Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide PSC 162
Popular in Personality Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 58 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andrea Wong on Friday July 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 162 at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. Richard Robins in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 193 views. For similar materials see Personality Psychology in Psychlogy at University of California - Davis.
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Psych 162 nal study guide Approaches trait enduring tendencies to act think and feel in certain ways focused on traits in it of themselves how do they lead to stability biological biologically based tendencies shaped by evolution what are the underlying biological mechanisms beneath just predict the traits but what leads to these traits psychodynamic phenomenological humanistic good energy permeating in all of us and society is the thing that corrupts learning behaviorism social learning cognitive be able to apply to particular examples gray zones trait researchers generally assume the traits have a biological basis but do not directly measure biological factors brain activation patterns hormones etc behaviorism social learning and cognative perspectives all part of learning approach but make somewhat different assumptions about where personality differences come from BLIS ReHathyvaHd y Lecture 9 Chapter 1011 Psychodynamic approach basic assumptions psychological determinism importance of unconscious intrapsychic con ict defense mechanism importance of early childhood experiences psychodynamicpsychoanalytic personality re ects the unique ways in which each person has resolved their intrapsychic con icts eg Defence mechanisms Psychoanalysis and the arts Surrealism Salvador dali represent dream states and unconscious contents of the mind Basic assumptions 1 psychological determinism o no behavior is random re ection of projection o biologically based drives ie sex aggression create needs wishes and fears that determine behavior 0 psychic energy sexual energy aggressive energy 0 biological need gt increase in tension arousal gt mental energy psychological need or wish gtsocialy acceptable expression ie sexual dream palying football 0 needs need to be expressed directly or indirectly inner need or 2 importance of the unconscious 0 we have the conscious mind ego and the unconscious mind superego and id 0 levels of consciousness o unconscious sexual libido and aggressive drives repressed contents of the mind the seething cauldron 0 pre conscious what you had for breakfast 0 consciousness what you are thinking right now 0 animals do not have the capacity to do this Freudian slips Everything you say do or act has to do with your unconscious how to access the unconscious contents of the unconscious id want to come out projective techniques 0 rosarch test free association 0 for each world you see write down rst world that comes to mind dreams are the quotroyal road to the unconsciousquot if you dream certain things they have a symbolic meaning Freudian slips are a result of the unconscious trying to come through I o quotI don t think we ve been properly seducedquot 3 intrapsychic con ict con icts between ld Ego and superego drive most of our behavior id all drives and urges quotpleasure principlequot ego contrains the id to reality quotreality principlequot super ego internalized values morel standards of parents and society 0 promotes guilt shame pride and other emotions that lead to positive socially appropriate behaviors o resolving con icts cake example id would say eat the cake ego would say that cake is going to make you fat and superego would say I can eat the cake if I would out the ego uses quotdefense mechanismsquot to resolve con icts ie I love my mother but I cant marry my mother so ill marry someone just like her 4 defense mechanisms a help resolve con its and reduce anxiety b explain seemingly inexplicable aspects of our behavior c repression i unpleasant thoughts and feeling are pushed out of awareness ii freud fantasies of sexual childhood abuse iii do you have childhood memories that you cant remember iv Example a women says she is no longer mourning the death of her child but feels anxious every time she passes a small boy d Denial i Convince yourself that an unpleasant or traumatic event did not or will not occur smoking drunk driving e Displacement threatening elsewhere i Getting in a ght with your romantic partner after you nd out you did badly on an exam ii Abu ghraib prison abuse f RannaHzann i Generating logical reasons for outcomes that other wise would not be acceptable ii quot I did poorly on the MCAT but I never wanted to even go to med schoolquot g reaction formation i to sti e and unacceptable impulse the exact opposite behaviorsdesires are displayed ii homophobic men are more sexually aroused by homoerotic stimuli homosexuals who are ashamed about it are extra aggressive toward homosexuals desire vs actual impulsedesire is redirect iii example a minster preaches about the evils of homosexuality and then turns out to be gay himself h projection i projecting one s own unacceptable qualities onto other 1 narcissists think everyone is out for themselves 2 ie after spending time with his mistress a man picks up some owers for his wife because he fels like she doesn t love him anymore i sublimation i convert unacceptable desire into acceptable behavior 1 watch sports to sublimate desire for aggression 2 create paintins or write songs and poesty about a quotcrush to sublimate sexual desire importance of early childhood experience I a early experiences shape adult personality development i support for general idea continuity of personality over time ii no support for freuds theory of psychosexual development b psychodynamic process event experience consciously ljmotive wish drive 39instinct the ld unconscious l Conscious impulse wish behavior In il39 h r btilnziiiatl EvenI 39 I v l Expression of EI E 3 quot w quot ithe mt n i f 39 Mama arm f the 11 anxiety guilt shame will block what you do consciously there is a lot going on psychologically repressing your feeling would be using a defense mechanism your internally arguing with yourself indirect compromise expression of the con ict we can not repress everything it has to come out some way Dreams one way to express repressed feelings there is an unconscious wish and the mind scrambles itI Symbolizes and disguises meaning dream analyses 0 person falling anxiety feeling out of control we scramble the feelings of being out of control into falling 0 ice cream vat getting pulled into different directions school going out family dreams are repressed thoughts 0 according to Freud dreams are the quotroyal road to the unconsciousquot quotwishes suppressed during the day assert themselves in dreamsquot 0 evidence smokers trying to quite dream of using when trying to quite Participants asked to think of a o quotcrushquot o noncrush o 3 conditions Narcissism O O O repression try not to think about person expression try to focus your thoughts on person mention write down initials of person but then think about whatever you want next morning participants reported their dreams from the night before psychoanalytic approach would assume that repression would generate most dreams about the crush repression leads to more dreams there is evidence support that the people who tried to repress dreamed about the person more repressive personality style 0 O O suppression of thoughts about traumatic experiences is associated with increases physiological activity people who repress have higher rates of illness and heart problems students who wrote about upsetting experiences had fewer visits to the health center than students who wrote about trivial topics repression and physiological reactivity people who repressed had increased heart rate repressive personality style can have negative consequences Armand Hammer Classic narcissist O Wealthy tycoon armand Hammer baking soda Arnold shcwarzenggers 0 Had thoughts of being recognized from an early age of grammar school proving that narcissism begins from an early on Personality disorders DSMIV narcissistic personality disorder 0 000000 0 Grandiosity and arrogance Sense of entitlement Fantasies of unusual power success and beauty Feelings of superiority Sensitive to criticism Exhibitionism Men more likely than women to be narcissistic High cooccurrence with drugs and alc abuse Case study Narcissists are high and low on some traits eg con dent Narcissist are extraverted disagreeable and neurotic but not based on self report 0 They admit their arrogance but don t think it is a bad thing Causes of narcissism O O O O O 0 Parents over idealize child Parent excessively criticize child for failing to meet unrealistic standards quotI have to be prefectquot constantly being on this razor edge of being great and prefect but being a failure in the eyes of their parents narcisstic wound early humiliation experience narcissistic person have wide range of mood narcissits overcompensate for insecurities by being arrogant boastful and self aggrandizing the thought is that if im not successful im a failure every context is either being very proud or being very ashamed measuring narcissism O O unrealistically positive beliefs about their abilities and achievements quotI can make anybody believe anything I want them toquot preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success power brilliance and beauty quotif I ruled the world it would be a better placequot strong sense of entitlement quotI will never be satis ed until I get all I deservequot grandiose sense of self importance nontransparent items I quotpeople pretend to care more about one another than they really doquot research nding on narcissism O O O O O O O 0 more 1st person pronoun usage look in the mirror more frequently more motiona ups and downs see themselves more positively than others see them objective indicators of their success take credit for their accomplishments but blame others for their failures more feelings of shame in memories from early childhood but not recent memories high explicit self esteem but low implicit self esteem narcissists have some insight that they come across as arrogant but think that s ok narcissism has not increased in time Narcissism and therapy narcissists typically go to therapy for problems in their life 0 rarely acknowledge their feeling depressed or anxious work problems 0 repeated failures not living up to own career expectations love problems 0 O 0 problems in romantic relationship idealization and devaluation of romantic partners always need to be center of attention narcissism is very dif cult to treat in therapy 0 o 0 text book chapter 10 368369 why they do not admit they have a problem no faith in the therapist not as commited to the therapy key ideas of psychoanalysis three levels of consciousness less important psychological development psychoanalytic theory is based on a small number of key ideas including psychic determinism the mind s threepart internal structure id ego superego psychic con ict and mental energy two types of thinking processes primary process thinking 0 O O O assumed by freud