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AMU / Engineering / C 280 / list of water soluble hormones

list of water soluble hormones

list of water soluble hormones

Description

School: Ave Maria University
Department: Engineering
Course: Anatomy & Physiology II
Professor: Jay koepke
Term: Summer 2017
Tags: Anatomy & Physiology II
Cost: 50
Name: Unit 1material
Description: Chapter Study guides
Uploaded: 07/02/2017
25 Pages 183 Views 1 Unlocks
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Name: Module 18 Study Guide: The Endocrine System 1. Choose (place an X) whether the characteristic applies to the Nervous System or Endocrine System (or both)  Characteristic Nervous   Endocrine Action is generally brief (lasting milliseconds).

Action generally lasts longer (seconds to days).

Mediator molecules delivered to target by bloodstream.

Action potentials trigger release of mediator molecules at synapse with target.

Target cells require specific protein receptor for mediator molecule.

Stimulates skeletal muscle contractions.

Influence is much broader; will regulate virtually all types of body cells.

Controls growth & development and regulates reproductive systems.

Maintains internal environments (homeostasis)

Mediator molecules include acetylcholine, glutamate, norepinephrine, serotonin

Mediator molecules include aldosterone, melatonin, insulin, calcitonin


a) What antigens are on the RBCs of individuals with type A+ blood?



2. Action of lipid-soluble hormones: Put the following steps in order (#1-5) ___ Transcription and Translation of genes results in synthesis of new proteins. ___ Hormone secreted into bloodstream requires a transport protein to circulate. ___ New proteins alter the target cell’s activity. ___ Hormone exist blood and diffuses through plasma membrane of target cell. ___ Hormone binds to intracellular receptors located in cytosol or nucleus of target cell. 3. Action of water-soluble hormones: Put the following steps in order (#1-5) ___ Activated protein kinases phosphorylate cellular proteins in target cell. ___ Hormone secreted into bloodstream circulates without need of transport protein. ___ Phosphorylated proteins produce physiological responses in target cell. ___ Hormone exist blood and binds to receptor on surface of target cell. ___ Production of second messenger activates intracellular signaling reactions.4. Choose whether the following hormones are lipid-soluble or water-soluble. Hormone Lipid soluble water soluble epinephrine

testosterone

oxytocin

insulin

estrogen

antidiuretic hormone

progesterone

serotonin

cortisol

triiodothyronine


b) What antibodies are produced by someone with type A+ blood?



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5. Describe each of the following Hormone Interactions and give examples.  Interaction Description Examples Permissive effect

Synergistic effect

Antagonistic effect

6. On the next page, label the endocrine organs on the picture, list their hormones,  and give the action of those hormones.7.7. Disorders of the Endocrine System: Fill in the table describing disorders of the  Endocrine System. Disorder Description

Destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas early in life  results in low levels of insulin production. As a result,  glucose cannot enter cells. Cushing’s syndrome

Hypersecretion of hGH during adulthood causes bones of  the hands, feet, cheeks, and jaws to thicken. Addison’s disease

Hyposecretion of ADH or the kidneys no responding  appropriately to ADH causes the body to excrete large  volumes of urine, resulting in dehydration and thirst. Myxedema

Antibodies produced by the immune system stimulate the  thyroid gland resulting in hyperthyroidism, often  accompanied with protrusion of the eyes. Giantism

Target cells become less sensitive (resistant) to insulin.  Most commonly seen in obese people over the age of 35. Pituitary dwarfism


c) What type of blood can someone with type A+ receive?



