed. 13. Niggeratti: The seven individuals responsible for creating Fire!! Individuals: Wallace  Thurman, Langston Hughes, Gwendolyn Bennett, Richard Bruce, Zora Neale Hurston,  Aaron Douglas, and John Davis. 14. Self De-appreciation: A characteristic of the oppressed derives from internalizing the  opinion the oppressor hold of them. The oppressed become convinced that they are who the oppressor says they are 15. UNIA: Universal Negro Improvement Association  16. Neo- Colonialism: The term that refers to the economic and political policies where great power (former colonizer/ oppressor) indirectly maintains or extends its influence over  other areas or people (colonized/ oppressed). 17. Capitalism: The economic system based on private ownership as the means of  production and operation for the purpose of profit. All the socialists hated  capitalism.Came from colonization, white supremacy wanted to capitalize off of the poor. 18. Gender Lense: Lense place on issues of gender at the center of analysis as well as the  systematic divisions and inequalities between women and men. 19. Intersectionality: Relates to how multiple identities manifests in the lives of individuals. 20. Development: Implies a self- sustaining society as a result. Perpetuates notions of  autonomy, based on the country itself and the individuals within the country. Can be  interrupted by colonization and domination. (Walter Rodney) 21. Underdevelopment: The absence of development. Shorter life expectancies, individuals  in these nations have small percentages of skilled professionals. Increase in nation  military actions. Dependent nations. Wealth of natural resources, but poor in terms of  goods and services. Lack heavy industry, inadequate food production, and unscientific  agriculture. (Walter Rodney) 1622. Marxism: Karl Marx, Criticism on Capitalism, capitalism and imperialism plants the seeds for colonization and Cesaire was a member of the Communist party when he wrote a  Discourse on Colonialism.  23. Surrealism: Cultural Art and literary movement that began in the early 20th century that  sought to release the creative potential of the unconscious mind.  24. Full Gender Integration Movements: Movements that engage women and men and  overlapping movement structures. 25. Gender Parallel Movements: Include both women and men in the same movement but in separate structures and activities. 26. Gender Independent Movements: Involved women and men in completely separate  actions and organizations with different projects and objectives. ADW Final Exam Review- Jaylin Nesbitt Week 2: Berlin Conference: took place November 15th 1884 in Berlin Germany. Hosted by Otto von  Bismark (chancellor of Germany) Attendees -14 countries. Called conference to discuss free  trade amongst the European powers in Africa Scramble for Africa: Yinka Shonibare’s depiction of the Berlin conference. Divide Africa like a  cake(Great Britain, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Spain ● Economic, political, religious and social motives of Capitalism ○ Economic: Cheap labor, raw material, markets ○ cal: Restore balance of power ○ Social: Industrialization in Europe (unemployment, poverty, homelessness and  social unrest) ○ Religious: Philanthropic, civilizing, development, Education, saving the heathens, caretakers of the “helpless” children Week 3: W.E.B Dubois: “Worlds of Color” ● Colonialism=Capitalism ○ Root of colonialism(capitalism) ○ Ideology of race allowed them to divide and conquer ○ Divided the working class in the US ○ Divided Africa by tribal groups 17● Believed we should have working class unity. White working class is poisoned. ● Capitalism divided the working class so they would not unite and over power them ○ Economic motives of capitalism: raw material cheap labor, markets ● Colonialism: denying full citizenship rights to blacks ● Some blacks were colluding with colonizers and middle class blacks were assimilating  and acting the same as colonizers ● Anti-colonialism, colonialism does not equal civilization ○ Colonizers claimed they were there to bring civilization to theses “savages” when  in fact the Europeans were the Savages ● Thingification ○ Instruments of production Walter Rodney: “Some questions of Development” ● “How Europe Underdeveloped Africa” ○ Underdeveloped Africa then claimed they were underdeveloped because of their  culture ■ Lack of industrialization (part of development) focus on extraction of raw  material ■ Civil service ● Middle class Africans worked for the government Week 4: Cesaire: “Discourse on Colonialism” ● Cesaire was an anti-colonialist ● Founded the Negritude movement ○ “Resistance to the politics of assimilation” ○ Sengore (president of Senegal) and Damas (French Guinea) and Suzanne Cesaire ● Colonization dehumanizes the Colonizer ○ No one colonizes innocently ● Boomerang Effect Lumumba: Film ● Telling our history ● Europe divide and rule strategy ● Thingification ● Legacy of Colonialism – multi-ethnic states Week 5: Marcus Garvey: “Philosophy and Opinions…” ● All Black Everything ● Pan Africanist ● Black nationalism, nation building, and anti-colonialism ● Separatist 18● UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities  League)1914 ○ One god, one aim, one destiny Week 6 and 7 The New Negro Movement ● Harlem Renaissance ○ Creative wave to allow blacks to come together to discuss issues ○ Blacks breaking barriers ■ Hughes, walker, carrer ○ Color division ○ Black is beautiful ○ Resilience Negrismo ● Cuba, Spanish-speaking Caribbean ● Artist Activists ● Mulatto, mixed nature of the country and people (uniting against American imperialism) ● Nicholas Guillen Negritude ● French colonized world; Martinique; Senegal ● Black