to be present in babies and in the unconscious part of adult mind is unconscious thought characterized by displacement symbolism and irrational drive toward immediate grati cation thinking without negative quali cations sense of time or any of the parcticalities necessities and dangers of life one goal immediate grati cation of every desire secondary process thinking think 0 develops as child moves toward adulthood is ordinary rational conscious thought conscious part of the ego s way of thinking practical and prudent and it can delay or grati cation it develops only as the ego begins to develop layers of consciousness conscious mind mental functioning you can observe when you simply turn you attention inward preconscious ideas you are not thinking about at the moment but that you could bring into consciousness easily unconscious id supergo and ego rational redirect it is buried deep and more and one way to dig is hypnosis and other slips chapter 11 anxiety defense mechanisms less important parapraces and humor anxiety originate in the real world or in inner psychic con ict such as produced by an impulse of the id that the ego and supergo try to combat defense mechanisms ego uses defense mechanisms to protect agaist the conscious expereince of excessive anxiety and associated emotions like shame and guilt use of defense mechanisms can reduce anxiety in the short run but can produce problems in understanding and dealing with reality in the long run personality is a set of defense mechanisms chapter 12 common themes of neofreudian thought current psychoanalytic research less important latter day issues and theorists common themes of neofreudian thought sec as less important than freud viewed it the reinterpret libido as a general motivation toward life and creativity less emphasis on unconscious mental processes and more emphasis on conscious thought focus on driving the perception and conscious comprehension of reality less emphasis on instinctual drives and mental life as the source of psychological difficulties and focuses instead on interpersonal relationships current psychoanalytic research 423 fruitful area of research is attachment theory which examines the connection between childhood patterns of attachment and adult patterns of romantic love and other relationships Freudian ideas and psychoanalysis have faded from view due to several trends including behaviorism complex theoretical efforts and more Modern researchers pointed out that few psychologists research freud directly but many pursue work that can be considered relevant to these topics Western observed that any research is at least a little psychoanalytic whether knowing or not Phenomenological humanistic approach e of quotoriginal sinquot psychodynamic approach 0 people are inherently bad 0 socialization inhibits sexual and aggressive impluses doctrine of quotinnate purityquot 0 people are inhertly good noble savage 0 babies are moral and pure society is corrupting humanistic approach philosophical roots phenomenology o existentialism o nding broader meaning that transcends everyday experience how to we deal with the absence of meaning in life humanistic psychology rogers maslow positive psychology movement phenomenology people have different perceptions of reality phenomenology subjective experience subjective impressions rather than objective reality shape our psychological lives existentialism o subjective realitysearch for meaning and purpose you can nd meaning by 0 accepting that life has no meaning except that which you create for yourself you have free will 0 living an authentic life 0 doing all you can to better the human condition humanistic movement make your own reality nd yourself humanistic psychology to understand a person you must understand his or her unique view of reality assumptions 0 existential assumptions phenomenology is central and people have free will 0 people are basically good 0 people have an innate need to make themselves and the world better how do people create meaning interpret the world and nd a purpose in life 0 from humanistic perspective personality is determined by each other s progress toward reaching true potential and achieve authenticity o emphasis on selfawareness will power motivation imagination introspection creativity and free will carl rogers O O O O O founder of humanistic psychology people have one basic tendency and striving to actualize maintain and enhance their own experience selfactualization to maintain and enhance actualization is the meaning of existence can avoid existential anxiety because meaning of existence is process of becoming self actualized psychological health is no just the absence of depression and anxiety but being creative compassionate and authentic life self self actualized people 0 000000 experience personal growth and movement toward reaching potential self acceptance solitude independence from social pressure creativity frequent peak experience self actualization possible when people receive unconditional positive regard and are free from conditions of worth humanistic psychotherapy O O O O O O 0 client centered therapy help people recover the inner angel within and therapist provides space to do so therapist is trusting accepting empathetic client able to express and accept hisher authentic self self acceptance therapist shows unconditional positive regard for client client learns to identify conditions of worth place by others and by himself each client has innate resources for selfunderstanding and self actualization positive psychology 0 O 0 re ects humanistic psychology s emphasis on growth development and reaching one s potential 39 compassion gratitude self awareness traditional psychology focuses on disease and dysfunctional behavior humanistic pysch focuses on humanisticexistential concerns meaning of life life satisfaction true happiness comes from search for meaning attaining self insight and feeling compassion toward oneself and others 0 what makes someone happy Genes 50 phenomenology 40 optimistic attitude gratitude compassion social connections life circumstances money broader meaning in life makes us happy personality subjective experience free will self actualization needs and motives gt Chapter 13 o More important quotPhenomenology Awareness Is Everythingquot quotOptimistic Humanismquot quotPositive Psychologyquot Less important quotPersonal Constructs Kellyquot Awareness is everything phenomenological perspective implies that the present moment of experience is all that matters which means that individuals have free will and the only way to understand another person is to understand that person s construal or experience of the world immediate conscious experience is all that matters the only place and time in which you exist is in your consciousness right here right now the past future other people and other places are no more that ideas construal form the basis of how you live your life including goals obstacles and opportunities you perceive Optimistic humanism people are basically good and inherently motivated to self actualize rogers and maslow asserted that a person who faces experience directly can become a fully functioning person roger believes this outcome can only occur for individuals who received unconditional positive regard from important people in their lives maslow believed that higher needs such as self actualization could come to the fore after more basic needs related to survival and security becaome satis ed Positive psychology represents a rebirth of humanistic psych focusing on the traits and psychological processes that promote wellbeing and give life meaning it attempts to catalong universal human virtues which includes justice humanity temperance wisdom and transcendence phenomenology attempts to address the mystery of human epxereince and its emphasis on nonjudgmental understanding of individuals and cultures phenomenological approach What is culture Custom habits beliefs and values that shape emotions behavior and life patterns dress food religion music architecture norms for social interactions expressing emotion shared meaning system through parenteral and socialization culture becomes a part of you it gets under your skin and then it in uences you culture rules of the game if you go to another culture and you don t know the rules than you get trapped Culturegtsocializationgtpersonalitygtbehavior test whether stereotypes are true socialization practice shapes personality personality potentially feeds back into culture culture differences in personality on average people from different cultures differ in agreeableness and extraversion people from happy cultures remain happy after they immigrate to the united states 0 they are bringing something about their culture with them and that is effecting their happiness in the US culture difference in personality are small structures of personality is similar across cultures 0 big ve structure generally replicates except openness 0 gender differences generally replicate culture and personality change personality changes generally replicate across cultures 0 biological approach universal genetic processes genetic processes changes your personality 0 social investment theory universal life task that cut across cultures role transition is universal and that is what leads to changes becoming an adult is what effects it earlier onset of personality maturation early family role and job role transitions later onset of personality maturation early family role and job role transitions study 0 personality change in adulthood averaged across 62 coutnries o earlier the normative transitions to the job role the earlier individuals from that country decreased in neuroticism increase in agreeableness increase in conscientiousness o hypothesis con rmed earlier role transitions cause earlier personality change quotbig fourquot culture syndromes individualism vs collectivism 0 focus on individual vs group 0 thinking about what is good from me vs thinking about family and others interdependent power distance 0 hierarchical vs egalitarian gender socialization masculinity 0 men socialed to be dominantcompetitive and women to be nurturingcaring vs less differentiated gender roles uncertainty avoidance 0 clear rules and codes of conducts vs tolerance for ambiguity and comfort in unstructured situations personality and cultural syndromes studies 33 countries each country assessed on culture syndromes each participant completed a personality test more individualistic the culture the more extraverted biculturalism any individual who has been exposed to and internalized two or more sets of cultural systems beliefs values behaviors languages 0 immigrants o ethic minorities 0 people in cross cultural relationships bicultural individuals possess two cultural meaning systems ideas values beliefs and can switch between them culture in uence behavior only when the relevant meaning systems are activated can manipulate culture and observe its effects on behavior thoughts and feelings quasiexperiemntal design is the language changing your answers 0 There is something about language that in uences us and primes us 0 Talking the test in English scores are more American and taking the test in Spanish or Chinese score are more Mexican chinese