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UCR / Biology / BIOL 5C / The current climax community for north-facing slopes of the coastal sa

The current climax community for north-facing slopes of the coastal sa

The current climax community for north-facing slopes of the coastal sa

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School: University of California Riverside
Department: Biology
Course: Introductory Evolution and Ecology
Term: Winter 2017
Tags: Biology, Biology: Ecology and Evolution, MCAT Biology, ecology&evolution, Ecology, evolution, Study Guide, and final study guide
Cost: 50
Name: STUDY GUIDE FOR FINAL
Description: This is the lab study guide for the final in Biology 5C
Uploaded: 07/07/2017
10 Pages 348 Views 1 Unlocks
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Postlab Quiz 1  1. When going either north or south from the equator,  a) temperatures will increase and precipitation will decrease  b) temperatures will increase and precipitation will increase  c) temperatures will decrease and precipitation will increase  d) temperatures will decrease and precipitation will decrease  2. When comparing forest biomes to grassland biomes  a) given equal temperatures, forest biomes have higher mean annual precipitation  b) given equal precipitation, forest biomes have higher mean annual temperature  c) at any temperature, forest biomes always have higher mean annual precipitation  d) at any precipitation, forest biomes always have higher mean annual temperature  3. An annual mustard plant survives only one month during which it produces 50 flowers. Each flower produces a fruit containing 20  seeds. This is a description of the mustard’s  a) fitness  b) niche  c) population size  d) replacement rate  4. After winter rains, tadpole shrimp are found in temporary freshwater pools of low salinity. They eat either dead or living plant and  animal material. This is a description of the tadpole shrimp's  a) fitness  b) niche  c) population size  d) replacement rate  5. A children’s picture books shows an arctic scene with penguins tobogganing down an ice flow. Since penguins only live in the  southern hemisphere, the arctic could only be part of a penguin’s  a) fitness set  b) realized niche  c) fundamental niche  d) selection coefficient The following questions concern the graphs on the following page. The graphs contain climate data from sites in the SW US where  Encelia farinosa lives.  6. For the upper graph,  a) the independent variable is elevation and the dependent is average high temperature.  b) the independent variable is average high temperature and the dependent is elevation. c) the axes are switched - elevation should be on the y-axis.  d) the axes are correct, but the scales are incorrect; Encelia is never found below 1000m.  7. Which is true  a) the trend for the upper graph is positive.  b) the trend for the middle graph is negative.  c) the trend for the lower graph is positive.  d) the trend for the middle graph is positive.  8). If one were to perform a linear regression for each graph,  a) the upper graph would have the lowest R-square value.  b) the middle graph would have the lowest R-square value.  c) the data is not in the proper form for a linear regression; both variables are continuous.  d) the data is in the proper form for a linear regression; both variables are discrete or nominal. C  pmet hgih evaC  pmet wol eva31.5 31 30.5 30 29.5 29 28.5 28 27.5 27 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Elevation (m) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Elevation (m)450 400 350 ) 300 mm250 ( pic200 erp150 100 50 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Elevation (m) Postlab Quiz 2  1. The current climax community for north-facing slopes of the coastal sage scrub is dominated  a) by native shrubs such as Salvia, Eriogonum and Artemisia b) by native shrubs such as Encelia c) by native grasses such as Poa and Nassella d) by nonnative grasses such as Bromus 2. Before the 20th century, the major disturbance in coastal sage scrub was most likely due to  a) floods  b) fires  c) earthquakes  d) indigenous agriculture  3. Coastal sage scrub is characterized by  a) no rain  b) rain throughout the year  c) rain predominately during the summer  d) rain predominately during the winter  4. Which two properties of a community are needed for Simpson’s Diversity Index?  a) herbivore number and carnivore numbers  b) growth rate and carrying capacity  c) genotype and environment  d) species number and relative abundances  5. Which of the following sites would have the highest Simpson’s Diversity Index, D?   Site Relative Abundance Sp 1 Sp 2 Sp 3 Sp 4 1 0.2 0.25 0.25 0.3 2 0.1 0.15 0.15 0.6 3 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.85 4 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.95


Which contingency table(s) show a trend that matches the biologist’s hypothesis?



