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ANTH 1030 Midterm Study Guide

by: HaleyG

ANTH 1030 Midterm Study Guide ANTH 1030-01

GPA 3.6

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About this Document

Zender's study guide with definitions filled in
Languages of the World
Marc Zender
Study Guide
Zender, Languages of the World, midterm
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by HaleyG on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1030-01 at Tulane University taught by Marc Zender in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Languages of the World in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Tulane University.

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Date Created: 02/27/16
ANTH 1030 Midterm Study Guide ­ Fromkin: (deceased) Author of An Introduction to Language and many other books;  created the Paku language for the TV show Land of the Lost ­ Gimbutas: studied the Kurgan cultures and suggested that Proto­Indo­European  originated in the Black/Caspian Sea area in 5th c. BC and then spread throughout Europe  ­ Jones: suggested that Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit were very similar and therefore had to  have the same origin (Proto­Indo­European), which probably no longer exists ­ Pereltzvaig: author of Languages of the World, Stanford Professor ­ Renfew: proposed that Proto­Indo­European originated further south than Gimbutas  proposed, most likely in present­day Turkey and earlier than Gimbutas had proposed (7th c. BC) ­ Sapir and Whorf: Sapir and his student, Whorf, created the Sapir­Whorf hypothesis,  which theorizes that languages influences thought. The strongest form of this hypothesis  is linguistic determinism, which states that languages determines how we think about the  world; the weaker form, linguistic relativism, states that speakers of different languages  think about the world in different ways ­ AAE (African American English): dialects of English spoken by some Americans of  African descent, and also known as Ebonics. AAE is a social dialect that includes  morphological variation such as diphthong reduction and double negatives. ­ Celtic: a branch of Indo­European languages including Welsh and Irish, spoken today in west Europe ­ Germanic: a branch of Indo­European languages including English and German ­ Indo­European: the 4th largest language family by number of languages, and the largest  family in terms of number of speakers ­ Paku: the fictional language created by Fromkin in the TV series Land of the Lost ­ Proto­Romance: a theoretical construct based on similarities between Romance (Italic)  languages of Indo­European ­ Romani: widespread among Europe, mostly mutually intelligible; migration to Europe  from India and similar to languages of India (Indo­Iranian) ­ Anthropology: the study of humans (4 subfields: bio­anthropology, archaeology,  ethnology, and linguistics) ­ Dialectology: study of linguistic dialect (subfield of sociolinguistics) ­ Linguistic anthropology: study of how language influences social life (4 subfields:  descriptive linguistics, ethno­linguistics, sociolinguistics, and historical linguistics) ­ Descriptivism/prescriptivism: descriptive grammar is grammar that speakers actually  use, while prescriptive grammar is one distinct set of rules ­ Linguistic relativism: a weak form of the Sapir­Whorf hypothesis that states that our  language influences the way we think ­ Monogenesis/polygenesis: monogenesis implies a single origin of a language whole  polygenesis implies multiple origins ­ Sound symbolism: words whose pronunciation suggests their meanings (3 types:  onomatopoeia, synesthesia, and phonaesthemes) ­ *k > č > ʃ : shows palatalization, English borrowings from French freeze the shift in  time: captain, chief, chef (proto­sound of k) ­ *k  > p : ­ *p > f : sound correspondence of p in romance languages and f in Germanic languages  indicate a proto­sound of p (more common sound), which changed to f in Proto­Germanic (this sound change shows lenition) ­ Intervocalic voicing: tendency of softening/weakening of consonants between vowels ­  A ût: means August in French, uses four letters to represent one sound, and shows loss  of vowel sounds in French w w ­ *       los: Proto­Indo­European root word for "wheel"; the similarity between words  referring to parts of a wagon among Indo­European languages supports a geographical  origin of Proto­Indo­European north of the Black Sea ­ Knight: has cognates in German with similar meanings; the initial k used to be  pronounced and the vowels were pronounced "ee," however the Great Vowel Shift  caused a change to a pronunciation more like "i" ­ Mele kalikimaka: "Merry Christmas" borrowed from English but formed to Hawaiian's  phonological system (no consonant clusters, terminating words with vowels only, s > k) ­ Werewolf: comes from the Old English root "wer" meaning man; literally "man­wolf" ­ Morphology: the study of the forms of words ­ Morpheme: smallest unit of linguistic meaning ­ Allomorph: a variant of a morpheme (variant in sound but no variant in meaning) ­ Ex. ­ed, ­t, and ­d as allomorph suffixes indicating past tense ­ Content word: things, actions, and ideas ­ Children learn content words before function words ­ Functor (function word): words specifying grammatical relationships ­ "Closed­class words" because new coinages are rare (ex. Difficulty in creating a  new third­person pronoun) ­ Affix: elements attached to roots to modify meaning ­ Infix: attached inside a word ­ Circumfix: attached to both beginning and end of a word ­ Prefix: attached before a word ­ Suffix: attached to the end of a word ­ Root: the morpheme that remains when all affixes are stripped from a word ­ Stem: root + affixes ­ Derivational morpheme: added to a stem or root to form a new stem or word, usually  resulting in a change of syntactic (grammatical) category (ex. ­ish to indicate description) ­ Inflectional morpheme: added to a stem or a root to mark grammatical properties such  as tense, number, person, or grammatical case (ex. ­s to indicate plurality) ­ Never changes the grammatical category of a word ­ Case morphology: inflectional morphemes + nouns