Cultural frame switching in bicultural swimming sh with one in the front the images they showed before answering the question why is one sh swimming apart in uence the answer Chinese have more collectivistic orientation Americans more individualistic Biculturals have multiple cultural meaning systems and can shift between them in response to cultural cues Changing their meaning systems ie Phenomenology changes their personality Chapter 14 o More important quotCulture and Psychology of Culturesquot quotCultural Assessment Assessmentquot culture comes into play with psychology because indivudals may differ from each other to some extent because they belong to different cultural groups and members of some groups may differ from each other in distinctive ways the process by which a child picks up the culture into which she is born is called enculturation the process by which someone who moves into a cultural picks up its more is called acculturation H M Characteristics and Personality Characteristics of Cultures 480 cultural psychologists contracts etics elements common to all cultures with emics elements that make cultures different cultures have been compared on emic dimensions including toughness vs easiness achievement and affiliation complexity tightnesslooseness emphasis on head vs heart collectivism indivudalism and the degress to which they emphasize dignity honor or face collectivist cultures regard society and relations with others as more important relative to individual experience and gain compared with people in individualistic cultures Asian cultures more collectivist than European or American cultures dignity cultures are said to emphasize the importance of the individuals honor cultures emphasize self protection and ritual of respect and face cultures emphasize harmony and the maintenance of stable hierarchies Learning approach behaviorism May 14 Behaviorist Approach study observable behavior Behavior is determined by learned responses to the environment 0 Emphasis on nurture more than nature 0 mind belief motivation intentions does not determine behavior 0 what is underneath the behavior doesn t matter personrate most learning is a process of association it is about pairing things Personality de ned our personality is a set of learned response to the environment 0 a person who talks a lot is outgoing and is comfortable around strangers has learned to act in an extraverted way 0 personality changes as situation changes we have just been in an environment that rewards certain behaviors we can create any personality we want by creating a certain learning environment everything is effected by the environment shyness learning perspective Individual differences in shyness re ect differences in learned responses to the environment Shy people learned to be shy Emphasis on observable aspects of shyness o Behaviors not thoughts and feelings How does the environment make someone shy we learn to be shy by forming associations process of forming associations conditioning we are conditioned to be shy two types of conditioning classical paired association operant reinforcement Classic conditioning pavlov s dog UCS foodgt UCR salivation Classical conditioning shyness classical conditioning not that great for personality operant conditioning quotthe consquences of beavhior determine the probability that the bevhaor will occur again behavior is followed by consequences if the consequence are punishing then the tendency to prefrom behavior is weakend if the consequences are rewarding then the tendency to perfrom bavhior is strengthened Shyness 0 Behavior talking to strangers going to social event etc o Reinforcement stimulating conversation make friends nd romantic partners etc vs avoid social anxiety get work done read listen to music 0 approachavoidance con ict How can you turn a shy person into an extravert cassica conditioning desensitization of shyness o step1 establish a stimulus hierarchy o 2 Learning incompatible responses pair with relaxation o 3 Counterconditioning relaxation response to stimulus hierarchy operant conditioning 0 make sure social environment rewards extraverted behaviors and punishes shy behaviors o is the person becoming more extraverted orjust acting different cassica conditioning clockwork orange 0 aex is injected with naus drug UCS while watching violence he feels nauseous UCR o aex thinks about or acts vioent CS he feels sick and avoids acting vioent CR 0 would this approach work for real juvenile delinquents No because of extinction 0 what about operant conditioning o the conditioning process change aex s personality Society cant produce morality satire about societal attempts to make people good moral psychological conditioning cant make people good even music and religion cant save us societal controls will inevitably fall 0 people must choose to be goodmoral 0 free will matters humanistic view operant conditioning aggression behavior bullying other kids reinforcement resources social status feeling powerful O behavioral contract changes behavior but not personality from behaviorism to social learning theory behaviorism focused on stimulus and response social learning theory shifted attention to what goes on between stimulus and response 0 conscious and unconscious thoughts 0 expected consequences social learning observational learningmodeling o acquire behavior by watching someone doing it observing consequences 0 learning is a social process do not need to be directly reinforced extension of basic learning principles 0 observational learning observed vs experienced consequences 0 expected consequences long term incentives and deterrents symbolic incentives and deterrents it is simplistic to think that we are a bundle of learned responses we have complex nerve networks yes we are learning machines but we are complex we are not like rats the mind can override conditioning long term and symbolic incentives Social learning cognitive theory social leaning theory extension of basic learning principles violent media altruism shaming sentences cognitive perspective schemas rejection sensitivity cognitive therapy history behaviorism classical conditioning operant conditioning gtsocia learning banduragtcognitioninformation processing social learning and cognitioninformation processing was a cognitive revolution aggression classical conditioning clockwork orangeconditioned aversion to violence gungtaggression cure associated with violence guns prime aggression our bodies have learned to associate the two operant conditioning child rewarded for throwing temper tantrums may become an aggressive adult kids could just be acting out to get attention observational learning gang member as role model exposure to violent media 95 of American teens play video games avg of hours 13 hoursweek exposure to violent video games and TV 0 increase aggressive behavior thoughts and feeling 0 increases physiological arousal 0 decreases prosocial behaviors ie helping 0 there is evidence that these video games can lead to violence experimental and longitudal studies 0 violence media reinforces their preexisting trait violent media may increase aggression through 0 classical conditioning exposure to guns and other cues associated with violence 0 operant conditioning video game player is directly rewarded for being violnet eg Accumulating points video games are fun to play so pleasurable feeling become associated with violence 0 obersvational learning quotrole modelsquotmovie stars rewarded for violence is altruism learning quotroot of altruism seen I babies toddles eager to help out even with no prospect of rewardquot roots of altruism innate tendency to help others or direct reinforcement 0 play intrinsic reward intrinsically fun mastery of opening a door is fun 0 reinforcement for similar behaviors observation learning 0 seeing parent help out or seeing an older sibling get reinforced for helping vicarious reinforcement older sibling no direct or observed reward but anticipated consequences 0 cooperation gt positive outcomes praise attention etc is it just a complex learning possess Shaming prison sentences date back to old testament common in 17th century puritanical society scarlet quotAquot revival in 19805 recent California bill to put a special sticker on license plant for drunk drivers pxunishment so people would learn shaming sentences may deter crime from learning perspective this should work 0 observational learning observe someone else punished for antisocial act 0 expectancies of punishment imagine self of billboard o symbolic punishment social stigma shaming sentences may cause crime 0 shaming offenders makes them feel bad about themselves and more prone to commit crimes shame into anger psychodynamic view humiliation and shame is going to lead to more violence because it needs to be expressed need to feel like a worthy person to choose to be good not shamed into it humanistic view the learning perspective has the view that if it is rewarding the likelihood of the behavior will increase cognitive perspective our personality re ects how we process information about ourselves others and the world how we process information re ects our conscious ad unconscious mental representation or schemas of ourselves others and the world 0 learned thoughts patterns violent media increases aggression because 0 People learn to see the world as a hostile threatening place quothostile attribution biasquot ambiguous events are actually acts of violence 0 people learn aggressive behavioral scripts when someone confronts you ght back 0 it primes aggressive self schemas self as dominator self as in control activating schemas experimental studies use priming to activate schemas o activate schema by displaying information associated with schema o conscious or unconscious subliminal activation negative relationship schemas o experiences of rejectiongtanxious expectations of rejection gtrejection sensitive in relationships rejection sensitivity 0 are rejection sensitive individuals more startled by negative relationships prime 0 Eye blink response startle response Indicates perceived threat Depressive schemas depressed people have chronically activated negatice self schemas 0 failure quotworthlessquot quotidiotquot etc easily primed goal of cognitive therapy is to change negative self schemas 0 but difficult because schemas operate automatically and often unconsciously 0 we have to take problems that are running and reprogram cognitive therapy recognize that thoughts beliefs expectations explanations affect your feelings and behaviors rewrite software convert negative schemas to positive ones or compartmentalize try to change explanatory style 0 I didn t do well on the test because I didn t study enough not because im bad at math quottalk to self differently before during and after stressful s uanns the goals is to make more adaptive ways of thinking automatic personality is learned responses cognitive schema and information processing style gt Chapter 15 More important quotThree Kinds of Learningquot quotBandura s Social Learning Theoryquot quotContributions and Limitations of Learning Approachesquot Less important quotPhilosophical Roots of Behaviorismquot quotDollard amp Miller s Social Learning Theoryquot quotCognitive Affective Personality Systemquot