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a) all would have the same value for D; all have 4 species.  b) site 1; it has the highest evenness.  c) site 4; it has the highest relative abundance for a single species.  d) site 3; it has 3 out of the four species with equal relative abundance. Postlab Quiz 3  1. A group of biologists needs to determine the population size of a lizard species. They inject a latex dye just under the skin on the  backs of 200 lizards. The dye is only visible under UV light. Neither the lizard’s predators nor humans can see in the UV spectrum.  The dye doesn’t trigger an immune response and appears to be permanent. Given this information, you would conclude which  assumption of the mark-release-recapture method is not met?  a) marked and unmarked individuals do not change marking status.  b) marked and unmarked individuals are removed from the population at the same rate.  c) marked and unmarked individuals are captured in proportions equal to their actual proportions in the population.  d) all three assumptions are met by the experimental design.  2. A biologist studies the development rate of a squid species under different food regimes. She feeds newly-hatched squid with  either brine shrimp, guppies or polychaete worms and measures the body length and the tentacle length of each individual once per  week. Based on this experimental design, you would conclude that the independent variable is measured on a ________ scale and  the dependent variable on a ________ scale.  a) continuous; continuous  b) continuous; nominal  c) nominal; continuous  d) nominal; nominal  A biologist documents the color patterns of the tiger beetle (Cicindela fulgida) during spring and summer. The beetles can be toxic to  birds. The beetles are red with yellow stripes. The red background can be dull (almost brown) or bright (crimson red). The biologist  expects more bright beetles in spring than in summer; the bright color contrasts better with the brown stems than with green leaves.  3. Which is the null hypothesis?  a) color pattern has no effect on season  b) color pattern has an effect on season  c) season has no effect on color pattern  d) season has an effect on color pattern  Use the contingency tables on the next page to answer questions 4, 5 and 6. The numbers in the outlined box are observed values  in black and expected values in red. The other cells are row and column totals and overall total in bottom right. Below each table is  the X2 value and the probability for 1 degree of freedom.  4. Which contingency table(s) show a trend that matches the biologist’s hypothesis?  a) b only  b) a & b  c) b & c  d) a, b & c  5. Which contingency table(s) show statistical significance suggesting that the biologist reject the null hypothesis in question 3?  a) b only  b) a & b  c) b & c  d) a, b & c  6. Contingency table a suggests the biologist should not reject the null hypothesis, but table b suggests the opposite. The major  reason for this is  a) different cell proportions  b) different null hypotheses  c) different total sample sizes  d) different numbers collected in different seasons a spring summer

bright 7 5.4 5 6.6 12 dull 2 3.6 6 4.4 8

9 11 20


Which contingency table(s) show statistical significance suggesting that the biologist reject the null hypothesis in question 3?



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Test ChiSquare Prob>ChiSq  Likelihood Ratio 2.228 0.1356   b spring summer

bright 14 10.8 10 13.2 24 dull 4 7.2 12 8.8 16

18 22 40

Test ChiSquare Prob>ChiSq  Likelihood Ratio 4.455 0.0348 c spring summer

bright 15 19.8 29 24.2 44 dull 21 16.2 15 19.8 36

36 44 80

Test ChiSquare Prob>ChiSq Likelihood Ratio 4.736 0.0295 Postlab Quiz 4  1. Which of the following is false for exponential growth?  a) r is a constant  b) yield increases with N  c) r increases with N  d) r is independent of N  2. Assuming a starting cohort of 1000 individuals, what is the estimated value of r from the life table?   X lx mx lxmx 0 1 0

1 0.1 0

2 0.01 0

3 0.001 1000


Assuming a starting cohort of 1000 individuals, what is the estimated value of r from the life table?



We also discuss several other topics like What is an Olympic sport featuring five games?

a) 0.0  b) 0.28  c) 2.0  d) 2.31  3. An experiment shows that the removal of species 1 results in an increase of species 2 and the removal of species 2 results in the  decrease in species 1. This is an example of  a) competition  b) mutualism  c) symbiosis  d) predation  4. Every time population size of an insect species exceeds 100 individuals/leaf, the population’s death rate exceeds its birth rate.  This is an example of which type of regulation?  a) density dependent  b) density independent  c) bottom up  d) top down  5. In a grassland community, the granivores (seed-eating species such as ants, weevils, mice and sparrows) are maintained far  below their carrying capacities by predators ( toads, snakes, lizards, hawks, foxes, etc.). This would  a) decrease the likelihood of competition among nutrients  b) decrease the likelihood of competition among predators  c) decrease the likelihood of competition among granivores  d) decrease the likelihood of competition among plants Postlab Quiz 5  1. A group of small populations experiences high annual rainfall (>200% of normal) for multiple years. At the end of the period, a  gene that is thought to be involved with water retention has an average change in frequency = -0.4 with all populations experiencing  a negative change. This would most probably be an example of  a) mutation  b) migration  c) drift  d) selection  2. A biologist hypothesizes that larger eyespots on the wings of a butterfly species are better protection against predation by birds  than smaller eyespots. He paints over the eyespots of 80 butterflies with white paint (matching wing background) and paints 1cm  diameter eyespots on 40 and 0.5 cm diameter spots on the other 40. He releases the butterflies and monitors the survivorship and  the amount of wing damage of the two groups for 3 weeks (all butterflies dead). He finds a significant difference in both survivorship  and wing damage between the two groups; those with the larger eyespots have over 50% less damage compared to those with the  smaller eyespots. He also finds that the heritability of eyespots is 1.0. He concludes that selection for eyespot size is present in the  population, but a reviewer of his work rejects his premise because he did not demonstrate that  a) eyespot size was variable.  b) more offspring were born than survive to reproduce.  c) a difference exists between those that survive and those that do not.  d) eyespot size was inherited.  3. In the table below, at which temperature does the genotype have its highest fitness?  