people and heritage; essence; African ancestry ● Met in Paris Movements against Euro-hegemony, dominance, assimilation; against denial of full  citizenship rights, full humanity, anti-colonial Week 8 Nkrumah: “Class Struggle in Africa” ● Applied Marxist methodology and philosophy to analyze social, political and economic  conditions in Africa ● Neocolonialism (new form of colonialism) ○ Continue to rule with help of indigenous people often labeled the petty  bourgeoisie or civil servants ■ Petty bourgeoisie-Class against proletariat and peasantry ■ Enemy within ○ Need warfare (armed struggle) ■ They will not give up power easily ■ Proletariat and peasantry can come together and fight this ● Criticized Negritude ● Control the system rather than change it ● Wanted a classes society 19Thomas Sankara: The Upright Man (Film) ● Leader of Upper Volta 1983 Week 10 Claudia Jones: “An End to the Neglect of the problem of the Negro woman” ● Marxist ○ Capitalists exploiting the proletariat ○ Combats the exploitation proletariats face by combatting the capitalism that fuels  this exploitation ● Black women are the breadwinners ● Bourgeoisie are more threatened by black women because they are the organizers and  active forces in all institutions and organizations of negro people ● Men should change their ideology to women ● Believed in communism and wanted to get rid of the bourgeoisie Week 11 We Need New Names: ● African displacement ○ Internally displaced within borders ○ Refugees ● African Migration ○ 4.6m to Europe and 890,000 to US ○ 2/3 from North Africa ● Push factors (migration) ○ War, poverty, political persecution pushed people to become refugees and asylum ○ Job security and low salary push people to seek opportunity elsewhere ● Pull Factors ○ Many industrial countries need migrant labor shortages, low birth rate and aging  populations ● Issues raised by displacement ○ Citizenship rights and human rights ○ Economic survival ○ Cultural adaptation ○ Identity ○ Formation of new communities ○ Language barriers ○ Brain damage ○ Ethic conflict ● Theme ○ Identity ○ Homeland ○ Religion 20Week 12: Michael Gomez: “Movement People”: ● Constantly involved in movements to access full citizenship rights ● U.S. movements ○ Anti-Vietnam war; feminist movement;crm ○ Age of mass media ○ Core, Naacp Sclc, ○ [Louisiana bus boycott ○ Brown v. Board of Education ● White resistance ● Stokely Carmichael and Charles V. Hamilton: “Black Power…” ● Black Power ○ We have the power over our own communities and destiny ○ Write our own history ○ Have our own mayors and governors ● Not violent but not opposed to using violence Week 13: Malcolm X ● Awareness of problems locally, nationally, and internationally ● National and international impact of racism ○ When blacks rioted, they were referred to as hoodlums ○ African villages bombed without remorse ● Value of black lives v. white lives ○ Bombs dropped on African village, no one cares ○ 9 white hostages and everyone cares ● The black Muslim movement ○ Attracted most militant, dissatisfied and uncompromising elements of the black  community ○ Religious political hybrid ● “by any means necessary” Nelson Mandela ● Protested the Apartheid ● Believed in Armed struggle to defeat them Week 14: Kuumba: “You’ve struck a rock”: ● Contrary to the myth of women as divisive women contributed significantly to: 21○ Integrated organizations ○ Parallel organizations ○ Montgomery bus boycott and anti-pass campaign jump started their motivation to  be a part of the movements ● Anti-Pass Campaign ○ Women were not allowed in white area and expected to stay home so they were  excluded from passes ○ Passes increase likelihood of arrest and harassment ○ Protested the need to have passes ○ Factors ■ Impacted them personally ■ Organization skills due to not having passes (able to form unions) ● Liberation Movements ○ Federation of South African Women (anti pass-“Fill in the jails”) ○ Women’s political council ■ 13-month bus boycott ● Dr. Kuumba’s Approach ○ Lens: gender and comparative ○ Thesis ■ Intersectionality ● Oppression experienced differently by black men and women  because the intersection of race, sex and class ● U.S opportunity Structure-Montgomery bus boycott ○ Women more likely to take the bus because men feared harassment ○ Women started this boycott because they were affected by it Fannie Lou Hamer ● One of the founders of the democratic Mississippi Freedom Democratic party ○ Freedom schools- educate black children ○ Preparing black to register to vote ● The did not allow her to be seen live during her testimony ● Discussed gender and class and the over sexualization of the black women ● Arrested and fired from job b/c she registered to vote ○ Black man beat her and jail ○ White cop sexually exploited her Cynthia Griggs Fleming: “Black women Activists…” ● “When it was profitable to exploit them [slave women] as if they were men, they were  regarded, in effect, as genderless, but when they could be exploited, punished and  repressed in ways suited only for women, they were locked into their exclusive female  roles.” ○ Women were victims of sexual abuse and barbarous mistreatment ● Ruby Doris Smith Robinson ○ Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee(SNCC) 22○ Began her activism career in Atlanta at Spelman ○ Viewed as strength not as a man or woman ○ “Jail no bail policy” ● Zohara Simmons ○ Colleague of Robinson ○ Discussed the European standard of beauty ○ Experienced hardship and pain due to her darker skin compared to her fellow  students at spelman who were commonly light skin with nearly straight hair ○ Experienced colorism from black men ● SNCC ○ Male posturing in the organization ○ Overt sexism ○ Male co-workers