Three kinds of learning Habituation behavior changes as a result of experience Classical conditioning Operant conditioning bandura social learning theory focus on individuals expectanvies about their own behavioral capacities affect what they will attempt to do observational learning where person learns by watching the behaviors and outcomes of others and reciprocal determinism which involves a self system in which individual actions are determined by change the enviroment which affects the self system contributions and limitations of learning approaches drawn attention to the in uence of the environment on behavior and yielded a useful technology of behavioral change but they may underestimate the importance of individual differences Emotion and personality folktale good wolf humanistic bad wolf psychodynamic trait approach non consistent some traits are opposite biological approach dopamine which wolf wins quotthe one you feedquot portraying emotions as central the emotions de ne who this grandfather is What is an emotion basic or primary emotions o anger sadness fear disgust surprise happiness 0 theses more related to survival social or self conscious emotions o pride guilt shame embarrassment compassion contempt 0 these emotions evolved later brief experience in a speci c situation 0 3 to 5 seconds in duration the emotions process 0 start with antecedent event stimulus lcognitive appraisal of event threatemotional experience physiology feelings lemotional experience verbal and nonverbal facial expressions laction expression run ght comfort etc 0 this is state emotions as personality traits stable tendency to experience certain feelings or have certain emotional reactions emotional state becomes a trait people differ in their tendency o to expereince particular emtoins o to express particular emotions o to understand recognize emotion in others extraversion related to positive emotions o extraverts experience and express more joy pride enthusiasm etc neuroticism related to negative emotions o neurotic people experience and express more fear anger sadness shame etc conceptions of happiness tendency to experience positive emotions trait biological approaches living a life lled with purpose and meaning quotauthentic happinessquot humanistic approach learned expectations of rewards eanred optimism positive schemas social learning absence of anxiety get rid of neuroticism happiness is meaningless construct psychodynamic in uences on happiness in uences 0 genes set point 50 o appraisalsinterpretationsoutlook 40 o objective life circumstances eg Money 10 average personal feels 0 happy 65 of the time o neaturl 15 o unhappy 20 happiness leads to more positive relationships and better health 0 must be stable happiness negative emotions trait anxiety neuroticism moody touchy irritable complaining biological basis 0 relatively stable across lifespan 0 genetic in uence 0 easily activated behavioral inhibition system 0 more amygdala reactivity to negative photos cognitive basis 0 better memory for negative information o richer memory networks for negative emotions o minds programed to negative representations to self and expedences 0 negative stuff on desktop positive stuff buried o neurotic individuals more likely to remember anxiety producing words neurotics more likely to perceive ambiguous emotions as negaUve neurotic individuals more likely to remember anxiety producing words type A personality hostile time urgency always in a hurry rarely relaxed overachieversworkaholics linked with heart disease emotion expressions emotion expressions matter what can a smile from a yearbook photo tell you about the rest of someone s life 0 O O situational view situation effects the way you are smiling trait view indirectly way of saying what your personality is like photos coded for smiling 20 years later they were found to be less neurotic higher social competence more evidence that it is a trait like thing and that there are long term consequences smilers are more likely to be happy or more likely to connect with people smilers in their photo s 20 years later were less neurotic more socially competent more martially satis ed and had positive social relationships Expression of emotions emotion expression matters one can infer personality from facial structure newlywed couples videotaped discussing their con ict 0 O O emotion expressions coded from videotapes behavioral data physiological measures behavior data couples memebers rate their own and their partnes relationship satisfaction couples followed for 5 years divorce Ldata predicted with 83 accuracy ndings 0 O O O 0 happy and unhappy couples do no differ in how much con ict they have but in how they express negative feeling to each other criticism Vs complaints contempt insults mockery putdowns defensiveness stonewalling darwins provocative claim adaptive bene ts of emotion expressions these are universal emotion expressions 0 0 send messages that can save lives of sender natural selection and receiver inclusive tness fear somebody help me run for you life 0 happy im friendly form a coalition with me 0 sad I need comfort take care of me o Disgust This food will make you sick 0 anger Im going to attack stay away 0 Surprises Look over there Are there other universal emtotion expressions quotof all the complex emotions pride may be the most plainly expressed quotdarwin adaptive bene ts of pride expression communication success to others 0 look at what I accomplished I deserve high status 0 expression will give you the credit linked to dominance hierarchies in non human animals improves mate values excessive pride narcissism pride expression slight head tilt expanded posture sma smile is pride universal Ekman et al 0 Studied isolated for tribe in papua new guines 0 Need to study pride in isolated culture 0 Studying tribe that was not exposed to western culture Pride is a expression of human nature Pride expression conveys social status Head and neck tilted slightly back 0 Look above others 0 Approach oriented Expanded posture o Dominance o Draws attention Slight smile 0 Social cohesion Emotion expression adaptive universal even social emotions like pride are universal 0 unique to humans and other primates in uence how people perceive our personality eg excessive pride displays larrogant person gt Chapter 16 More important quotPriming and Chronic Accessibilityquot quotRejection Sensitivityquot Aggression Emotion Less important quotMotivationquot quotTwo Ways of Thinkingquot F 567 difference in perception can be explained by priming chronic accessibility chronic accessibility can lead to the personality disposition of rejection sensitivity aggression hostility is another behavior pattern related to chronic accessibility cause some poel to perceive an ambiguous situation as threatening Emotion form of procedural knowledge they are difficult ot put into words and can only be fully learned and expressed through action and expereince stages appraisal physical response nonverbal behaviors motivation people differ in degree to which they are prone to particular emotions the intensity frequency understanding and ability to control happiness is determined by genetics life circumstances and intentional activites and positive effects on health success and relationships Self and SelfEsteem self is more about how you see yourself linked to the phenomological approach William james duality of self the quotIquot 0 self as perceiver 0 self awareness the quotmequot 0 self as object being perceived o selfconcept quotI amquot the me what the l sees when it looks in the mirror development of self awareness I do animals have a self representational system Animals do not have episodic memories When do we become aware that we have thoughts feelings intentions desires How do we know a child has a sense of self Do only humans have selfawareness 1820 months a sense of self starts to develop they will begin to touch their nose when there is something on it when looking in the mirror monkeys never learn to recognize their own image no matter how long the mirror is there fore most animals are not capable of recognizing the self but chimps were able to do so elephant and dolphins show some self recognition cognitive behavioral markets 1824 months 0 mirror self recognition imitation and role taking linguistic markers 12 years 0 selfreferencing with 1st person pronouns me minequot 0 narrative language use quotI had fun at the playground emotional markers 23 years old 0 self conscious emotions pride shame guilt embarrassment 0 require ability to evaluate the self quotquot self evaluates the quotmequot self development of self concept me formation of stable beliefs about the self early childhood observable characteristics speci c interests activities no abstracting of anything ie I am a girl l have brown hair middle childhood genral interests social comparisons interpersonal qualities ie I like sports I am nice adolescence hidden abstract qualities I am moody I am self conscious self esteem positive feelings about oneself 0 like and accept myself beliefs about one s competence o I think im smart competent and talented Distinct from a sense of superiority and arrogance III M H M When does self esteem emerge babies probably don t have 0 internatlized norms thin body ideal 0 capacity for selfre ection quotI differ from the diealquot o theory of mind quotothers thinkl look fatquot 0 Stable self representations quotim a fat babyquot Children don t develop global self esteem until they develop quot these things Does self esteem matter longitudinal study of 1000 new Zealanders self esteem assess during adolescence criminal behavior mental health physical health drug use and economic status assessed at age 26 adolescence from age 1115 who had low self esteem were more likely as adults to commit crime more at risk for depression more likely to smoke more likely to have physical health problems less likely to graduate from college and worse economic outcomes self esteem programs pros 0 children need to feel good about themselves to be happy 0 intervention programs work improve academic performance and reduce antisocial behavior cons 0 self esteem should come from real achievements o are we creating a generation of narcissists quotI know that I am good because everyone keeps telling me so could self esteem programs back re 0 Does high selfesteem have a dark side 0 Adolescent killers often feel powerless and humiliated by their peers In ated pride has been burst so they lash out against society Parenting and self esteem virtually all theories of self esteem suggest that parents play a critical role in their childs self esteem development 0 much strong evidence that this is true 0 Study with twins Genetics of the twins are the same and they studied differential parenting and they found a difference in self esteem o 55 genetics 20 parenting Self esteem development when do people tend to have high vs low self esteem 0 Childhood high adolescencedrop especially girls mid lifegradua increase old age 0 There are change in self esteem across the lifespan in early adolescence self esteem goes down and then it begins to increase through life until older age over 70 0 There are a much bigger drop in self esteem for girls than boys Why do girls decline in self