Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide NUTR200
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gianna Harris on Monday August 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NUTR200 at La Salle University taught by Professor Henstenburg in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Nutrition Through the Life Cycle in Nutrition and Food Sciences at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 08/03/15
Nutr200 Study Guide Test 1 1 10 The Dietary Reference Intake DRI series previously called Recommended Dietary Allowances are the 10th revision of nutrient standards for the Us which were first developed in 1941 The 19992004 Dietary Reference Intakes represent a new paradigm shift order from older nutrient recommendations because they are intended to help people prevent chronic disease states and avoid harm from consuming too much In the current version of the DRI RDAs are set for nutrients that have a scientifically determined Estimated Average Requirement The nutrient reference value termed Adequate Intake is based on approximations of nutrient intzge bv a group of healthv pepple with an adequate nutritional state as determined from national health data The need for setting a Tolerable Upper Intake in the current version of the DRIs is due to increased nutrient forti cation of foods and beverages and the use of dietary supplemean by more individuz Nutrient requirements 0 The same nutrients are required by healthy individuals throughout life 0 The amount varies based on age and gender 0 Physiologic states such as growth and illness affect nutrient requirement 0 Nutrients are provided to individuals through food Recommended protein intake for individual adults is easily met with a standard American diet RDAs for vitamins and minerals are based on a bellshaped curve and set at what percentile of a population s nutrient needs 97 98tile Recommendations for total fat in the diet Dietary fat occurs in food in the form of triglycerides Recommendations for water intake for adults include a minimum intake to 1500 mldav 6 cups and an Adequate Intake AI value focused on preventing dehydration 11 A primary criteria for minimum recommended carbohydrate intake of l30gday is necessary for Brain glucose utilization 12 Energy needs for an individual can be best determined by continually measuring Body Weigm 13 60 minutes of daily moderate intensity physical activity are recommended by the DRIs for normal body weight 14 The DRIs are meant to apply to healthy adults liThe Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range AMDR is a range of intake recommended for carbohydrate 4565 fat 12035 and protein 1035 expressed as a percentage of total energv inti Based on AMDR someone who consumes 2000 caloriesday should aim for 4007 00 fat caloriesday 20 of 2000400 35 of 2000700 ILDuring adulthood optimal calorie and nutrient intakes O Maximize lean body mass 0 Avoid excess weight gain 0 Decrease chronic disease risk 0 Maintain functional body cells 18 Decreased testosterone levels in men is a physiologic change that occurs in adulthood Metabolic rate and energy expenditure begin to decline in early adulthood at a rate of about 20 per decade in women and 29 per decade in men 20 The decline in estrogen production in women after menopause leads to 0 Increase in abdominal fat 0 Accelerated loss of bone mass 0 Greater risk of cardiovascular disease 21 The DRI Estimated Energy Requirement EER equation is considered to be the most accurate estimate of energy needs for freeliving healthy adults Added sugars in food should constitute no more than 25 of total daily calorie intake due to a negative affect on Micronutrient int A A 2i amp 27 28 29 30 31 32 Adults over 50 may need to Vitamin B12 supplement due to the presence of atrophic gastritis According to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans moderate alcohol intake for healthy men should be no more than 2 drinksday Nutrients involved with lowered blood pressure as apart of the DASH diet 0 Calcium Magnesium and Potassium The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends the US adults should increase within their diets 0 Fruits and vegetables Low fat dairy products and Vitamin D Body composition changes in adults may result in positive energy balance due to Decrease in Lean Body Mass Chronic conditions with modifiable risk factors such as diet and exercise include 0 Liver disease 0 Heart disease 0 Diabetes 0 Stroke A 40yearold woman weighs 150 pounds and is 5 7 and is moderately active PA is 166 17018 cmV 170 m 1kg 1 16 1 k 112 What1sherEER 50 22 68 8 g 67E254Z cm 354 