described Robinson based on her appearance and motherhood  not her intellect Week 15 1966 Black Panther Party Platform and Program: “What we want, what we believe” ● Greatest impact in Oakland-San Fran Bay area, NY, Chicago, Los Angeles, Seattle and  Philly ● Bobby Seal Co-founder ● Huey P. Newton Co-founder and minister of defense ● Article 10 ○ We want land, bread, housing, education, clothing, justice and peace ● Motto ○ Serve the people, body and soul ○ Free breakfast programs ○ Community oriented, wanted to serve the community ● Looked at organizations internationally to develop their organization ○ Vietnam ● Black male chauvinism ○ Gender politics and anti-sexism not initially a central tenet of the black panther  party ● Sexism in the BPP ○ “A woman in the black power movement was basically irrelevant” Panther Sisters on Women’s Liberation ● Women in the black panther movement ○ Movement – 2/3 women ○ Kathleen Cleaver ■ “proven that positions are not related to sex but depends on your political  awareness” ○ Erika Huggins ■ Symbol of courage in the movement ■ Led the L.A. chapter 23● Marxist theory ○ Black panther interview attacked class structure ○ Socialist revolution would end the problem ○ Marx’s theory does not include RACE in their class analysis Huey P Newton 1970 Speech “The Women’s Liberation and Gay Liberation Movement ● Co-founder of black panther party ● Men feared homosexuality in men because they feared the idea of being homosexual ○ Did not fear lesbians because they posed no threat ● Believed homosexuals were the most oppressed group ● Black men should unite with homosexuals and women ● Full participation from the gay liberation movement and the women’s liberation  movement ● We need as many allies as possible to overcome oppression ● Homosexuality is not the enemy and is not a threat The Combahee River Collective: “A black feminist statement” ● Barbara Smith, Beverley Smith and Damita Frazier ● The Genesis of Contemporary Black Feminism ○ Sexual Identity + Racial Identity= Unique Political Struggles ○ In this case the authors experiences oppression through racism and sexuality ○ American Women’s Movement ■ Black Women ■ Third World Women ■ Working Women ○ Black Women ■ Participants changed and affected by the ideology, goals and tactics used  my several movements (Civil rights, black Nationalism, Black Feminism) ■ Development of antiracist (white women) and Antisexist (black and white  men) politics ● What We Believe ○ Black women are valuable ○ Liberation is a necessity ○ Oppression and liberation of black women has never been considered a concern to anyone else other than the black woman ○ No other movement that took the black women’s struggle into consideration ○ We struggle together with black men against racism, while we also struggle with  Black men about sexism ● Marxist Theory in the movement 24○ They are in agreement with Marx’s Theory as it applied to very specific economic relationships he analyzed, however analysis must be extended further to  understand the specific economic situation as black women ● Problems of organizing black feminists ○ Fighting oppression on two fronts instead of one ○ Do not have racial, sexual, heterosexual or class privilege ○ Male and female roles in the 1970 ● Black Feminist Issues and Practice ○ Sterilization abuse ○ Abortion rights ○ Battered women (domestic abuse cases) ○ Rape ○ Health care ● The elimination of racism does not begin with black women. For us to overcome racism  it is the white women who must understand, recognize and address our struggle Week 16 Environmental justice Principles Environmental Racism Key Terms: Pan-Africanism: Philosophy and movement which has sought to unify all people of African  descent in the struggle of freedom Common history, origin, fate Response to colonialism and racial oppression Garveyism: body of thought and organizational activities associated with Marcus Garvey Colonialism: a foreign occupation of and control over, a people and/or territory, usually by force Neocolonialism: Country’s finances controlled through debt Imperialism: extension of control through colonialism or other means Ex: America (imperialistic) control through loans and tariffs Bourgeoisie: capitalist class Proletariat: working class Environmental justice: fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of  race, color, national origin or income with respect to the development, implementation and  enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies Environmental Racism: placement of low-income or minority communities in the same area as environmental hazards or degraded environments (toxic waste, pollution and urban decay) Transnationalism: social phenomenon developed from the interconnectivity between people  and the receding economic social significance of boundaries among nation states. 25Decolonization Marxism: developed by Karl Marx, focused on class struggle and the practice of communism Communism: advocated class war and leading to a society where all property is publicly  owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs Socialism: political and economic theory that production, distribution and exchange should be  owned or regulated by the community as a whole Tokenism: humanitarianism backed up my dollarism Surrealism: liberates the structures placed on your mind by colonialism (dream big) Fascism: A political system headed by a dictator in which the gov controls business and labor  and opposition is not permitted Fascism threatened humanism and the foundation of colonialism Movements: Negritude Negrismo New Negro Movement Women’s Liberation Movement Black Feminist movement 26

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