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8. Matching: Common Medications in Endocrinology. Pitocin _____ Erythropoietin _____ Mifepristone _____ Insulin _____ Levothyroxine _____ Progestin _____ Epinephrine _____ Metformin _____ Prednisone _____ Melatonin _____ Clomiphene _____ Tamoxifen _____ A. Available “over-the-counter” as a treatment for insomnia, although scientific  evidence is insufficient to demonstrate a benefit in this area. B. Oxytocin agonist used to induce labor, increase speed of labor, and to stop  bleeding following delivery of the baby. C. Corticosteroid similar to cortisol - used as an anti-inflammatory. D. Drug used to decrease glucose production by the liver and increase insulin  sensitivity in type 2 diabetics. E. Inhibits estrogen receptors in the hypothalamus, leading to an increase  production of FSH and LH. This ultimately increases growth of ovarian follicles  and chances of pregnancy. F. Given to patients with myxedema. G. Estrogen receptor antagonist used to treat certain breast cancers that are  stimulated by estrogen. H. Standard treatment for type 1 diabetes. I. Progesterone receptor antagonist used to induce abortion. J. As a medication it can be given to open airways during anaphylaxis, increase  heart rate during cardiac arrest, and decrease superficial bleeding. K. As a medication it can be used to treat anemia resulting from kidney failure or  cancer treatment. L. In combination with estrogen, is used as contraceptives to prevent unwanted  pregnancy.Name: Module 19 Study Guide: Cardiovascular System: The Blood 1. Match the component of blood plasma with the proper description. Water _____ Albumins _____ Immunoglobulins _____ Fibrinogen _____ Electrolytes _____ Nutrients _____ Gases _____ Hormones _____ Wastes _____ A. Proteins of the immune system that attack viruses and bacteria B. Protein essential in blood clotting C. Urea, uric acid, creatinine, bilirubin, ammonia D. Oxygen and carbon dioxide E. Glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins F. Inorganic salts; positive and negatively charged ions G. Regulatory substances transported in blood H. Most abundant plasma protein that often function as transport proteins I. 91.5% of blood plasma; acts as a solvent2. Match the component of Erythrocyte function with the proper description. Erythrocytes _____ Hemoglobin _____ Heme _____ Red bone marrow _____ Globin _____ Vitamin B12 _____ Iron _____ Bilirubin _____ Transferrin _____ Macrophage _____ Sterocobilin _____ Liver _____ Reticulocyte _____ Bile _____ Kidney _____ Erythropoietin _____ Biliverdin _____ Ferritin _____ Spleen _____ Urobilin _____ A. Site of oxygen binding in hemoglobin. B. Hormone that stimulates  erythropoiesis. C. Site of erythropoiesis. D. Yellow metabolite of heme found in  urine. E. Protein portion of hemoglobin. F. Ringlike nonprotein pigment bound to  each globin protein. G. Green metabolite of heme. H. Yellow-orange metabolite of heme. I. Plasma protein that transports iron in  the bloodstream. J. Cells that phagocytose ruptured  RBCs in the spleen, liver, or red bone  marrow. K. Brown metabolite of heme eliminated  in feces. L. Organ that removes worn-out red  blood cells from circulation. M. Iron-storage protein. N. About 280 million of these molecules  are found in a single red blood cell. O. Deficiency leads to pernicious  anemia. P. Organ that eliminates bilirubin within  bile. Q. Transports the majority of oxygen  (98.5%) and a portion of carbon  dioxide (23%). R. Immature red blood cell. S. Excretory product that transports  bilirubin into the small intestine. T. Organ that excretes the yellow  pigment called urobilin.3. Match the White blood cell with the proper descriptions. Neutrophil _____ , _____ , _____, _____ , _____  Eosinophil _____ , _____ , _____ , _____  Basophil _____ , _____ , _____ , _____  Lymphocyte _____ , _____ , _____ , _____  Monocyte _____ , _____ , _____ , _____  A. Release histamine, heparin, and serotonin  B. 0.5-1% of all WBCs C. Round nucleus with indentation D. Destroy certain parasitic worms E. Agranular F. Horseshoe-shaped nucleus G. Large, purple granules H. Transform into Macrophages  I. Use lysozyme, defensins, and strong oxidants to kill bacteria J. 2 lobed nucleus K. 20-25% of all WBCs L. Large, red-orange granules M. 3-8% of all WBCs  N. Reduce histamine in allergic reactions O. 2-4% of all WBCs P. Small, pale lilac granules Q. 60-70% of all WBCs R. Intensify inflammatory responses S. 2-5 lobed nucleus T. Secrete antibodies and attack virally infected cells U. Can phagocytose bacteria    4. Match the component of Hemostasis with the proper description. Vascular spasm _____ Collagen _____ ADP and thromboxane A2 _____ Serotonin and thromboxane A2 _____ Fibrin _____ Liver _____ Calcium _____ Thrombin _____ Tissue factor (TF) _____ Prothrombinase _____ Vitamin K _____ Plasmin _____ Heparin _____ Aspirin _____ Coumadin _____ Streptokinase _____ tPA _____ A. Genetically engineered human enzyme  used as a thrombolytic agent. B. Molecules released by platelets that  activate nearby platelets. C. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug  given in low doses to reduce the chance  of thrombus. D. Vasoconstriction that occurs  immediately following damage to blood  vessels. E. Formation of this marks the beginning of  the common pathway. F. Organ that synthesizes many of the  clotting factors. G. Enzyme that converts soluble fibrinogen  into insoluble fibrin. H. Release from damaged cells, this  mixture of lipoproteins initiates the  extrinsic pathway. I. Required for the synthesis of 4 clotting  factors. Obtained from diet or bacteria  of the large intestine. J. Enzyme that dissolves the clot during  fibrinolysis. K. Thread-like protein that reinforces the  platelet plug. L. Anticoagulant produced by mast cells  and basophils. M. When a blood vessel is damaged,  platelets adhere to this connective  tissue protein. N. First thrombolytic agent approved that is  used to dissolve blood clots. Naturally  produced by streptococcal bacteria.  O. Molecules released by platelets that  function as vasoconstrictors. P. Cation required for multiple steps during  blood clotting. Q. This anticoagulant drug reduces vitamin  K levels and therefore 4 clotting factors.5. Practice the following problems involving Blood Groups. a) What antigens are on the RBCs of individuals with type A+ blood? b) What antibodies are produced by someone with type A+ blood? c) What type of blood can someone with type A+ receive? d) What type of blood can someone with type A+ blood donate to? e) What antigens are on the RBCs of individuals with type AB- blood? f) What antibodies are produced by someone with type AB- blood? g) What type of blood can someone with type AB- receive? h) What type of blood can someone with type AB- blood donate to? i) What antigens are on the RBCs of individuals with type O+ blood? j) What antibodies are produced by someone with type O+ blood? k) What type of blood can someone with type O+ receive? l) What type of blood can someone with type O+ blood donate to?Name: Module 20 Study Guide: Cardiovascular System: The Heart 1. Fill in the table with information (either the structure or description) regarding structures of the heart. Structure Description