691401129366818726170z 276 354 4 112 63816 12342 354 2764 112 187236 782097 2175 What is the RDA for proteins for the same 40 year old Protein 080 kggd 1 15016 6818 kg 080 kggd 5454 or 55 2d 22lb If the woman about has a dietary intake of 42g of fat 368g of carbs and 80g of protein how many calories should she take in 42g of fat 9calg 378 cal 368g of carb 4 calg1472 cal 80g of fat 4 calg 320 cal Total 2170 calories The woman above eats approximately 2 servingsday of vegetables per day very little fruit and does not like whole grains Her diet is low in Potassium 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Test 2 43 Nuts can provide the best amount of magnesium to the woman s diet Social determinants of health include 0 Unemployment 0 Supermarket access 0 Access to health services 0 Availability of a workplace wellness program To lose one pound a week a person would have to eat less calories per day The most variable component of energy expenditure is Activity level All states in the US currently have a minimum obesity rate of 20 Throughout the Weight of the Nation Qt less and move more was the promoted approach to obesity as an effective weight loss strategy for majority of the public According to Weight of the Nation effective weight loss should include 0 Take small steps at a time to change diet and exercise patterns 0 Set realistic goals for weight loss 0 Track calorie intake 0 Keep portions under control As confirmed by two women in the Weight of the Nation the approximate number of calories per day that women eat when maintaining large weight loss is 1200 calday According to the Health at Every Size approach to weight good health should be achieved by paying attention to 0 Occupation 0 Diet and Exercise 0 Social environment Spirituality A Health at Every Size approach to weight loss is t in response to hunger cues Infant growth status should be assessed during well visits at regular intervals by the use of 0 Weightforage plot on growth chart 0 Lengthforage plot on growth chart 0 Head circumferenceforage plot on growth chart 0 Use of an accurate balance scale and recumbent length board 44 Normal infant growth when plotted on WHO growth charts should be between the 5 95 tile 45 During infancy the development of motor control starts with Head and trunk control then leg control 46 A 5 monthold infant weighing 18 pounds would require approximately total kcals 1k per day EER89 x wtkg10056 18le x 2 2 2818 kg 89x818kg 1005672802 100566280256684 47 The same 5monthold infant weighing 18 pounds would require approximately how many grams of protein each day 152gkgday X 818kg 124glday 48 If a 3monthold infant consumes 30 ouncesday of human breast milk how many calories do they consume 20caloz X 30 oz 600 calories 49 The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that beginning at birth all breastfed infants should receive a supplement of Vitamin D 50 Recommendations for introducing a baby to solid food feeding includes 0 Pace feeding to allow the infant to swallow 0 Give the infant time to open hisher mouth and extend tongue 0 Time the first feeding experience for when the infant is not overly hungry 0 Offer solid foods when the infant is able to keep their head upright and sit with minimal support 51 According to Ellyn Satter which of the following is part of the division of responsibility when feeding an infant Allow the infgnt to signgl to the parent how much they want at each feeding 52 Whole milk should NOT be provided to infants in their bottle or as a beverage with meals until they are at least 12 months of age 53 The window of development when most normally developing infants should be introduced to their first solid food puree consistency is 46 months 54 What nutrient is related to cognitive impairment in infants when deficient Iron 55 During infant feeding development selffeeding with hands emerges between 7 9 months 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 Common gastrointestinal problems in infants such as re ux are most often related to continued maturation of the gastrointestinal tract throughout infancy Whether an infant gets enough calories and nutrients during the first 406 months of life is best indicated by normal growth and development An infant s cognitive development is dependent on 0 Input from senses and motor skills 0 Positive social and emotional interaction 0 The interaction of biologic and environmental factors 0 Adequate intakes of energy protein and micronutrients Which of the following describes an infant s feeding development They should have puree foods starting at 46 months mashed foods at 68 months and chopped table