Name: Module 18 Study Guide: The Endocrine System 1. Choose (place an X) whether the characteristic applies to the Nervous System or Endocrine System (or both)
Action is generally brief (lasting milliseconds).
Action generally lasts longer (seconds to days).
Mediator molecules delivered to target by bloodstream.
Action potentials trigger release of mediator molecules at synapse with target.
Target cells require specific protein receptor for mediator molecule.
Stimulates skeletal muscle contractions.
Influence is much broader; will regulate virtually all types of body cells.
Controls growth & development and regulates reproductive systems.
Maintains internal environments (homeostasis)
Mediator molecules include acetylcholine, glutamate, norepinephrine, serotonin
Mediator molecules include aldosterone, melatonin, insulin, calcitonin
a) What antigens are on the RBCs of individuals with type A+ blood?
2. Action of lipid-soluble hormones: Put the following steps in order (#1-5) ___ Transcription and Translation of genes results in synthesis of new proteins. ___ Hormone secreted into bloodstream requires a transport protein to circulate. ___ New proteins alter the target cell’s activity. ___ Hormone exist blood and diffuses through plasma membrane of target cell. ___ Hormone binds to intracellular receptors located in cytosol or nucleus of target cell. 3. Action of water-soluble hormones: Put the following steps in order (#1-5) ___ Activated protein kinases phosphorylate cellular proteins in target cell. ___ Hormone secreted into bloodstream circulates without need of transport protein. ___ Phosphorylated proteins produce physiological responses in target cell. ___ Hormone exist blood and binds to receptor on surface of target cell. ___ Production of second messenger activates intracellular signaling reactions.4. Choose whether the following hormones are lipid-soluble or water-soluble.
b) What antibodies are produced by someone with type A+ blood?
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5. Describe each of the following Hormone Interactions and give examples.
6. On the next page, label the endocrine organs on the picture, list their hormones, and give the action of those hormones.7.7. Disorders of the Endocrine System: Fill in the table describing disorders of the Endocrine System.
Destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas early in life results in low levels of insulin production. As a result, glucose cannot enter cells.
Hypersecretion of hGH during adulthood causes bones of the hands, feet, cheeks, and jaws to thicken.
Hyposecretion of ADH or the kidneys no responding appropriately to ADH causes the body to excrete large volumes of urine, resulting in dehydration and thirst.
Antibodies produced by the immune system stimulate the thyroid gland resulting in hyperthyroidism, often accompanied with protrusion of the eyes.
Target cells become less sensitive (resistant) to insulin. Most commonly seen in obese people over the age of 35.
c) What type of blood can someone with type A+ receive?
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8. Matching: Common Medications in Endocrinology. Pitocin _____ Erythropoietin _____ Mifepristone _____ Insulin _____ Levothyroxine _____ Progestin _____ Epinephrine _____ Metformin _____ Prednisone _____ Melatonin _____ Clomiphene _____ Tamoxifen _____ A. Available “over-the-counter” as a treatment for insomnia, although scientific evidence is insufficient to demonstrate a benefit in this area. B. Oxytocin agonist used to induce labor, increase speed of labor, and to stop bleeding following delivery of the baby. C. Corticosteroid similar to cortisol - used as an anti-inflammatory. D. Drug used to decrease glucose production by the liver and increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetics. E. Inhibits estrogen receptors in the hypothalamus, leading to an increase production of FSH and LH. This ultimately increases growth of ovarian follicles and chances of pregnancy. F. Given to patients with myxedema. G. Estrogen