Anatomical region that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column, from  the first rib to the diaphragm, and between the lungs.  Location of the heart. Apex

The superficial part of the pericardium made of tough, inelastic, dense irregular  connective tissue. Prevents overstretching, provides protection, and anchors  the heart. Serous pericardium

Smooth, slippery external layer of the heart wall also known as the visceral  layer of the serous pericardium.   myocardium

Smooth, innermost layer of the heart wall in direct contact with the blood being  pumped.   auricle

Grooves on the surface of the heart that contain coronary blood vessels and a  variable amount of fat. right atrium

Muscular ridges within the anterior wall and auricle of the right atrium. interatrial septum

Oval depression within the interatrial septum.  Remnant of the foramen ovale,  an opening in the septum of the fetal heart. tricuspid valve

Chamber that receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium and pumps it  out to the pulmonary trunk through the pulmonary semilunar valve.

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Structure Description

Raised bundles of cardiac muscle that form ridges within the inside  surface of the ventricles. Chordae tendineae

Cone-shaped muscles that contract to tighten the chordae  tendineae thus preventing the cusps from prolapse. interventricular septum

Semilunar valve that prevents blood from moving backwards from  the pulmonary trunk into the right ventricle. Left atrium

Left atrioventricular valve, also known as the Mitral valve. left ventricle

Semilunar valve that prevents blood from moving backwards from  the aorta into the left ventricle. ligamentum arteriosum

Dense connective tissue of the heart.  Forms the structural  foundation for the heart valves and prevents overstretching of the  valves.