esteem during early adolescence girls bodies change with puberty media promotes idealized standards of beauty social learning girls self esteem damaged by discrepancy between actual and idealbodytype role of media correlation evidence 0 adolescent girls show the largest self esteem drop in countries that have women s magazines depicting idealized body image quasi experimental evidence 0 introduction of American television in Fiji led to more negative body image and increased prevalence of eating disorders in adolescent girls experimental evidence 0 exposure to media showing thin body ideal leads to temporary decline in self esteem correlational and experimental research supports hypothesis that body image matters for girls selfesteem self esteem is a trait like construct and we can study it from all these different approaches and perspectives that work together gt Chapter 17 More important quotThe l and the Mequot quotThe Declarative Selfquot Less important quotIs the Self a Cultural Artifactquot quotAcquiring and Changing Procedural Knowledgequot quotHow Many Selvesquot l and the me the self includes the me the object of self knowledge and the l the mysterious entity that does the knowing pysch has more to say about me and l declarative self includes self esteem ones opinion of ones own worth good way to remember something is to consider what it has to do with ones self this effect on memory is called the self reference effect beliefs about the self are a major foundation of personality that they affect what a person will do in life and that they can be changed ones sense of self and personality can remain intact even when all the speci c memories that created it are lost discrepancies between ones real self and ideal self can lead to depression whereas discrepancies between one s real self and ought self can lead to anxiety realistic accuracy model used to explain basis of self knowledge Addressing big questions of personality psych Why do we act consistently psychodynamic 0 defense mechanisms particular way we express instinctual ddves phenomenologicalhumanistic o selfconcept identity level of self actualization o outgrowth of the traits we have traitbiological o traitstabe disposition learning 0 learning stimulusresponse patterns stable schemascripts what drives our behavior psychodynamic o instinctual drives ego cathexis investment of psychic energy in activity phenomenologicalhumanistic o intrinsic striving to nd meaning and purpose self discrepancies needs traitbiological o biologicallybased traits shaped by evolution behaviorist learning 0 rewardsincentives and punishments in the environment environmental experiences that prime different schema and scripts Example gt Ana is a 20yearold college student majoring in psychology She is taking a full load of courses and works parttime to help pay her way through college Despite her busy schedule Ana volunteers several hours a week at the local hospital where she takes care of children with HIV gt WHY does Ana volunteer to work with children with HIV Role of theoretical approaches Use them to generate testable hypotheses psychodynamic approach defensive process to help regulate ie defend against anxiety 0 hypothesis anna feels a sense of shame because she did not help her brother when he was dying of aids and volunteering represents an unconscious attempt to defend against her feelings of shame humanistic approachphenomenological focus on identity self and subjective needs 0 hypothesis anna is a self actualized person whose ideal self involves being a compassionate and caring person she is trying to nd meaning and purpose in life she is trying to reduce discrepancies between her actual and ideal self trait approach focus stable disposition that have a biological basis 0 hypothesis anna is an altruistic person who enjoys helping others scores high on agreeableness compassion and sociability her brain releases oxytocin when she helps others her evolutionary ancestors survived because they cooperated with others and looked after close kin behavioristsocial learning approach focus on external in uences in the environment 0 her volunteer behavior gets positively in uence by smiles of children she helps 0 social learning she believes volunteering will help her get into grad school 0 social learning learned to be altruistic by observing her parents and seeing them rewarded for their altruism positive reinforcement of role model s behaviors Studying personality case study 0 in depth study of ana s life history 0 commonly used by psychodynamic humansicphenomenological correlational research 0 assess personality traits using self report salces or informant ratings and determine which traits correlate with altruism and volunteer acitivty 0 study brain activity while she feels empathy toward others 0 uses by trait and biological experimental methods 0 manipulate exposure to altruistic role models O O O activate schemas and see whether intention to volunteer increases increasedecrease oxytocin levels and access subsequent levels of altruism learning biological trait measuring personality behavioral data 0 trait delay of grati cation test as a measure of impulsivity o behaviorist actometer coding verbal and nonverbal behavoris during marital interactions 0 cognitive reaction time studies 0 biological neuroimaging o psychodynamic projective test Ldata o Phenomenological trait volunteer at hospital altruism Informant report data 0 Trait peer spouse teacher rating of big ve dimensions Sdata self report data 0 Trait and biological selfreport scale phenomenological who am I subjective wellbeing scale Reliability consistency of measure Validity accuracy of measure each theoretical approach provides a different but complementary view of personality Lecture 2 and chapter personality psychology tries to understand how and why people are different What is personality psychology De nition of personality consistent patterns of thoughts feelings and behaviors research questions and basic approachestheories why are some people shy and others outgoing Are you stuck with your personality or can you change it Why do some people response to failure by working harder and others by disengaging How does brain damage affect personality Would you have the same personality if you grew up in a different family or culture Does your dog have a personality quotthese are the questions asked by personality psychologist and that they try to answer case study on john reveals that we go through everyday life trying to gure out peoples personality personality consists of and individals characteristic patterns of thoughts feelings and behaviors personality psychology is the psychological mechanism behind those patterns it is a study of the whole person how people think how people behave and how people feel sk game example press down on the teeth and the jaw comes down this is a situational test that measures a psychological response The psychological triad the study of the whole person how people think 0 thoughts beliefs values expectations ie I believe that most people can be trusted I tend to have a positive outlook on life how people feel 0 feelings emotions 0 ie I feel happy most of the time I often feel nervous when I meet someone how people behave o behaviors actions 0 ie I go to a lot of parties skydiving self control graph self control in childhood predicts crime wealth and health in adu hood eld of personality psych well validated personality tests predict a wide range of important outcomes 0 academic achievement occupational success delinquency and criminality having a happy and lasting relationship health and longevity the few year process to make a personality test a they work at i colleges research institutes CIA FBI organizational consulting rms advertising marking jury selection ii personality psychologists used to help company s pick the best employers ll personality and facebook a can guess gender and race accurately b gure out personality through facebook personality psychologist carry out research make assessments and develop and test theories ultimate goal is to understand all aspects of the person and all contexts broad interdisciplinary teams to gure things out look at an individual and try to interpret their personality from what you know about them textbook notes goals of personality to explain the whole person must look at one aspect very closely then combine all observations address the psychological triad of thought feeling and behavior and try to example the functioning of whole indiviuals trait approach conceptualization of individual differences and measurement of individual differences biological approach anatomy physiology genetics evolution lecture 3 research methods Personality psych focus on consistencies over time and across situations role of person vs situation in causing behavior individual differences in the way people respons to a situation 0 if people didn t respond in different ways there would be no eld multiple levels of analysis genes to culture real world outcomes work family health diverse range of methods BLIS personality is measured through BLIS Personality assessment personality testing is a 500 million dollar industry there are different assessments ones that are developed by psychologist that are more accurate and uff ball ones people have different personality characteristics so we must nd a way to measure and quantify those differences Pre scienti c methods astrology o personality assessment based on birth date physiognomy o personality assessment based on shape of body particularly the face phrenology o something about brain structure and personality connection between the two biological determinism direct relation between the body and personality historic landmarks 3000BC palm reading developed in china 2200 BC chinese civil service selection 0 see who is best suited for certain jobs 0 rst systematic attempt 7th century BC oracle at Delphi quotknow thyselfquot 4th century BC astrology developed 3r century Theophrastus described personality characters in Athens 2ncl century galens 4 quothumorsquot o physiological theory 17th century Christian thomasius developed rst personality questionnaire use their personaility trait against will 19th century gall developed theory of phrenology 1920 rorschach developed inkblot projective test 1943 minnesota multiphasic personality inventory MMPI o standardized by making the test written 0 quotI believe my sins are unpardonablequot 0 most widely used measure in clinical psych 1956 California psychological inventory 1980 s 0 implicit measures response to ashes on a screen positive and negative words 0 autonomic arousal heart rate 1990s 0 neuroimaging measures 0 molecular genetic measures look at your dna o neuroendocrine measures hear saliva blood 2000 s 0 electronically activated recorder ear 0 data mining see what people are doing in everyday life ieFacebook Methods in personality assessment we are infer from other information clues to personality all imperfect multimethod assessment Behavioral data watch what the person does 0 Real world behaviors natural B data Electronically activated recorder EAR goes off at random times and it starts recording what you are doing at that moment of time then answer some ques ons ln context behaviors rich and