receptor antagonist used to treat certain breast cancers that are stimulated by estrogen. H. Standard treatment for type 1 diabetes. I. Progesterone receptor antagonist used to induce abortion. J. As a medication it can be given to open airways during anaphylaxis, increase heart rate during cardiac arrest, and decrease superficial bleeding. K. As a medication it can be used to treat anemia resulting from kidney failure or cancer treatment. L. In combination with estrogen, is used as contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancy.Name: Module 19 Study Guide: Cardiovascular System: The Blood 1. Match the component of blood plasma with the proper description. Water _____ Albumins _____ Immunoglobulins _____ Fibrinogen _____ Electrolytes _____ Nutrients _____ Gases _____ Hormones _____ Wastes _____ A. Proteins of the immune system that attack viruses and bacteria B. Protein essential in blood clotting C. Urea, uric acid, creatinine, bilirubin, ammonia D. Oxygen and carbon dioxide E. Glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins F. Inorganic salts; positive and negatively charged ions G. Regulatory substances transported in blood H. Most abundant plasma protein that often function as transport proteins I. 91.5% of blood plasma; acts as a solvent2. Match the component of Erythrocyte function with the proper description. Erythrocytes _____ Hemoglobin _____ Heme _____ Red bone marrow _____ Globin _____ Vitamin B12 _____ Iron _____ Bilirubin _____ Transferrin _____ Macrophage _____ Sterocobilin _____ Liver _____ Reticulocyte _____ Bile _____ Kidney _____ Erythropoietin _____ Biliverdin _____ Ferritin _____ Spleen _____ Urobilin _____ A. Site of oxygen binding in hemoglobin. B. Hormone that stimulates erythropoiesis. C. Site of erythropoiesis. D. Yellow metabolite of heme found in urine. E. Protein portion of hemoglobin. F. Ringlike nonprotein pigment bound to each globin protein. G. Green metabolite of heme. H. Yellow-orange metabolite of heme. I. Plasma protein that transports iron in the bloodstream. J. Cells that phagocytose ruptured RBCs in the spleen, liver, or red bone marrow. K. Brown metabolite of heme eliminated in feces. L. Organ that removes worn-out red blood cells from circulation. M. Iron-storage protein. N. About 280 million of these molecules are found in a single red blood cell. O. Deficiency leads to pernicious anemia. P. Organ that eliminates bilirubin within bile. Q. Transports the majority of oxygen (98.5%) and a portion of carbon dioxide (23%). R. Immature red blood cell. S. Excretory product that transports bilirubin into the small intestine. T. Organ that excretes the yellow pigment called urobilin.3. Match the White blood cell with the proper descriptions. Neutrophil _____ , _____ , _____, _____ , _____ Eosinophil _____ , _____ , _____ , _____ Basophil _____ , _____ , _____ , _____ Lymphocyte _____ , _____ , _____ , _____ Monocyte _____ , _____ , _____ , _____ A. Release histamine, heparin, and serotonin B. 0.5-1% of all WBCs C. Round nucleus with indentation D. Destroy certain parasitic worms E. Agranular F. Horseshoe-shaped nucleus G. Large, purple granules H. Transform into Macrophages I. Use lysozyme, defensins, and strong oxidants to kill bacteria J. 2 lobed nucleus K. 20-25% of all WBCs L. Large, red-orange granules M. 3-8% of all WBCs N. Reduce histamine in allergic reactions O. 2-4% of all WBCs P. Small, pale lilac granules Q. 60-70% of all WBCs R. Intensify inflammatory responses S. 2-5 lobed nucleus T. Secrete antibodies and attack virally infected cells U. Can phagocytose bacteria 4. Match the component of Hemostasis with the proper description. Vascular spasm _____ Collagen _____ ADP and thromboxane A2 _____ Serotonin and thromboxane A2 _____ Fibrin _____ Liver _____ Calcium _____ Thrombin _____ Tissue factor (TF) _____ Prothrombinase _____ Vitamin K _____ Plasmin _____ Heparin _____ Aspirin _____ Coumadin _____ Streptokinase _____ tPA _____ A. Genetically engineered human enzyme used as a thrombolytic agent. B. Molecules released by platelets that activate nearby platelets. C. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug given in low doses to reduce the chance of thrombus. D. Vasoconstriction that occurs immediately following damage to blood vessels. E. Formation of this marks the beginning of the common pathway. F. Organ that synthesizes many of the clotting factors. G. Enzyme that converts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin. H. Release from damaged cells, this mixture of lipoproteins initiates the extrinsic pathway. I. Required for the synthesis of 4 clotting factors. Obtained from diet or bacteria of the large intestine. J. Enzyme that dissolves the clot during fibrinolysis. K. Thread-like protein that reinforces the platelet plug. L. Anticoagulant produced by mast cells and basophils. M. When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets adhere to this connective tissue protein. N. First thrombolytic agent approved that is used to dissolve blood clots. Naturally produced by streptococcal bacteria. O. Molecules released by platelets that function as vasoconstrictors. P. Cation required for multiple steps during blood clotting. Q. This anticoagulant drug reduces vitamin K levels and therefore 4 clotting factors.5. Practice the following problems involving Blood Groups. a) What antigens are on the RBCs of individuals with type A+ blood? b) What antibodies are produced by someone with type A+ blood? c) What type of blood can someone with type A+ receive? d) What type of blood can someone with type A+ blood donate to? e) What antigens are on the RBCs of individuals with type AB- blood? f) What antibodies are produced by someone with type AB- blood? g) What type of blood can someone with type AB- receive? h) What type of blood can someone with type AB- blood donate to? i) What antigens are on the RBCs of individuals with type O+ blood? j) What antibodies are produced by someone with type O+ blood? k) What type of blood can someone with type O+ receive? l) What type of blood can someone with type O+ blood donate to?Name: Module 20 Study Guide: Cardiovascular System: The Heart 1. Fill in the table with information (either the structure or description) regarding structures of the heart.
Anatomical region that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column, from the first rib to the diaphragm, and between the lungs. Location of the heart.
The superficial part of the pericardium made of tough, inelastic, dense irregular connective tissue. Prevents overstretching, provides protection, and anchors the heart.
Smooth, slippery external layer of the heart wall also known as the visceral layer of the serous pericardium.
Smooth, innermost layer of the heart wall in direct contact with the blood being pumped.
Grooves on the surface of the heart that contain coronary blood vessels and a variable amount of fat.
Muscular ridges within the anterior wall and auricle of the right atrium.
Oval depression within the interatrial septum. Remnant of the foramen ovale, an opening in the septum of the fetal heart.
Chamber that receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium and pumps it out to the pulmonary trunk through the pulmonary semilunar valve.
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Raised bundles of cardiac muscle that form ridges within the inside surface of the ventricles.
Cone-shaped muscles that contract to tighten the chordae tendineae thus preventing the cusps from prolapse.
Semilunar valve that prevents blood from moving backwards from the pulmonary trunk into the right ventricle.
Left atrioventricular valve, also known as the Mitral valve.
Semilunar valve that prevents blood from moving backwards from the aorta into the left ventricle.
Dense connective tissue of the heart. Forms the structural foundation for the heart valves and prevents overstretching of the valves.
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2. Identify structures of the heart (from the table above) on the following pictures of the Heart Model found in the laboratory.
