Industrial Psychology final exam study guide
Industrial Psychology final exam study guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Huda Khan on Monday July 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to at Towson University taught by David Earnest in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Industrial Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 07/27/15
Chapter 1 Fields of IO Psvcholoav 0 Selection and Placement Selection placement and promotion of employees Training amp Development Improving job performance Performance Appraisal How well employees perform Organizational DevelopmentAnalyzing structure of a organization Maxing effectiveness Quality of Work life Creating healthy and productive work force 0 Ergonomics Designing tools and machines that are compatible with humans Founders of IO Psvchology 0 Hugo Munsterberg quotFather of IOquot First IO textbook about selecting workers designing work situation and psychology in sales 0 Bryan amp Harter Telegrapher skill development 0 Walter Dill Scott quotWhy it worksquot Psychology amp Advertising Persuaded companies and made the Army Alpha test 0 Fredrick W Taylor Engineers Employ productivity Made the principles of management Redesigned workplace to achieve higher output for organization 0 Lillian and Frank Lillian psychologist and Frank engineer worked on quotTime and Motionquot Called for most focus on most important part of history the people Early human factors Cheaper by the Dozen IO Psvcholoav and War 0 WI Army Alpha was given for placement and Army Beta was given to illiterate recruits Given to about 17 million soldiers 0 WII Army Generalization Classification Test AGCT Selection and placement of 12 million soldiers and OSS pilots Hawthorne Studies 0 Study done a Electric Company by Harvard to determine relationship between lighting and effiency 0 Results showed there was no relationship the employees responded to the NOVEL specialdifferent treatment OOOO CrossCultural IO Psvcholoav 0 An area of research area that examines the degree which findings generalize to people in different societies Chapter 2 Primilrv Research Meth0ds Primary generate new information 0 Lab Experiment Mimics environment while controlling confounding variables Manipulation of variables Random assignment High IV Low EV 0 Quasi Experiment Natural setting with less control Moderate IV High EV Better generalizability but no causal inference 0 Questionnaire Self report Typically Likert Scale Low IV Moderate EV Benefits anonymity sensitivity of topics customization and not costly Limitations returns and completion rates truthfulness 0 Observation Monitor Observe subj ects behavior in a natural setting Low IV High EV Benefits there is generalizabity but it requires work and time Internal and External Validity Internal Validity Degree to which relationships observed are accurate and true External Validity Degree to which observed are accurate and true in other context Measurement of Variables O Quantitive variables that are numerical Categorical Not numerical values gender amp race 0 Independent manipulated to in uence the values of dependent variable ie Leadership style 0 Dependent values that are in uence by the independent variable ie employee performance Predictor used to predict a criterion variable ie A student GPA used to O Criterion primary object of a research forecasted by predictor variablepredict college success 0 0 Conclusions from Research Pg 47 48 in text Academic amp Practitionerbased Research Chapter 3 Criteria and Criterion Standards used to evaluate judgment 0 How we evaluate goodbad Can be variable of interest Two types Actual amp Conceptual Actual Criterion Whathow is being measured Not 100 of conceptual criterion Ie IQ test integrity test Conceptual Criterion Theoretical standard that researcher seek to understand DQ CienCy Conceptual Actual ntamination Criterion ie Criterion 1 Culture Intelligence ie IQ llob Analysis formal procedure by which the content of a job is defined in terms of tasks performance and human qualifications Job behaviors job environment human attributes needed Subject Matter Expert Job Incumbents They look at Task basic components of work and lowest level of analysis Position set of tasks performed by a single employee J ob Set of similar positions in a organization Job family grouping of similar jobs in a organization KSAO39s Knowledge needs to know on a job Skills what to do on a job actions behaviors Ability Persons aptitude to dolearn on a job Other anything other relevant to job Criterion Interaction Competency Modeling determining human characteristics needed to perform successfully in a organization Job Performance Criterii Production Sales TenureTurnover Absenteeism Accidents Theft Deviant Workplace behavior Emotional Behavior Citizenship behavior Chapter 4 Religbilitv amp Validitv Reliability the internal consistencystablity of test scores