to indicate the grammatical relation  of the noun in its sentence ­ Compound: two words combined to form a new word ­ Receives the grammatical category from the right­most word, called the "head" ­ Syntax: the arrangement of well­formed words and phrases ­ Word order: order specific to a language of the Object, Subject, and Verb in a sentence ­ English's word order is SVO ­ Tree diagram: a diagram with syntactic category information ­ Represents linear order of words in a sentence, identification of syntactic  categories of words, and shows hierarchical organization of syntactic categories ­ Constituents: natural groupings within a sentence ­ Constituency test: 3 tests for constituency 1. A group of words can stand alone (ex. As an answer to a sentence) 2. Can be replaced in a sentence with a pronoun 3. Can move as a unit to another part of a sentence ­ NP/VP/PP: syntactic categories, which can substitute for one another without loss of  grammicality ­ NP: noun phrase; VP: verb phrase; PP: prepositional phrase ­ Head: the central word of a phrase whose lexical category determines the lexical  category of the phrase ­ Complement: phrasal category that only occurs next to a head, and elaborates on the  meaning of a head ­ Specifier: an element preceding the head ­ In English, phrases can have at most one specifier ­ X­bar schema: a 3­tiered structure that specifies how phrases of a language are  organized ­ Semantics: the study of linguistic meaning ­ Lexical semantics entails the meanings of words and their relationships, phrasal  semantics is concerned with the meaning of phrases and sentences, and truth­conditional  semantics is the formulation of semantic rules based on semantics plus a speaker's  knowledge of truth­conditions ­ Truth: knowing the meaning of a sentence helps you to determine if it is true or false ­ Entailment: one sentence entails another if, if one is true, the other must be true ­ Two sentences that entail each other are synonymous or paraphrases ­ Ambiguity: when multiple meanings correspond to the same word or phrase ­ Compositionality: the meaning of a complex expression is determined by the meanings  of its constituents plus the rules for combining them ­ Metaphor: a figure of speech that makes an implicit comparison between two unrelated  things ­ Seem to be inconsistent but are understood in terms of a meaningful concept ­ Idiom: a phrase that has a meaning that cannot be predicted based on the meanings of  the individual words in the phrase ­ Referent: a real­world object designated by a word ­ Sense: an element of meaning separate from reference ­ Most popular names have reference but no sense ­ Most made up things have sense but no reference ­ Semantic features: properties that are parts of words and reflect the meanings of words ­ Classifiers: grammatical morphemes that indicate the class of a noun ­ Content noun: can be enumerated or pluralized ­ Mass noun: cannot be enumerated or pluralized ­ Phonetics: the study of speech sounds ­ Consonant: a speech sound that is not a vowel ­ Place of articulation: where in the vocal tract airflow restriction occurs ­ Bilabial: articulated by bringing both lips together (b, p) ­ Labiodental: articulated by touching the bottom lip to the upper teeth  (f, v) ­ Dental: articulated by touching the tongue to the back of the teeth (th) ­ Aveolar: articulated by raising the tongue to the aveolar ridge (t, d) ­ Velar: articulated by raising the back of the tongue to the soft palate  (k, g) ­ Glottal: articulated by airflow through the glottis past the lips (h) ­ Manner of articulation: whether or not the vocal cords vibrate ­ Stop: consonants in which the airstream is completely blocked in the oral cavity for a short period ­ Affricate: a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative (ts) ­ Fricative: obstructed airflow that causes friction (f, v) ­ Oral sounds: sounds that only use the oral cavity (b, d) ­ Nasal sounds: sounds that use both the oral and nasal cavities (m, n) ­ Voicing: closeness of vocal cords plus airflow causes vibration of cords ­ Aspiration: vocal cords remaining open briefly and then closing,  resulting in a brief puff of air escaping ­ Vowel: a speech sound made by the vocal cords ­ High/mid/low: tongue position/height ­ Front/central/back: indicates part of tongue involved in making the sound ­ Tense/lax: tense vowels are slightly longer with higher tongue position ­ Round/un­round: refers to shape of lips ­ Diphthong: sequence of two vowels squashed together ­ Supra­segmental features: length, pitch, and stress of syllables ­ Pitch depends on speed of vibrating vocal cords ­ Stressed syllables are longer, louder, and higher in pitch ­ Phonology: systematic organization of sounds ­ Morphophonemic:  ­ Minimal pair: ­ Phoneme/phonemic: basic form of a sound as sensed mentally (changing a phoneme in  a word would change its meaning) ­ Allophone: perceivable sounds corresponding to phonemes (ways of pronunciation i.e.  nasal and non­nasal) ­ Phone/phonetic: a distinct speech sound (changing a phone in a word would not affect  meaning [specific to a certain language]) ­ Shibboleth: a story in the Old Testament about two Hebrew tribes who pronounced the  word shibboleth ("ear of corn") differently from one another. They used this word as a  test to determine which tribe someone belonged to, and to kill the members of the  opposite tribe ­ Distinctive feature: a feature that distinguishes one phoneme from another ­ Ex. the feature of voicing distinguishes s from z ­ Non­distinctive feature: a feature that is predictable by a rule for a certain class of  sounds ­ Ex. in English, nasalized vowels are non­distinctive ­ Dialect: systematic differences in the ways that groups speak a language ­ Some dialects are considered to be different languages because they are spoken  in different countries, and vice versa ­ Isogloss: the line on a map that represents the geographical boundary of regional  linguistic variants ­ Dialect continuum: dialects gradually transition feature­by­feature from one another ­ ­Lect: indicates linguistic variety ­ Genderlect: gender­based variant of language


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