complex details about what you do in everyday life gather data through direct observation of behavior in real life ideal situation would be to hire a private dective to record everything but that is unrealistic so researchers must compromise and do this by diary 0 diary is a sense of self reporting but it is not a self judgment they are direct indications of what the person did 0 Behaviors in standardized conditions laboratory data 3 tyes Experiments when something is made to happen to a participant this provide opportunities to nd out how people react to very subtle aspects of situations 0 le have particpants meet partners of the opposite sex and engage in conversation and observe what they do Personality tests 0 MMPI o Projective test Thematic apperception test TAT Rorschach test ask to describe about they see Physiological measure 0 Measure of blood pressure galvanic skin response heart rate Behavior is any type of response le shark rorsach delay of grati cation measure of self control 0 kids that can delay grati cation can do so when they are adults bior in experiments ie projective techniques non verbal behavior 0 Physiological measures Heart rate blood pressure euroimaging 0 Advantages Wide range of contexts real and contrived Realistic and describes what the participants actually do in their daily activates o Disadvantages Uncertain interpretation Appearances are ambiguous or misleading so it is impossible to be certain what they mean Dif cult and expensive Life outcome data 0 Information obtained from the events activities and outcomes in a persons life it is veri able concerte real life facts that may hold psychological signi cance 0 Obtained through archival records School records criminal records death divorce ofjobs children 0 Behavioral residue behavioral or life L data thought of as the results of personality rather than diret re ection of personality itself 0 Advantages Objective and veri able Intrinsic importance Psychological O o Disadvantages 0 Their may be many causes so trying to establish direct connections between speci c attributes can be dif cult Possible lack of psychological relevance Informant report data judgments by knowledgeable informants about general attributes of the individuals personality 0 Personality descriptions provided by people who know the individual being assessed 0 Parents friends teachers romantic partners Usually collected by questionnaires or rating form 0 Advantages Large amount of information 0 Can obtain judgments from more than one person Real world basis Common sense 0 Causal force Some I data true by de nition 0 Disadvantages Limited behavorla information 0 There are things that someone s closet friend does not know Lack of access to private experience Error bias Study personality correlates of political liberalism conservatism results personality traits of future liberals were selfreliant energetic impulsive personaility traits of future conservatives fearful inhibited easily offended need to think about the environment in which the study is conducted and the nature of the sample Self report data self judgments 0 Most widely used you know yourself the best have access to internal thoughts and feelings see yourself in various social contexts 0 People describe their typical thoughts feelings and behaviors Responses to personality questionnaires o Nontransparent items quotpeople pretend to care more about one another than they really doquot measuring narcissism o transparent items quotlfl ruled the world it would be a much better placequot 0 advantages large amount of information access to thoughts feelings and intentions some data true by de nition 0 because 5 data re ect what you think of yourself they have a wat of creating their own reality causal force simple and easy 0 cost effective and quick collecting a lot of data 0 o disadvantages maybe cant tell you 0 memory is nite and imperfect memory could be distorted maybe wotn tell you too simple too easy pace and facebook are gray areas Example measuring shyness look about to lecture 3 O BLIS nove toy child terri ed of the dinosaur but continues to press the button on the dinosaur to make it rawr and walk even thought he is scared take the average of what informants says about you funders second law there are no perfect indicators of personality there are only clues and clues are always ambiguous to assess personality you need to collect multiple clues and each clue is potentially awed BLIS is knowing that you have collected the right data to thoroughly evaluate your hypotheses lecture 4 research methods reliability 0 0 all measurement requires reliability extent to which scores on the measure are stable and replicable vs amount of error or randomness in the measure range 0unreliable completely random1 perfectly reliable something or someone that is dependable measurements that re ect what you are trying to assess and are not affected by anything else every measurement has a certain amount of error nothing is perfect 4 things undermine reiabiity low precision state of the participant state of the experimenter variation in environment techniques to improve reliability care with research procedure standardized research protocol measure something important aggregation averaging important if your goal is to predict to behavior validity O 0 more about the actual score and the truth of who you really are is the measure valid 0 Do the scores actually measure what they re supposed to measure Are they accurate 0 Low validity circumference of head as a measure of intelligence 0 High validity of words spoken in a conversation as a measure of talkativeness 0 Degree to which a measurement actually re ects what one thinks or hopes it does o If the measurement matches reality it is valid 0 Construct something that cannot be directly seen or touched but affects and helps to explain different things that are visible ie gravity bulls eye analogy bulls eye truth 0 reliability are you hitting the same spot each time o Validity are you actually hitting the bulls eye some unreliable cannot be valid combing more judgments leaders to more reliability and validity personality measures are highly reliable because they use multiple items or combine judgments by multiple informants for example if you ask 5 people to guess a persons height it would be more reliable than asking only 2 people The average of the 5 numbers would be closer to the real height validity is also high in this way generalizability broader concept that subsumes reliability and validity and it refers to the kinds of other measurements to which a given measurement is related Research designs Correlational studies 0 Pro wide range of variables with large samples in real world contexts o Con s cant establish causal effects 0 Correlational way to examine the same hypothesis is to measure the amount of anxiety participant brings into lab rather than trying to induce anxiety 0 They assess how often and how much experimental studies 0 pros allow inferences about causal effects 0 con s arti cial context cant manipulate come variables can never be exactly sure what you have manipulated can create levels of a variable that are unlikely or even impossible in real life experiments require deception somethines experiemnts not possible 0 get participants and divide them into two groups through random assignment do something to one of the groups and say nothing to the other then examine and compare the results 0 experiment can determine whether one variable can affect another but not how often or how much it actually does for this a correlation research is required 0 only method that can be used to determine causality correlational and experimental methods are not different ideally a complete reaserch desing would include both case study 0 pros in depth study of person it does justice to the topic source of ideas absolutely necessary 0 cons subjective interpretation of data cant establish causal effects limited sample illusions getting a lot of info from the person not controlled 0 closely studying a particular event or person in order to nd out as much as possible 0 examin particular phenomena or indivual in details important source of new ideas Does low self esteem cause aggression Correction study low self esteem is correlated with aggression but maybe agressuin causes low self esteem or 3rd variable ie Diifuclt life circumstances causes low self esteem and aggression experimental study lab measures of aggression are different real world aggression low self esteem is not related to lab measures of aggression case study do school shooters have low self esteem ldeal study interventaion to boost self esteem and then follow them over time participants randomly assigned to controlled condition follow up to see which group is more aggressive vs self esteem boost condition does studying abroad make you more creative Correlation study studying aboard and being creative problem self selection reverse causation if your more creative your more likely to go abroad ideal study randomly select 100 to study aboard personality testing in industry experts identify persoanility traits related to job performance personality tests give to applicants but not used to select people for job predictive validity examined tests are revised to create nal set of selection measures personality testing in industry job applicants complete personality test use personality test results to select employees who are likely to preform well in the job personality traits that relate to job performance predicitive validity is examined tests are given to applicants but no used to select people for the job astrology is not a valid way to assess personality go read p71 generalizability if you have time Personality Theories are formal assumptions and propositions about what people are like in genral human nature how and why people differ from each other individual differences what makes an individual person unique and different from others uniequenss aggressiveness human nature all people will respond aggressively if their life is being threatened and they cannot escape ght or ight individual differences in the same situation some people respond agressivle where others may not 0 personality theories provide possible explantations indivudal uniqueness some acts of aggression can only be understood from particular idnivudals perspective Trait approach based on empirical research that mostly uses correlation designs and focuses exclusively on individual difference Trait individuals differ in typical patterns of thoughts feelings and behaviors these patterns are traits traits are the basic building blocks for personality ie happy talkative shyhappy what aren t personality traits temporary states ie embarrassed attitude cognitive ability iq physical attributes tall short thin social categories rich bully assumptions traits are the building blocks of personality traits are comparative o traits characterize difference among people traits in uence behavior traits are 0 consistent across situations people who are friendly at school also tend to be friendly at home work and with new people situations also in uence behavior situation and personality traits matter and they matter in conjunction with each other 0 stable acros time degree to which a person is