testretest Tvnes of Tests Speed Individual Group Power Pencil amp Paper Performance Psvchologicgl Tests and Inventories MIIPPS Mechanical Intelligence Integrity Physical Personality Neurotism Extraversion Open to experience agreeableness consciousness Situation Judgment Interviews Unstructured questionssituations are different for all candidates Structured Questions are the same for all candidates Situational A type of job interview where candidates are presented a problem Chapter 5 Legal Context Civil Rights Act 1964 Employment discrimation Protected groups Race Gender National orgin color religion Age Discrimation 1967 aka quotTitle 7quot Protected age 40 American Disabilitv amp 1990 Disability is any physical or mental impairment that limits major life activities Reasonable accommodations should be made Disparate Impact and Treatment Impact Results of selection method had a adverse impact on protected group compared to the majority Protected class is hurt Treatment Protected class receives differential procedures for consideration when it comes to employment Recruitment Process which by individuals are solicited to apply for jobs Personnel Selection Decisions True Positive A majority of A the good employees that are hired Accepted Applicants successful B False Negative 3 good Rejected Applicants g39 giiij i ji ad unsuccessml C B employees majority are rejected Falcn Dncitivn hi hnrl Reject Accept Determination of Cutoffs The Predictor Scores on ration for the protected class is less than majority How to calculate adverse impact 100 whites 20 hired 20100 20 20 x 80 16 50 blacks 4 hired 450 08 selection UNFAIR IMPACT Chapter 6 LearningTraining Process through which the knowledge and skills of employees are enhanced Major activities in a organization Required for a new organization A job incumbent is a person that makes changes in work to benefit the organization as a whole Methods of Training 5 steps NODDE Needs Assessment Objective Design Delivery Evaluation 4 Levels of Eval RLBR Reaction attitudes Learning Knowledge Behavior change in performance Results economic value of organization success Error Management A system of training in which employees are encouraged to make errors and then learn from their mistakes Expatriate Training A person native in one country who serves employment in another country Chapter 7 Uses of Performance Appraisals Personnel Training Wage and Salaries Placement Promotion Discharge Personnel Research Judgmental Evaluations Most common means of appraising performance is through judgment data because finding relevant objective measures is hard 1 Graphic Rating Scales Rated on traits or factors 2 Employee Comparison Methods Individual are compared to others a rank order ranks high to low b Paired comparison Each employ is compared to others in group c Forced comparison when pool of employees are on a large scale they are distributed and have multiple dimensions of comparison 3 Behavior checklists and scales a critical incidents b Behaviorally anchored rating scale BARS Rating Scales BARS Behaviorally anchored rating scale Performance is rated on a scale but the scale points are anchored with behavior incidents Contextual Performance Behavior exhibited by an employee that contributes to the welfare of organization but is not a formal component of employees duties Peer Self and 360 Feedback Peer Assessment individuals assess their behavior for peers or coworkers Nomination Appraising coworkers by giving them a nomination for a group Rating Apprasing performance of coworkers by rating them on a dimension Ranking Appraising performance by ranking them on a dimension Self AssessmentPerformance appraisal in which individual assess their own behavior 360 Degree Feedback process of evaluating employees from multiple rating sources usually including supervisor peer subornate and self Chapter 8 Theories of Organizations principles in the book Classical Theory Form and structure of organization Basic components include differentiated activities people cooperation towards a goal and authority Neoclassical Theory describing psychologicalbehavioral issues with organizations Basic Parts of an Organization OSMTSIP Operating Core front line employees working for now Strategic Apex Board of director planning for future Middle line middle managers take ideas and turn into reality Techostructure support tech system Support staff IT accounting secretary Ideology Politics Roles Norms and Culture Roles expectations about appropriate behavior Position determines expectation related to task behavior learnt quickly There can be role con ict overload and differentiation Norms shared group expectations are obvious and this behavior is monitored Culture 3 layers Observable artifacts values endorsed by management amp beliefs core values unobservable Organizational Development Changes forced or crisiscircumstance in environment Resistance to Org Change