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2. Identify structures of the heart (from the table above) on the following pictures of the  Heart Model found in the laboratory.3. Put the following structures in the proper order (#1-21) in which blood flows through the cardiovascular system. __1__ Right atrium _____ Vena cava _____ Tricuspid valve _____ Pulmonary capillaries _____ Pulmonary arteries _____ Aortic valve _____ Pulmonary veins _____ Systemic veins __9__ Pulmonary venules _____ Left atrium __7__ Pulmonary arterioles _____ Left ventricle _____ Pulmonary trunk _____ Systemic capillaries _19__ Systemic venules _____ Right ventricle _____ Aorta _____ Mitral valve _17__ Systemic arterioles _____ Pulmonary valve _____ Systemic arteries4. Put the following structures in the proper order (#1-7) in which blood flows through  the coronary circulation. __1__ Aorta _____ Anterior interventricular branch _____ Coronary sinus _____ Great Cardiac vein _____ Left coronary artery _____ Coronary capillaries __7__ Right atrium 5. Put the following structures in the proper order (#1-7) in which blood flows through  the coronary circulation. __1__ Aorta _____ Coronary capillaries _____ Middle cardiac vein _____ Posterior interventricular branch _____ Right coronary artery _____ Coronary sinus __7__ Right atrium 6. Put the following events of the conduction system in the proper order (#1-9). __1__ sinoatrial node _____ right and left bundle branches _____ ventricular depolarization  _____ Purkinje fibers _____ depolarization of atria _____ atrioventricular node _____ contraction of atria _____ atrioventricular bundle __9__ contraction of ventricles7. Label the waves (P, QRS, T) and intervals (P-Q, S-T, Q-T) on the following ECG. 8. Match the portion of the ECG with the description. P wave _____ QRS complex _____ T wave _____ P-Q interval _____ S-T segment _____ Q-T interval _____ A. This segment is elevated in acute myocardial infarction (heart attack). B. Beginning of atrial excitation to beginning of ventricular excitation. C. Ventricular depolarization D. Atrial depolarization  E. Ventricular repolarization  F. Beginning of ventricular depolarization to end of ventricular repolarization. 9. Draw a normal ECG tracing. Then draw each of the arrhythmias. Normal Sinus rhythm: First Degree Heart block: Second Degree Heart block: Atrial Flutter: Atrial Fibrillation: Ventricular tachycardia: Ventricular fibrillation: Asystole:10. Answer the following questions regarding the cardiac cycle. a. If your heart rate is 50bpm, how long is a single cardiac cycle? _______ sec. b. For the AV valves to open, pressure in the ventricles must be ____________  than the pressure in the atria. c. For the aortic SL valve to open, pressure in the left ventricle must be  ____________ than the pressure in the aorta. d. During atrial systole, the pressure in the ventricle is _____________ than the  pressure in the atrium. e. For the AV valves to close, pressure in the ventricle must be ____________  than the pressure in the atria. f. For the aortic SL vale to close, pressure in the aorta must be ____________  than the pressure in the left ventricle. g. An individual has a stroke volume of 60 ml, End systolic volume of 50 ml, and  a heart rate of 65 bpm. Calculate the following: i. Cardiac Output (CO) = ii. End diastolic volume (EDV) =  iii. Ejection fraction (%) = 11. What do the following receptors monitor? a. Proprioceptors – b. Chemoreceptors – c. Baroreceptors –12. Choose whether the following are positive or negative inotropic agents.  Agent positive  inotropic negative  inotropic epinephrine

anoxia

Beta blockers

acidosis

digitalis

increased potassium

sympathetic stimulation

Calcium channel blockers

increased calcium

thyroid hormones

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13. List 6 things that result in an increase in heart rate. _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________Name: Module 21 Study Guide: Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels 1. Fill in the table with information regarding the various types of blood vessels. Blood Vessel Description

Largest arteries (aorta and pulmonary trunk) in the body; their walls  stretch to accommodate the surge of blood from the ventricles. Muscular artery

Microscopic arteries that regulate blood flow to capillaries; have a  dramatic effect on systemic blood pressure. Continuous capillary

Capillary with small holes that increase permeability; located in the kidney, small intestine, and other organs. Sinusoid

Microscopic veins tht receive blood from capillaries. Vein

Blood vessels that connect two or more other blood vessels.  Provides collateral circulation when connecting arteries.  Also found connecting  veins.