foods by 1012 months The definition of food security includes 0 Having physical access to safe and nutritious food 0 Having enough money to buy a sufficient amount of food 0 Consuming food that supports an active and healthy life 0 Being free of painful sensations caused by hunger An overall cause of hunger and food insecurity is poverty and unemployment In 2008 the name of the Food Stamp Program was changed to Supplemental Nutrition Assisinnce Program SNAP Which of the following categories of people are at risk for hunger and food insecurity 0 Elderly women children homeless The Food Stamp Program has increase in terms of need and demm One rule of thumb regarding portion size for a 2year old toddler is Serve 1 tablespoon of food per vear of age of 34 different foods According to Ellyn Satter which of the following would be considered a principle that a parent should follow when feeding a toddler Allow a child to determine how much or whether that want to eat 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 What nutrient deficiency is most related to growth stunting in toddlers and preschoolers Zinc Growth charts for children ages 210 differ from those used from ages B2 because they monitor BMIforage Characteristics of toddlers in regard to feeding behavior include 0 They respond best to consistency in feeding schedule 0 They have strong preferences and dislikes 0 They imitate parents and older siblings 0 They commonly go on food jags Feeding recommendations for toddlers include 0 Allowing them to get messy when eating 0 Offer new foods a minimum of 810 times for acceptance 0 Feed every 23 hours for development of hungersatiety signals 0 Offer small portions and monitor safety to determine need for more food Appetite in preschoolers decrease when growth slows and increase before growth spurts The RDA for calcium for 13 years is 700 m da The most important reason why sports drinks should not be provided to children during recreational exercise is thev promote excess calorie consuthi Increased body fat in earl childhood called BMI rebound occurs at approximately what age 6 years old Which of the following is increased in obese children 0 Risk of cardiovascular disease 0 Risk of type II diabetes 0 Bullying 0 Stigma How many daily minutes of physical activity are recommended for children 60 minutes Children s eating habits and nutritional intake are most positively affected by eating family meals together The RDA for iron for children 48 years is 10 m da 79 A multivitamin mineral supplement would be most recommended for children who do not eat fruits and vegetables 80 According to Ellyn Satter s feeding relationship parents feeding jobs include 0 Choose and prepare food 0 Make eating times pleasant provide regular meals and snacks 0 Model what children should learn about mealtime behavior 81 A 7yearold girl weighs 55 pounds and is 48 inches tall Her weight plotted on the growth chart is at the 75th percentile 82 For the same 7 year old girl her height plotted on the growth chart is at the 50th pm Test 3 83 If a child s BMI is between the 85th and 95th percentile it means the child is classified as m 84 Health consequences that occur with increased frequency in obese children include 0 Type II diabetes 0 High blood pressure 0 High blood lipids 0 Psychological problems 85 Characteristics of government food and nutrition programs for children 0 They must provide IA of the DRIs for designated nutrients at breakfast 0 They must provide 13 of the DRIs for designated nutrients at lunch 0 Participation in the nutritional school lunch program requires a wellness policy 0 The USDA provides Team Nutrition to support improved nutrition in school aged children 86 According to the Healthy Hunger Free Kids Act food offered in government food and nutrition programs 0 Must be consistent with the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans 0 Portion Sizes are limited to ageappropriate amounts 0 Emphasize whole grains 0 Must offer fruits and vegetables daily 87 The primary cause of childadolescent obesity is Energy ingt energy out 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 Biological changes during puberty in males include 0 Sexual maturation 0 Accumulation of skeletal mass 0 Increase in height and weight 0 Increase in muscle mass The best reason for young adolescents to consume foods that provide adequate calcium is because voun2 adolescents absorb four times as much calcium than adults to help achieve maximum bone mass A fortified breakfast cereal provides 100 of the RDA for folate for adolescent 1418 females in a quantity of 400 micrograms Zinc is important