Vested interest of organization employees fear of uncertainty misunderstandings social disruptions inconvenience organizational incompatibility lack of supportcommitment rejection of outsiders Chapter 9 Types of Teams PCAT ProblemSolution solving ongoing problems needs trustintegrity Creative innovated solutions Tactical well defined plan object ie SWAT surgery Ad Hoc limited duration addressing one problem ie merging companies Principles of Teamwork Feedback having to accept it Mutual performance monitoring eval Support backing up fellow members Team Orienatation view selves as teamwhole Teaming interdependence Leadership assigned elected etc Team Structure Organization gt Team gt Individual book has longer example Processes in Teams Processes that allow teams to function smoothly Socialization Interpersonal Shared mental models Decision making Performance Appraisal in Teams Social loafing when certain individuals withhold effort or contributions to the collective outcome The sucker effect condition allows members to take a free ride the member that would do most of the work would lower their effort so others make just as much an effort Felt dispensability when team members work feels duplicated therefore they exert less effort because they feel dispensable Chapter 10 Job Satisfaction degree a employ is happy with their job Organizational Commitment Degree an employee feels a sense of allegiance to the organization Organizational J ustice Concept pertaining to fair treatment to people in organization Three types Distributive equal rewards received on equality equality and need Procedural fairness by means of achievement in organization Interactional fairness on how people treat others Organizational Citizenship Behavior Employees that make overall contributions to the welfare of the organization beyond required duties 5 levels ASCCC Altruism Consciousness courtesy Sportsmanship civic virtue The Psychological Contract Implied relationship that exists between employee and a organization Requires both parties for a promise for a future relationship Chapter 11 Workplace Psychological Health WorkFamily Con ict Work Schedules Positive Psychology Human Factors and Ergonomics Chapter 12 Five Concepts in Motivation BPASM Behavior action infer motivator Performance Judged against standard Ability determent stable behavior Situational Constraints environmental factors Motivation Expectancy TheoryMost popular Cognitive relationship between effort expands and the results of the effort Job Outcomes Results like high pay promotion Valences feelings about outcomes Instrumentality degree of attainment from performance Expectancy Relationship between effort and performance Force amount of effort or pressure GoalSetting Theory Directing one39s effort towards the attainment of specific set goals SelfRegulation Theory Based on goals feedback that can make the goal attainable Work Design Theory dimensions for jobs that foster expenditure of effort J ob Enrichment designing work to enhance motivation for individual work Skill Variety different activities Task Identity completion of task as a whole results Task Significance jobs impact Task Feedback Autonomy Chapter 13 amp 14 In uence Process Coercionmodify behavior by force manipulationcontrol by distorting reality Authorityappeal to mutual decision to lead Persuasiondisplay judgment to in uence The Power amp In uence Approach Reward power Capacity to offer positive incentives for behavior promotions raises vacations etc Coercive power Organization can punish an employee for undesirable behavior Dismissal dock pay Legitimate power authority Employees believe power over them is legitimate CEO director supervisor Expert powerEmployee believes other individuals has expertise Can be related to knowledge experience or abilities Referent Power Employee admires or likes other individual Old social norms wish to fit in etc Transformational Leadership Process of inspiring a group to peruse and attain goals Components include Idealized in uence inspirational motivation intellectual motivation intellectual stimulation being creative Individualized consideration individual needs Charismatic Leadership Inspiring confidence in others to support the ideas and beliefs an individual who possesses this trait Trait Approach Understand leadership in terms of traits or dispositions held by an individual Oldest and common sense approach Traits Decisive dynamic outgoing assertive strong bold and persuasive Proposed tall goodlooking poised articulate confident and authoritative Other traits PersonalityExtraversion and conscientiousness Skills Technical Conceptual and Interpersonal LMX Theory Leader Member Exchange theory A leadership theory based on the nature of relationship between a leader and members of the group heshe leads ie changing leadership based on knowledge expertise trust etc
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