3. Put the following structures in the proper order (#1-21) in which blood flows through the cardiovascular system. __1__ Right atrium _____ Vena cava _____ Tricuspid valve _____ Pulmonary capillaries _____ Pulmonary arteries _____ Aortic valve _____ Pulmonary veins _____ Systemic veins __9__ Pulmonary venules _____ Left atrium __7__ Pulmonary arterioles _____ Left ventricle _____ Pulmonary trunk _____ Systemic capillaries _19__ Systemic venules _____ Right ventricle _____ Aorta _____ Mitral valve _17__ Systemic arterioles _____ Pulmonary valve _____ Systemic arteries4. Put the following structures in the proper order (#1-7) in which blood flows through the coronary circulation. __1__ Aorta _____ Anterior interventricular branch _____ Coronary sinus _____ Great Cardiac vein _____ Left coronary artery _____ Coronary capillaries __7__ Right atrium 5. Put the following structures in the proper order (#1-7) in which blood flows through the coronary circulation. __1__ Aorta _____ Coronary capillaries _____ Middle cardiac vein _____ Posterior interventricular branch _____ Right coronary artery _____ Coronary sinus __7__ Right atrium 6. Put the following events of the conduction system in the proper order (#1-9). __1__ sinoatrial node _____ right and left bundle branches _____ ventricular depolarization _____ Purkinje fibers _____ depolarization of atria _____ atrioventricular node _____ contraction of atria _____ atrioventricular bundle __9__ contraction of ventricles7. Label the waves (P, QRS, T) and intervals (P-Q, S-T, Q-T) on the following ECG. 8. Match the portion of the ECG with the description. P wave _____ QRS complex _____ T wave _____ P-Q interval _____ S-T segment _____ Q-T interval _____ A. This segment is elevated in acute myocardial infarction (heart attack). B. Beginning of atrial excitation to beginning of ventricular excitation. C. Ventricular depolarization D. Atrial depolarization E. Ventricular repolarization F. Beginning of ventricular depolarization to end of ventricular repolarization. 9. Draw a normal ECG tracing. Then draw each of the arrhythmias. Normal Sinus rhythm: First Degree Heart block: Second Degree Heart block: Atrial Flutter: Atrial Fibrillation: Ventricular tachycardia: Ventricular fibrillation: Asystole:10. Answer the following questions regarding the cardiac cycle. a. If your heart rate is 50bpm, how long is a single cardiac cycle? _______ sec. b. For the AV valves to open, pressure in the ventricles must be ____________ than the pressure in the atria. c. For the aortic SL valve to open, pressure in the left ventricle must be ____________ than the pressure in the aorta. d. During atrial systole, the pressure in the ventricle is _____________ than the pressure in the atrium. e. For the AV valves to close, pressure in the ventricle must be ____________ than the pressure in the atria. f. For the aortic SL vale to close, pressure in the aorta must be ____________ than the pressure in the left ventricle. g. An individual has a stroke volume of 60 ml, End systolic volume of 50 ml, and a heart rate of 65 bpm. Calculate the following: i. Cardiac Output (CO) = ii. End diastolic volume (EDV) = iii. Ejection fraction (%) = 11. What do the following receptors monitor? a. Proprioceptors – b. Chemoreceptors – c. Baroreceptors –12. Choose whether the following are positive or negative inotropic agents.
Calcium channel blockers
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13. List 6 things that result in an increase in heart rate. _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________Name: Module 21 Study Guide: Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels 1. Fill in the table with information regarding the various types of blood vessels.
Largest arteries (aorta and pulmonary trunk) in the body; their walls stretch to accommodate the surge of blood from the ventricles.
Microscopic arteries that regulate blood flow to capillaries; have a dramatic effect on systemic blood pressure.
Capillary with small holes that increase permeability; located in the kidney, small intestine, and other organs.
Microscopic veins tht receive blood from capillaries.
Blood vessels that connect two or more other blood vessels. Provides collateral circulation when connecting arteries. Also found connecting veins.