shy creative friendly etc is fairly consistent fro year to year and even over decades ie child temperament predicts adult personality 0 biologically based 0 reliably and validly judged by self and others 0 good predictors of important life outcomes traits refer to personal rather than situation cause of behavior gtllt consistency of personality personality become more consistent over time Personality does change Extraversion levels tends not to shift as we go through life As we go through life we become more agreeable and nurturing kids more stable relationships increased interpersonal sensitivity Increase conscientiousness with age On average we become nicer and more responsible and become less sad and anxious Openness declines Personality change during college generally in line with the general study the only one that was different was openness which increased with college students personality traits are real 0 stable over time and across situations 0 agreement among informants 0 high heritability and linked to speci c genes hormones and brain activation reliably observed in other animals 0 person situation debate what exerts a strong in uence on behavior situation situationalist view personality dispositionalist view situationalism emphasis on power of situation to shape people behavior personality only exists in minds of perceiver there is an upper limit to how well one can predict what a person will do based on any measurement of that persona personality situationalsit argument the predictive capability is severely limited situtionalists opponents of the trait approach argue o ability of traits to predict behavior is extremely limited 0 situations are more important than traits to determine what people do 0 personality assessment is a waste time and many people intuition about each other are fundamentally wrong de nfeitve test of usefulness of a personality trait is whether it can be used to predict behavior response o unfair literature review the predictability of behavior from traits is better than is sometimes acknowledged 0 we can do better effects of situations on behavior are no bigger statistically than the documented size of the effects of personality traits on behavior 0 correction if 4 is not small personality traits affect important life outcomes health longevity and interpersonal and career success situational variables best suited for predicting behavior in speci c situation and personality traits more relevant to patterns of behavior that persist across time person and situations interact to produce behavior together look at pg 136 Table 41 Eatraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Neuroticism Openness Source Adapted liron39l Beer 8 BenetMartinez 2095 141156 The Personality Puzzle Elle Table ill1 llnclividluall Outcomes Happiness Gratitude Longevity Psychological healltlh Religious involvement Forgiveness Hams Heart ll39lealltllii longevity Psychological heaitlh Reliiylious beliefs Good health liratritsr Ilongetritgr Avoids nce oli drug a burse Unhappiness Poor coping Forgiveness inspiration Substance aisnse o 2M0 WW Norton 8 Eomlpanv llncj chuck and lynndie example abu ghraib prison abuse 0 the situation made them do it 0 their personality traits predisposed them to do it human nature lLIlFE OUTCOMES ASSOCIATED WITH PERSONALITY 39ll39RAITS interpersonal Outcomes Peer acceptance Success in dating and relationships Attractiveness Status Peer acceptance Dating satisfaction Famii yr satisfaction Dating satistaction Poor fariniljii relations lln stitutionall Outcomes O39ch pationall satisfaction Commlu nity involvement Leadership Social interests Job attainment Avoidance of criminal behavior Job performance Occu pationall success Political conservatism Avoidance of criminal behavior 3ch pationall dissatisfaction C rimi nal lbehavior Artistic interests Political iiberalism 0 all people are capable of eveil ciricumstances at prison unleashed the dark slide of human nature indivudal differences 0 some people are more include toward violence than others unique case 0 garners personal history suggest a unique disposition toward violence 0 lynndies personal history suggest unique dispotion to obey authority regarles of morality assessing personality chuck graner behavioral data 0 aggression experiment blasting with white noise hot sauce 0 set up a situation were he is provoked and see if he responds with aggression 0 putting someone in a standardized situation and seeing reaction 0 brain imaging testosterone serotonin life outcome data 0 employment history 0 criminal records 0 court records realted to spousal abuse informant reports data 0 ex wife 0 co workers at the prison prisoners themselves 0 parents self report data 0 personality test completely when he entered the military 0 we are searching for consistent regular response traits example of how to apply these methods to understand someones personality lecture 6 Taxonomies Trait taxonomies hans eyseck taxonomy rooted in biological theory 0 psychoticismimpulsivity testosterone level 0 extraversion physiological arousal brain is quite so they need arousal low arousal of brain makes extraverts to seek out stimulating things 0 neuroticism reactivity of ANS What are the basic categories of personality traits theoretical approach 0 use theortical model of personality to identify general categories of traits lexical approach 0 most important individual differences in human transaction will come to be encoded as a single term in some or all of the worlds language 0 can usual statistical analyses to determine how everyday personality words are organized into categories o if some aspect of persoanility is important then people everthhere will have a word for it quotbig vequot dimensions based on lexical studies of the dictionary statistical procedure identi ed ve broad factors 0 replicated many times 0 cross cultural replication 0 cross species replication 0 corresponds to trait categories derived from theoretical approach extraversion talkative active outgoing o approach system rewardsgains agreeableness warmness trusting kind 0 care system long term bonds birth of child activated this care system conscientiousness punctual organized respoanible 0 self regulation system standards complex social rules and societal standards neuroticism nervous moody tense o avoidance vigilance system punishmentlosses openness to experience open minded imaginative o explore system interests openness to experience sub domains of openness fantasy Aesthetics feelings idea actions values do big ve apply to animals yes owners and strangers agree which traits accurately describe particular dogs in a dog personality study fearfulness anxious inhibition physical characteristics in humans animals show similar regularities and trait like dispositions their bodies show the trait it is not just a projection of the researcher chapter 5 personality tests it is a big business that has important consequences but some are useless or fraudulent so it is important to understand how they are constructed some personality tests yield S data and other yield B data but more common distinction is between projective tests and objective tests one of the most widely used tests is the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory MMP used for employment screening California psych inventoy CPI also used and designed for use with nondisturbed indivudals Many tests are omnibus inventories which means they wre disned to measure wide range of traits S data test 0 Most tests provide S data 0 Example MMPI items like quotI prefer a sow to a bathquot B data tests 0 Implicit association test measures how quickly participants respond to instructions to discriminate between terms that apply to me or others Personality test construction rational method 0 basis of this approach is to come up with items that seem directly obvious and rationally related to what the test developer wishes to measure 0 data gathered is S data so they have face validity o for S data personality tests to work four conditions must hold each time must mean the same thing to the person who takes the test the person who completes the form must be able to make an accurate rate self assessment the person who completes the form must be able willing to report his self assessment accurately and without distortion all items on the test must be valid indicators of what the tester is trying to measure factor analytic method 0 is an example of a psychological tool based on statistics 0 factor analysis is a statistical method for nding order amid seeming chaos and is designed to identify groups of things 0 to use factor analysis to construct a personality test researchs beign with a long list of objective items they administer these items to a larg number of participants and then you analyze based on correlation coefficients 0 limitations of factor analytic technique quality of information is limited by the quality of items you put into it once computer has identi ed a cluster of items as being statically related human psychologies must still decide how they are related conceptually a subjective process facts that emerge do not make sense empirical method 0 this stragey is an attempt to allow reality to speak for itself 0 rst you gather lots of items and have samples that are already independently been divided into groups you are interested in then administer the test and nally compare the answers given by the different groups 0 there is a basic assumption that certain kinds of people have distinctive ways of answering certain questions 0 four implications with the lack of face validity Lack of concern with item contetn items included can seem contrary or absurd responses to empirically dervided tests are dif cult to fake only good as the criteria by which they are developed or against which they are scorss validated can cause serious problmes with pulic relations and law chapter 6 consequences of personality judgments 0 other peoples judgments can affect that persons oppotuniries an create self ful lling prophecies or expectancy effects Therefore it is important to examine how and when judgments are accurate opportunities 0 reputation affects opportunities 0 if your thought to be outgoing and conscious you are more likely to get the job expectancies o judgments of other can also effect you through self ful lling prophecies and affect intellectual performance and social behavior 0 o accuracy of personality judgments o judgemtns that afree with judgments from other sources or that predict the target persons beavhior are more likely to be accurate than judgments that do not agree with each other 0 rst impressions can be accurate Judgments become more accurate over time 0 variables that affect likelihood of accurate personality judgment good judge good target good trait good information o realistic accuracy model RAM describes accuracy as a function of the relevance availability detection and utilization of behavioral cues p 176 chapter 7 delay of gratiditication o delaying immediate pleasure for long term gain 0 mayn aspects of personality remain faily consistent rhoughout rapid development and changes that occur during childhood 0 girls and boys show a similar pattern in that those who are reasonable planful etc are likely to delay most in the expermitnel