ANTH 1030 Midterm Study Guide
ANTH 1030 Midterm Study Guide ANTH 1030-01
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by HaleyG on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1030-01 at Tulane University taught by Marc Zender in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Languages of the World in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
ANTH 1030 Midterm Study Guide Fromkin: (deceased) Author of An Introduction to Language and many other books; created the Paku language for the TV show Land of the Lost Gimbutas: studied the Kurgan cultures and suggested that ProtoIndoEuropean originated in the Black/Caspian Sea area in 5th c. BC and then spread throughout Europe Jones: suggested that Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit were very similar and therefore had to have the same origin (ProtoIndoEuropean), which probably no longer exists Pereltzvaig: author of Languages of the World, Stanford Professor Renfew: proposed that ProtoIndoEuropean originated further south than Gimbutas proposed, most likely in presentday Turkey and earlier than Gimbutas had proposed (7th c. BC) Sapir and Whorf: Sapir and his student, Whorf, created the SapirWhorf hypothesis, which theorizes that languages influences thought. The strongest form of this hypothesis is linguistic determinism, which states that languages determines how we think about the world; the weaker form, linguistic relativism, states that speakers of different languages think about the world in different ways AAE (African American English): dialects of English spoken by some Americans of African descent, and also known as Ebonics. AAE is a social dialect that includes morphological variation such as diphthong reduction and double negatives. Celtic: a branch of IndoEuropean languages including Welsh and Irish, spoken today in west Europe Germanic: a branch of IndoEuropean languages including English and German IndoEuropean: the 4th largest language family by number of languages, and the largest family in terms of number of speakers Paku: the fictional language created by Fromkin in the TV series Land of the Lost ProtoRomance: a theoretical construct based on similarities between Romance (Italic) languages of IndoEuropean Romani: widespread among Europe, mostly mutually intelligible; migration to Europe from India and similar to languages of India (IndoIranian) Anthropology: the study of humans (4 subfields: bioanthropology, archaeology, ethnology, and linguistics) Dialectology: study of linguistic dialect (subfield of sociolinguistics) Linguistic anthropology: study of how language influences social life (4 subfields: descriptive linguistics, ethnolinguistics, sociolinguistics, and historical linguistics) Descriptivism/prescriptivism: descriptive grammar is grammar that speakers actually use, while prescriptive grammar is one distinct set of rules Linguistic relativism: a weak form of the SapirWhorf hypothesis that states that our language influences the way we think Monogenesis/polygenesis: monogenesis implies a single origin of a language whole polygenesis implies multiple origins Sound symbolism: words whose pronunciation suggests their meanings (3 types: onomatopoeia, synesthesia, and phonaesthemes) *k > č > ʃ : shows palatalization, English borrowings from French freeze the shift in time: captain, chief, chef (protosound of k) *k > p : *p > f : sound correspondence of p in romance languages and f in Germanic languages indicate a protosound of p (more common sound), which changed to f in ProtoGermanic (this sound change shows lenition) Intervocalic voicing: tendency of softening/weakening of consonants between vowels A ût: means August in French, uses four letters to represent one sound, and shows loss of vowel sounds in French w w * los: ProtoIndoEuropean root word for "wheel"; the similarity between words referring to parts of a wagon among IndoEuropean languages supports a geographical origin of ProtoIndoEuropean north of the Black Sea Knight: has cognates in German with similar meanings; the initial k used to be pronounced and the vowels were pronounced "ee," however the Great Vowel Shift caused a change to a pronunciation more like "i" Mele kalikimaka: "Merry Christmas" borrowed from English but formed to Hawaiian's phonological system (no consonant clusters, terminating words with vowels only, s > k) Werewolf: comes from the Old English root "wer" meaning man; literally "manwolf" Morphology: the study of the forms of words Morpheme: smallest unit of linguistic meaning Allomorph: a variant of a morpheme (variant in sound but no variant in meaning) Ex. ed, t, and d as allomorph suffixes indicating past tense Content word: things, actions, and ideas Children learn content words before function words Functor (function word): words specifying grammatical relationships "Closedclass words" because new coinages are rare (ex. Difficulty in creating a new thirdperson pronoun) Affix: elements attached to roots to modify meaning Infix: attached inside a word Circumfix: attached to both beginning and end of a word Prefix: attached before a word Suffix: attached to the end of a word Root: the morpheme that remains when all affixes are stripped from a word Stem: root + affixes Derivational morpheme: added to a stem or root to form a new stem or word, usually resulting in a change of syntactic (grammatical) category (ex. ish to indicate description) Inflectional morpheme: added to a stem or a root to mark grammatical properties such as tense, number, person, or grammatical case (ex. s to indicate plurality) Never changes the grammatical category of a word Case morphology: inflectional morphemes + nouns to indicate the grammatical relation of the noun in its sentence Compound: two words combined to form a new word Receives the grammatical category from the rightmost word, called