temp oC probability of surviving number of eggs laid

a) 5 0.6 5

b) 20 0.7 10

c) 35 0.3 20

d) 45 0.01 30

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4. In a beetle population, two phenotypes are present: spotted (green with brown spots) and unspotted (green). A single gene locus  with two alleles (unspotted dominant to spotted) is responsible for the two phenotypes. Currently the only predators in the  community utilize chemical cues to search for their beetle prey. The two phenotypes do not differ in chemical odors and are eaten in  equal numbers. A bird species enters the community and finds the beetles quite tasty. Birds are visual predators and the unspotted  phenotype is easier to locate on the local vegetation. Given your understanding of evolution, which is likely to happen?  a) The spotted phenotype will increase because unspotted individuals will mutate to become spotted.  b) The spotted phenotype will increase because spotted individuals have higher survivorship and will leave more spotted offspring.  c) The spotted phenotype will not change because the unspotted allele is dominant.  d) The spotted phenotype will not change because unspotted individuals will have more offspring to compensate for lower  survivorship.  5. In which of the following populations would you most likely be able to predict the change in genotype frequency in the next  generation?  a) genotype A has a fitness = 3.1, genotype B has a fitness = 2.0, and the population size = 20.  b) genotype A has a fitness = 3.1, genotype B has a fitness = 3.05, and the population size = 20.  c) genotype A has a fitness = 3.1, genotype B has a fitness = 2.0, and the population size = 20,000.  d) genotype A has a fitness = 3.1, genotype B has a fitness = 3.05, and the population size = 20,000. Postlab Quiz 6  A B C D E FThe phylogeny above can also represented by the following shorthand notation (((A,B)(C(D,E)))F). This tree will be used for  questions 1-3  1. Which of the following does not represent a monophyletic group?  It may be easier if you draw the tree as a branching diagram.  a) ABCDE  b) CDE  c) CDEF  d) AB  2. Which of the following do not represent sister species?  a) C and the common ancestor of AB  b) DE  c) C and the common ancestor of DE  d) AB  3. Use species F as the outgroup. If the flower color for A and F is blue, B is white, and C, D and E is yellow, then you would  conclude  a) the white character state is a reversal  b) yellow is a shared derived character state  c) blue is a shared derived character state  d) the blue character state is a convergence  4. Given the following character matrix with 0 = ancestral state and 1 = derived state   Species Character 1 2 3 A 1 1 1 B 0 1 0 C 1 0 1

and using the principle of parsimony, you would conclude which tree is the best fit to the data  a) ((A,B)C)  b) ((A,C)B)  c) ((B,C)A)  d) ((A,B)C) and ((A,C)B) are equally parsimonious  5. Given your answer to question 4, how many times would you conclude that character 2 changed states?  a) 0  b) 1  c) 2  d) cannot be determined  6. Prairie dogs (genus Cynomys) are social ground squirrels found in large colonies in the grasslands of central North America. They  possess many behavioral traits associated with living in large colonies. One trait is “run-jump” where individuals while running  through the vegetation rear up on their hind legs stretching almost their full body length in order to see above the grass and forbs. If  they spot a predator, they can warn others in the colony and escape into a burrow. This behavior is also found in the flickertail  another grassland species of ground squirrel Urocitellus richardsonii. Flickertails are found on the northern edge of the prairie dog  range.  The question, we want to answer is: did this trait evolve once in the ancestor of prairie dogs and flickertails or did it evolve twice in  response to predator detection in similar environments? Genus run-jump Ammospermophilus absent (0) Notocitellus 0 Otospermophilus 0 Callospermophilus 0 Spermophilus 0 Marmota 0 Urocitellus present (1) Ictidomys 0 Poliocitellus 0 Cynomys 1 Xerospermophilus 0

s ulihpomrepsommAs ulleticotoNs ulihpomrepsotOs ulihpomrepsollaCs ulihpomrepSa tomraMs ulleticorUs ymoditcIs ulleticoiloPs ymonyCsulihpomrepsoreXEdited, based on Untitled Tree+ a) the behavior evolved once in the ancestor of Urocitellus and Cynomys. b) the behavior evolved twice, once in Urocitellus and once in Cynomys. c) the data is insufficient to distinguish between the two hypotheses.
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