tests but girls who delay the most are intellegant attneive resourcesful and boys who delay are shy quite and anxious discovery of big ve implications of big give 0 they are orthogonal meaning that getting a high or low score on any one of them is not supposed to predict whether a person will get aa high or low score on any of the others 0 labels are useful but oversimplied and poteltially misleading typological approach 0 attempts to capture the ways people might differ in kind not just degree 0 research has identi ed 3 types of personality well adjusted adaptable maladjusted over controlled too uptight and maladjusted undercontolled too impulsive these types are useful for thinking about how tratis work in combonation but have little predictive calidity to what can be achieved using trait measures personality development 0 indivudal differences in personality are highly stable across the life span becoming more stable as one gets older 0 the mean levels of some personality traits show substantial changes for most people with a particular increase in conscientiousness and a decline in neuroticism across decades lecture 7 Biological approach biology and personality biology shapes and in uences per sonality neuscience methods eeg measures brain waves TMS creates a tempory son in the brain to study the effects Basic assumptions personality traits 0 re ect physiological differences 0 are strongly in uenced by genetics genetic difference product of evolutionary history 0 are rooted in our evolutionary history human nature is a product of thousands of years of evolution gentic variability relates to brain processes and structures and then difference in persoanility genotype to phenotype physiological processes how do we get from genes to personality Neurotransmitters o Dopamine linked to exploratory behavior positive emotion and responsiveness to phsycial and social rewards linked to the big ve domains of extroversion and openness Go system 0 Serotonin low levels linked to depression anxiety irrational anger and obsessive worrying linked to neuroticism the brains reman Gene that regulates serotonin levels has similar effects as Prozac people with the Prozac gene are less depressed and anxious Genes accounts for less than 5 percent of the variability in peoples depression Our biological make is much for complicated and complex than we thought hormones o testosterone high levels are associated with the dominance competiveness aggression energy level attention to concrete and immediate problems testosterone and aggression males have 10 times more testosterone and are more aggressive than females virtually with all species castrated animals are less aggressive higher testosterone at birth associate with increase aggression in boys high testosterone associated with violent crime and is linked to crome for poor but not af uent men testosterone levels linked to personality of individual testosterone levels study high early in the day to be able to survive and hut during the day and the levels decrease as the day goes on o cortisol response to stress preparation for ght or ight infants with high levels tend to be timid and socially inhibited high cortisol associated with anxiety depression and cardiovascular disease low cortisol also entrails risk failure to respond to signs of danger excessive sensation seeking others physiological markers 0 sympathetic arousal heart rate skin conductance ght ight system 0 parasympathetic arousal respiratory sinus arrhythmia heart rate variability emotion regular calm down 0 proin ammtory cytokines immune system over reacting to things in our body and internal threats like bacteria cytokines promote in ammation in response to injury and infection adaptive in short term but increases risk of diseas and mortality over the longterm with personality it is linked to shame and depression in humans avoidance sytem focus on healing shutting system down study in sardinina island off ltaly because less gene diversity high neuroticism and low conscientiousness gthigh levels of cytokines and negative health outcomes biology cause and effect cortisol leads to anxiety and anxiety increase cortisol bidirectional effect neuroscience and persoanility regions circuits or networks in the brain associated with particular aspects of personaility and social behaviors o Phineas gage personality change connection of brain to personality brain damage study Frontal lobes and neocortex Neural bases of persoanility brain damage 0 patient with brain lesions caused by accidents or disease 0 autism and alzhimers personality differences between children with autism and typically developing children study 0 autism effects child s personality 0 autistic children less extraverted agreeable conscientious and openness brain damage 0 patient studies 0 TMS simulate brain damage in a lab setting Brain imaging 0 Look at brain activity 0 Normal participatnts exposed to controlle stimuli 0 Only very simple emotional responses can be studied Neural correlates of the big ve in neuroscience different studies do always show the same thing extraverson senstivty to reward approach conscientiousness self regulation exectuation of planned acUons neuroticism sensitivity to punshich avoidance example sensation seeking behavioral activation system 0 body is always seeking reward high sensation seeker tend to scuba dive sky dive have a lot sex partners how we measure self report scale there must be a determinant to doing it the car stop light game dopamintic pathway snetation seekers sensation seekers have different brains that non sensation seekers different anatomical structure prefrontal cortex not full developed in asolescene different neural activation patterns gap between function of brain to want to get reward ad the poetnetial consequences sentation seekers have differen genetic make up 0 high heritable gentic in uence around 50 OOOO o linke to speci c genes people with long verson D4 dopamine receptor gene tend to be high sensation seekers compaosed to those with short version 0 individual genes barely say or explain anything sensation seeking and animals sensation seeking is not just for humans evolutionary approach we are biologically programed to engage in behaviors that facilitate survival and reproduction these beahviors maximize the liely hood that our genes wil be passed hown to the next generation in what way are personality traits adaptive nannalschon sexual selection help attract a mate inclusive fitness helping kin survive and defend why are we different if the genes are adaptive and selected for us frequency dependent selection 0 certain traits are adaptive only if there are enough people in the population who don t have this trait 0 different niches within the environment and different genese are necessary 0 sub enviroments adapt in different ways to fu ll what is needed 0 different selection pressures 0 chapter 8 general methods for studying the brain 0 brain damage and brain imaging 0 frontal lobes and personality neurotransmitters hormoens cause and effect Lecture 8 Biological Approach ll biological perspective and persoanilty basic asusmptions personality traits 0 re ect physiological differences 0 strongly in uenced by genetics o rooted in our evolutionary history Genetics behavioral genetics heritability of personality molecular genetics identify speci c genes that explain heritability behavonalgenech is personality inherited thought about in eugenics there used to be moral stigma surrounding this genotype gentic make up phenotype personality personality is hsaped by our genetic make up by the enviorment and by the interaction between our genes and the enviroment biology is not destiny behavioral genetics research adopation studies adopted vs Genetically related siblings studying enviroment and genes twins studies identical vs fraternal twins twins reared together vs apart how much does their shared genetics effect their personality behavioral genetics methodology take monozygotic twin paris and dizygotic twin pairs measure of extraversion and look at the borrelation between the pair heritability MZ correclation DZ correlcation x2 correcation are compared heritability coefficient less measurement error leads to stronger association What heritability tells us Genes matter 0 Insight itno etiology of personality Enviromet also matters 0 Heritability does not equal one heredity is not a xed number it changes by the environment Beahvorial genetic research geneUcin uences 0 genes individuals inherit from their parents shared environment 0 envuroemtnal effects sahed by family members or whoever your being compared to nonshared environment 0 envurimental effects unique to the indivual and not shared by family members these should make you more different see small shared envriomental effects nonshared are more important conclusion from behavioral genetic research all personality traits are at least partially heritable the effect of being raised in the same family is smaller than the effect of genes 0 for basic traits the big ve the environment and culture in which you are raised does not matter too much much of the variability in persoablity is not due to genes or being raised in the same family 0 personality differences are strongly in uenced by unshared or idiosyncratic experiences shared environment if important for some things attitudes religious belifs poltical orientation health behavors verbal itelliegence smoking behaviors Nature of nature genetic dispositions in uence the environment genetic dispostions leds to slection of certain evnrioments manipulation of the environment and elicit reactionsf from environment their nature effects the way their nuruture nuruture is not independent of nature nature is effecting the nuruting environment kids are effecting the way parents are parenting romantic relationship 0 select your partner and chose ones that are healthy or toxic for us and we chose them based on our genetic background 0 your own behaviors are ellicting a reponse from you partner how can we explain heritability almost everything is somewhat heritable 0 self esteem persoanilty secual origentation divorce 0 if identical twin divorces the twin is more likely to divorce as well genesgt DNAgtproteinsgtneurotransmittersgtthoughts and feelingsgt oserianlitygtdivorce divorce is linked up to traits not a divorce gene the environment can disrupt the sequence molecular genetics which indivudal genes affect personality gene environment interactions human genome we are complex human beings dif culty nding speci c genes 0 surprisingly weak link between genes and psychological traits and complex diseases 0 there was originally thought to be 10 common variants but there is now the thought that there are 1000 rare genetic variants that all work together invidual genese interact with the evnrioment need a triggering life event genetic vulnerability and environmental effect increasing genetic diversity criminal behavior criminality is highly heritable we know certain genes are linked weakly to criminal behavior should we 0 prevent people with criminal genes from having children chapter 9 heritability effects of environment on family molecular genetics gene environment interactions evolutionary theory
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