the "head" Syntax: the arrangement of wellformed words and phrases Word order: order specific to a language of the Object, Subject, and Verb in a sentence English's word order is SVO Tree diagram: a diagram with syntactic category information Represents linear order of words in a sentence, identification of syntactic categories of words, and shows hierarchical organization of syntactic categories Constituents: natural groupings within a sentence Constituency test: 3 tests for constituency 1. A group of words can stand alone (ex. As an answer to a sentence) 2. Can be replaced in a sentence with a pronoun 3. Can move as a unit to another part of a sentence NP/VP/PP: syntactic categories, which can substitute for one another without loss of grammicality NP: noun phrase; VP: verb phrase; PP: prepositional phrase Head: the central word of a phrase whose lexical category determines the lexical category of the phrase Complement: phrasal category that only occurs next to a head, and elaborates on the meaning of a head Specifier: an element preceding the head In English, phrases can have at most one specifier Xbar schema: a 3tiered structure that specifies how phrases of a language are organized Semantics: the study of linguistic meaning Lexical semantics entails the meanings of words and their relationships, phrasal semantics is concerned with the meaning of phrases and sentences, and truthconditional semantics is the formulation of semantic rules based on semantics plus a speaker's knowledge of truthconditions Truth: knowing the meaning of a sentence helps you to determine if it is true or false Entailment: one sentence entails another if, if one is true, the other must be true Two sentences that entail each other are synonymous or paraphrases Ambiguity: when multiple meanings correspond to the same word or phrase Compositionality: the meaning of a complex expression is determined by the meanings of its constituents plus the rules for combining them Metaphor: a figure of speech that makes an implicit comparison between two unrelated things Seem to be inconsistent but are understood in terms of a meaningful concept Idiom: a phrase that has a meaning that cannot be predicted based on the meanings of the individual words in the phrase Referent: a realworld object designated by a word Sense: an element of meaning separate from reference Most popular names have reference but no sense Most made up things have sense but no reference Semantic features: properties that are parts of words and reflect the meanings of words Classifiers: grammatical morphemes that indicate the class of a noun Content noun: can be enumerated or pluralized Mass noun: cannot be enumerated or pluralized Phonetics: the study of speech sounds Consonant: a speech sound that is not a vowel Place of articulation: where in the vocal tract airflow restriction occurs Bilabial: articulated by bringing both lips together (b, p) Labiodental: articulated by touching the bottom lip to the upper teeth (f, v) Dental: articulated by touching the tongue to the back of the teeth (th) Aveolar: articulated by raising the tongue to the aveolar ridge (t, d) Velar: articulated by raising the back of the tongue to the soft palate (k, g) Glottal: articulated by airflow through the glottis past the lips (h) Manner of articulation: whether or not the vocal cords vibrate Stop: consonants in which the airstream is completely blocked in the oral cavity for a short period Affricate: a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative (ts) Fricative: obstructed airflow that causes friction (f, v) Oral sounds: sounds that only use the oral cavity (b, d) Nasal sounds: sounds that use both the oral and nasal cavities (m, n) Voicing: closeness of vocal cords plus airflow causes vibration of cords Aspiration: vocal cords remaining open briefly and then closing, resulting in a brief puff of air escaping Vowel: a speech sound made by the vocal cords High/mid/low: tongue position/height Front/central/back: indicates part of tongue involved in making the sound Tense/lax: tense vowels are slightly longer with higher tongue position Round/unround: refers to shape of lips Diphthong: sequence of two vowels squashed together Suprasegmental features: length, pitch, and stress of syllables Pitch depends on speed of vibrating vocal cords Stressed syllables are longer, louder, and higher in pitch Phonology: systematic organization of sounds Morphophonemic: Minimal pair: Phoneme/phonemic: basic form of a sound as sensed mentally (changing a phoneme in a word would change its meaning) Allophone: perceivable sounds corresponding to phonemes (ways of pronunciation i.e. nasal and nonnasal) Phone/phonetic: a distinct speech sound (changing a phone in a word would not affect meaning [specific to a certain language]) Shibboleth: a story in the Old Testament about two Hebrew tribes who pronounced the word shibboleth ("ear of corn") differently from one another. They used this word as a test to determine which tribe someone belonged to, and to kill the members of the opposite tribe Distinctive feature: a feature that distinguishes one phoneme from another Ex. the feature of voicing distinguishes s from z Nondistinctive feature: a feature that is predictable by a rule for a certain class of sounds Ex. in English, nasalized vowels are nondistinctive Dialect: systematic differences in the ways that groups speak a language Some dialects are considered to be different languages because they are spoken in different countries, and vice versa Isogloss: the line on a map that represents the geographical boundary of regional linguistic variants Dialect continuum: dialects gradually transition featurebyfeature from one another Lect: indicates linguistic variety Genderlect: genderbased variant of language
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