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2. Capillary Exchange: Fill in the blanks. a. Movement of substances down a concentration gradient (such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose, amino acids, and hormones) is known as _________________ __________________. This is the most important method of capillary exchange. b. Movement of substances within vesicles through endothelial cells is known as __________________. This is the combination of endocytosis and exocytosis. c. Pressure-driven movement of fluid and solutes from blood capillaries into interstitial fluid is called ______________________. This movement is primarily promoted by ____________ _________________ ________________ (BHP).d. Pressure-driven movement of fluid and solutes from interstitial fluid into blood capillaries is called _________________________. This movement is primarily promoted by ____________ ______________ _____________ _____________ (BCOP). This pressure is largely due to the presence of plasma proteins. e. The balance of filtration and reabsorption is called ________ _____________ _____________ (NFP). f. At the arterial end of a capillary, there is a net outward pressure of _________. g. At the venous end of a capillary, there is a net inward pressure of _________. h. Excess filtered fluid is collected by ________________ capillaries and eventually drained to the __________________ veins. 3. Hemodynamics. a. List the 4 factors that affect blood flow. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ b. Determine the mean arterial pressure (MAP) of a person whose blood pressure is 125/65 mmHg. MAP = ____________ c. List the 3 factors that affect Vascular Resistance. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________d. Determine whether the following INCREASES or DECREASES blood pressure. Vasoconstriction - ____________________ Anemia (decreased viscosity) - ___________________ Hemorrhage (loss of blood volume) - ___________________ Obesity (increased blood vessel length) - ___________________ High salt diet (water retention) - ____________________ Activation of Sympathetic nervous system - _____________________ Atherosclerosis - ________________________ Atrial natriuretic peptide - _______________________ Antidiuretic hormone - _______________________ Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system - _______________________ Alpha-blockers - ______________________ ACE inhibitors - ______________________ Diuretics - _______________________ 4. Nervous System control of blood pressure and blood flow. a. List the 4 major inputs to the Cardiovascular (CV) control center: ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________b. What region of the brain contains the CV center? _________________ __________________ of the brainstem. c. How does each division of the ANS affect the heart and blood vessels? Parasympathetic - _________________________________________ Sympathetic - _________________________________________ 5. Put the following arteries in proper order of blood flow. a. Blood flow to the brain: Ascending aorta __1__ Right common carotid _____ Right middle cerebral _____ Brachiocephalic trunk _____ Right internal carotid _____ b. Blood flow to the hand: Ascending aorta __1__ Left axillary _____ Left subclavian _____ Left ulnar _____ Left brachial _____ c. Blood flow to the liver: Ascending aorta __1__ Common Hepatic _____ Thoracic aorta _____ Celiac trunk _____ Arch of the aorta _____ Abdominal aorta _____ d. Blood flow to the foot: Abdominal aorta __1__ Popliteal _____ Posterior tibial _____ External iliac _____ Dorsalis pedis _____ Femoral _____ Common iliac _____ Anterior tibial _____ 6. Put the following in order of blood flow through the Hepatic Portal System: Capillaries of the GI tract __1__ Hepatic Portal vein _____ Inferior mesenteric vein _____ Inferior vena cava _____ Splenic vein _____ Liver Sinusoids _____ Venules of the GI tract _____ Hepatic veins _____ 7. Put the following in order of blood flow through Fetal Circulation: Capillaries of the Placenta __1__ Foramen ovale _____ Common iliac arteries _____ Left atrium _____ Internal iliac artery _____ Umbilical vein _____ Aorta _____ Ductus venosus _____ Umbilical artery _____ Right atrium _____ Inferior vena cava _____ Left ventricle _____ Capillaries of the Placenta __13__8. Be able to identify the following blood vessels. o Aorta (ascending, arch, thoracic, abdominal) o Brachiocephalic trunk o Common carotid artery o External carotid artery o Facial artery o Maxillary artery o Superficial temporal artery o Internal carotid artery o Basilar artery o Cerebral artery (anterior, middle, posterior) o Subclavian artery o Vertebral artery o Axillary artery o Brachial artery o Radial artery o Ulnar artery o Phrenic artery (superior and inferior) o Celiac trunk o Splenic artery o Left gastric artery o Common hepatic artery o Superior mesenteric artery o Renal artery o Gonadal artery (Testicular and ovarian) o Inferior mesenteric artery o Iliac artery (common, internal, external) o Femoral artery o Popliteal artery o Tibial (anterior and posterior) o Fibular artery o Dorsalis pedis artery o Jugular vein o Cephalic vein o Basilic vein o Median antebrachial vein o Median cubital vein o Great saphenous vein o Small saphenous vein o Hepatic Portal vein o Umbilical vein o Umbilical artery