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2. Capillary Exchange: Fill in the blanks. a. Movement of substances down a concentration gradient (such as oxygen, carbon  dioxide, glucose, amino acids, and hormones) is known as _________________ __________________. This is the most important method of capillary exchange. b. Movement of substances within vesicles through endothelial cells is known as  __________________. This is the combination of endocytosis and exocytosis. c. Pressure-driven movement of fluid and solutes from blood capillaries into interstitial fluid is called ______________________. This movement is  primarily promoted by ____________ _________________ ________________  (BHP).d. Pressure-driven movement of fluid and solutes from interstitial fluid into blood  capillaries is called _________________________. This movement is primarily  promoted by ____________ ______________ _____________ _____________  (BCOP). This pressure is largely due to the presence of plasma proteins. e. The balance of filtration and reabsorption is called ________ _____________  _____________ (NFP). f. At the arterial end of a capillary, there is a net outward pressure of _________. g. At the venous end of a capillary, there is a net inward pressure of _________. h. Excess filtered fluid is collected by ________________ capillaries and eventually  drained to the __________________ veins. 3. Hemodynamics. a. List the 4 factors that affect blood flow. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________  b. Determine the mean arterial pressure (MAP) of a person whose blood pressure  is 125/65 mmHg. MAP = ____________ c. List the 3 factors that affect Vascular Resistance. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________d. Determine whether the following INCREASES or DECREASES blood pressure. Vasoconstriction - ____________________ Anemia (decreased viscosity) - ___________________ Hemorrhage (loss of blood volume) - ___________________ Obesity (increased blood vessel length) - ___________________ High salt diet (water retention) - ____________________ Activation of Sympathetic nervous system - _____________________ Atherosclerosis - ________________________ Atrial natriuretic peptide - _______________________ Antidiuretic hormone - _______________________ Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system - _______________________ Alpha-blockers - ______________________ ACE inhibitors - ______________________ Diuretics - _______________________ 4. Nervous System control of blood pressure and blood flow. a. List the 4 major inputs to the Cardiovascular (CV) control center: ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________b. What region of the brain contains the CV center? _________________ __________________ of the brainstem. c. How does each division of the ANS affect the heart and blood vessels? Parasympathetic - _________________________________________ Sympathetic - _________________________________________ 5. Put the following arteries in proper order of blood flow. a. Blood flow to the brain: Ascending aorta __1__ Right common carotid _____ Right middle cerebral _____ Brachiocephalic trunk _____ Right internal carotid _____ b. Blood flow to the hand: Ascending aorta __1__ Left axillary _____ Left subclavian _____ Left ulnar _____ Left brachial _____ c. Blood flow to the liver: Ascending aorta __1__ Common Hepatic _____ Thoracic aorta _____ Celiac trunk _____ Arch of the aorta _____ Abdominal aorta _____ d. Blood flow to the foot: Abdominal aorta __1__ Popliteal _____ Posterior tibial _____ External iliac _____ Dorsalis pedis _____ Femoral _____ Common iliac _____ Anterior tibial _____ 6. Put the following in order of blood flow through the Hepatic Portal System: Capillaries of the GI tract __1__ Hepatic Portal vein _____ Inferior mesenteric vein _____ Inferior vena cava _____ Splenic vein _____ Liver Sinusoids _____ Venules of the GI tract _____ Hepatic veins _____ 7. Put the following in order of blood flow through Fetal Circulation: Capillaries of the Placenta __1__ Foramen ovale _____ Common iliac arteries _____ Left atrium _____ Internal iliac artery _____ Umbilical vein _____ Aorta _____ Ductus venosus _____ Umbilical artery _____ Right atrium _____ Inferior vena cava _____ Left ventricle _____ Capillaries of the Placenta __13__8. Be able to identify the following blood vessels. o Aorta (ascending, arch, thoracic,  abdominal) o Brachiocephalic trunk o Common carotid artery o External carotid artery o Facial artery o Maxillary artery o Superficial temporal artery o Internal carotid artery o Basilar artery o Cerebral artery (anterior, middle,  posterior) o Subclavian artery o Vertebral artery o Axillary artery o Brachial artery o Radial artery o Ulnar artery o Phrenic artery (superior and inferior) o Celiac trunk o Splenic artery o Left gastric artery o Common hepatic artery o Superior mesenteric artery o Renal artery o Gonadal artery (Testicular and  ovarian) o Inferior mesenteric artery o Iliac artery (common, internal,  external) o Femoral artery o Popliteal artery o Tibial (anterior and posterior) o Fibular artery o Dorsalis pedis artery o Jugular vein  o Cephalic vein o Basilic vein o Median antebrachial vein o Median cubital vein o Great saphenous vein o Small saphenous vein o Hepatic Portal vein o Umbilical vein o Umbilical artery
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