during adolescents for 0 Protein synthesis 0 Normal growth 0 Sexual maturation DNA synthesis The RDA for calcium for 918 years is 1300 m da Assessment of nutritional needs in adolescence is most accurate when height and weight can be paired with sexual maturation Bulimia nervosa is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by 0 Fasting Selfinduced vomiting 0 Laxative or diuretic use 0 Vigorous exercise Disordered eating includes 0 Use of diet pills for weight loss Use of fad diets for weight loss 0 Occasional fasting to control weight 0 Compensatory behaviors to control weight Heart failure as a common cause of death in people with eating disorders is most commonly caused by electrolyte imbailnce Modifiable risk factors for the prevention of eating disorders include 0 Nutrition and physical exercise education 0 Increased understanding of how media portrays women 0 Psychological evaluation for anxiety and depression 0 Improved family communication 98 Soft drinks are not recommended for teens because they displace other nutrient den beverages 99 Regular physical activity during adolescence contributes to 0 Decreased risk of obesity 0 Positive selfesteem Greater bone density Lower levels of anxiety and stress 100 Increased iron needs for males during adolescence are most related to linear growth spurts 101 A comprehensive ecological approach to promote physical activity and healthy eating in schools should include 0 Nutritional guidelines for foods sold during school 0 K12 nutrition and physical activity curricula and instruction 0 Family and community involvement 0 Lifestyle guidance for individual students 102 An adolescent choosing vegetarianism might indicate the presence of a poor dietary intake if they are doing it to restrict fat and calories 103 The energy needs of an adolescent are in uenced by 0 Pubertal growth and development 0 Basal metabolic rate Activity level Height and weight 104 Vitamin D must be present for optimal calcium absorption in adolescents 105 Zinc might be lacking if an adolescent is not experiencing normal sexual maturation 106 The placenta IS NOT A PART OF THE MATERNAL CIRCULATION but it does 0 Remove waste products from the fetus 0 Makes hormones for maintaining the pregnancy 0 Passes some nutrients to the fetus via active transport 0 Passes some nutrients to the fetus via simple diffusion 107 The maternal anabolic phase of pregnancy builds the mother s capability to deliver nutrients to the fetus 108 The best weight gain advice for a normalweight woman is they should gain 2535 Dounds over the course of the entire Dregglncv 109 The recommended dietary allowance for folate during pregnancy is 500ng total with 400mcg coming from forti ed food or sunnlements 110 Jane s BMI is 283 overweight During pregnancy she should g21in less weight 3 recommended for a normal weight wom 111 Energy needs for pregnant women include energy needs increase about 340 cal daily during the second trimester and 450 cal during the third trimester 112 Achieving 27 mgday of Iron during pregnancy is most difficult to achieve by diet alone 113 Guidelines for alcohol intake during pregnancy is no alcohol should be consumed 114 A normal full term birth occurs between 37 42 weeks gestational age 115 Recommendations for fat intake during pregnancy include obtaining 300 ngday of EPA and DHA 116 Truths about protein need or metabolism during pregnancy 0 The mother does not store protein in early pregnancy 0 The protein need of the fetus must be met by the mother s protein intake 0 The RDA for protein is 11 gkgday staring in the 2nd half of pregnancy 0 Protein and amino acids are conserved during pregnancy 117 Additional calcium requirements in pregnancy may be met by increased absorption from food and release of calcium from mother s bone 118 Total body water in pregnancy Greater expansion of plasma volume associilted with greater newborn size 119 Folate plays a role in 0 Cell division 0 DNA synthesis 0 Prevention of spina bifida 0 Prevention of anencepha1y 120 According to the fetalorigins hypothesis of later disease risk low birth weight may predispose adults to 0 Cardiovascular disease Type II diabetes 0 Hypertension 0 A variety of other diseases in adulthood 121 In Weight of the Nation pt 111 children With a television in their room is associated with obesity because it exposes children to advertising for unhealthv food 12 2 In Weight of the Nation pt III consumption of excess sugar beverages in children and adolescents occur mainly in the form of sugarsweetened beverages soda and SDOI tS drinks and fruit iuices
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