HIST 108 Midterm Study Guide
HIST 108 Midterm Study Guide HIST 108
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by BaylessK on Tuesday August 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 108 at University of South Carolina taught by Johnson in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see Science and Technology in World History in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 08/04/15
HIST 108 Midterm Study Guide 08052015 Greece hwhe oldest records not an empire 0 Hellenic 0 City states in Ionia 0 Independent and had no king 0 Hellenistic 4th century BCE O Marked by confederation imperialism and conquest 0 Expansion of culture and learning 0 Golden Age of Greek Science 0 Ionian O PreSocratics natural philosophers thinkers of science and philosophy Thales 625 545 BCE 0 Could predict solar eclipse U Knew stars weren t gods U predicted earth was round I Anaximander 610540 BCE U Thought of fourth element fire 0 Wanted to know what heaven were made of 0 Drew circular diagrams of earthuniverse 0 Rise of Athens end of presocratics O Socrates 470399 BCE 0 Hippocrates of Cos 460377 BCE I Hippocratic oath I Believed all problems with human health have physical causes by imbalances of the 4 substanceselements I Yellow bile I fire U Black bile I Earth U Phlegm I water H Blood I air 0 Plato of Athens428348 BCE I Teacher of Aristotle I Student of Socrates I Problem solver math amp geometric astronomy I Fundamental elements of earth air fire and water I Was no consensus of cosmology astronomical theory before him 0 Aristotle 382322 BCE I Student of Plato I Made his work agree more with values of church I Believed in 4 humors elements U Hot wet dry cold pair with air water fire earth I 3 types of souls Timeline of Roman Empire 0 50927BCE Roman Republic 0 44BCE Return of Julius Caesar O Assassinated March 15 44 BCE 0 4431BCE Civil War 0 31BCE Augustus Caesar formerly Octavian becomes Emperor after conquest of Egypt 0 Roman Empire splits around 400CE empire ends in the west ca 476 CE East continues Roman Social Orders 0 Patricians owned land 0 Plebians citizens common people 0 Slaves could buy land and freedom and well educated Empire Based on Technology 0 Known for high quality paved roads 0 Made for wheels amp wagons 0 Could move large numbers of people soldiers 0 Lots of material and labor Innovations 0 Hvdraulic cement still used today chemical advantage 0 Water Control 0 Cloaca maxima main underground sewer system that took water out of city 0 Aquaducts 0 Brought water into the city 0 Built with arches on an angle Cistems underground water containers Monuments O Pantheon O Colloseum largest ampitheatere 0 Forum Marketplace and gov building Domes 3D figure of arch temple of gods Galen Greek writer citizen of roman empire 13rd of ancient manuscripts written by him wrote mostly medical wrote about plagues and humors wrote about bloodletting violated Hippocratic oath planets amp zodiac sign Claudius Ptolemy From Alexandria in Egypt Greek speaker amp roman citizen Geocentric science earth is middle of the solar system Wrote about astronomy and astrology Almagest diagram of how earth was center of universe retrograde motion of planets Competing Values of Knowledge Greek focused on why explanations personal knowledge 0 Episteme greek freeman roman citizens middle age universities 0 Rome focused on how to making amp building power expansion body knowledge how to do something 0 Techne greek servants slaves trademan roman state Decline of natural philosophy 0 Intellectual labor became less about discovery and more about old knowledge 0 No specific social role for science 0 Wasn t used for practical purposes so little incentive for natural philosophers 0 Rise of religion and cults which were anti intellect Arabic Science Values 0 Book making gaining knowledge medicince Qu run bible l Aristototelian dependent on evidence experimental science 2 Islamic context religious duty to understand universe Timeline of Arabic Science 0 Caliph successor to Muhammad Prophet 0 Spread of Islam 0 800s900s brought hindi decimal numerals into arabic book on calculation algebra I alKhwarismi O Embraced much from ancient Greece learning but their technology was more from rome 0 Roman arches instead of greek post and lintels used hydraulic system for agriculture 0 Rise of Bagdad 0 Translation movement Persian text to Arabic texts of astrology I Patronage Supporting translations was sign of civic status I Paper from China becomes key for records I First to bind books to create manuscripts Largest city in the world round walled city by gov 0 House of Wisdoms built by Caliph I Largest library in world by 850 center of translation text driven culture to gain most knowledge 0 Almost none survives bc mud brick construction 0 Two observatories built in Baghdad O Astrolabe attracts moons and heavens O 0 Avicenne Ibn Sina 0 Best known Islamic scholar 0 Writes THE medical textbook to be used for 600 years 0 Polymath medicine philosophy soul amp existence 0 Heavens were finite 3D bodies deductive Cathedr211s amp Medieval Engineering 0 With increasing economy merchants can move town to town 0 Castle and fortified cities switched to stone from mud I Needed skilled laborers and buildersl created economy O Plow amp horse power emerges allows for more expansion food Population increase commercial increases increase in church and economy banks loans and interest Styles of Architecture 0 Carolingian O Romanesque 39 Speyer Cathedral shaped like cross Gothic Architecture Begins 12th century Abby St Dennis was first gothic structure burials of kings Pointed arches gothic vaults tall external towers tiny light glass window techniques were unknownl uses less materials Flying buttresses Stained Glassl Notre Dame 0 Was important because many people were illiterate told stories from bible York Minister lst structure to open cathedrals and bring more light BeauVis 1225 collapsed while under construction experimented with form materials techniques Medieval Natural Philosophy Scholasticism employed dialectical reasoning 2 diff Views 0 Reconciled truth or compromise 0 Agreement on single topic Peter Dear Intelligibility of nature 2 types of authority 0 Epistemic truth science s apparent truth value how to we know what s true I freeman 0 Political usefulness depends on state how can be used 2 ways to view science 0 Natural Philosophical true account of how things work describes world how it is amp nature knowledge for knowledge sake 0 Instrumental does something to world experimental science power over people science does practical things people want doesn t need to be true just needs to work humoral and miasma theories of disease Deductive reasoning how to create science hypothesis testing analyzing physical properties materials Inductive reasoning broad statements believed to be true using soul things you can t test Alchemy The Printing Press by Johannes Gluten 0 Printing of bibles minted coins 0 Distribution of texts Fast mass production Cheaper than hiring a scribe More info available to all social classes Perfectly duplicated texts book trade across countries Alchemy explodes with printing 0 Moveable tvpe makes small ornate letters out of metal 7 Metals each have corresponding planet 0 Noble I Gold sun I Silver moon 0 Base Metals I Mercury mercury I Copper venus I Iron mars I Tin Jupiter I Lead Saturn 0 Alchemists wanted to turn base metals to noble O Transmutation of metals Cherpoeia O Metals extracted from mines amp purified O Heated melted mixed corroded etc 0 Alchemical symbols for all metals 0 Transmuting Agents I Universal philosophers stone I Particular recipes 0 Alchemists made new compounds but were unaware Luna Fixe dense white metal white gold 0 Recipes 0 Books were published in code languages and images only accessible to those who know I Who were alchemists 0 Physicians 0 Critics university natural philosophers O Metallurgists mine directors 0 Goldsmiths 0 What Happened to alchemy 0 Dirty dangerous I lower class 0 Was publically discarded as superstition O Tied to cosmology and goes out of fashion in 16th century Modern Science astronomy as central focus I ptolemy s solar hypothesis geocentric ptoloemy didn t know why moon got bigger smaller 0 Copernicus 14731543 0 000 O Transitional thinker not revolutionary not for geocentric motion revised retrograde motion Has sun in center of universe Earth is on axis and tilts epicyclic motion around sun Explained inferior vs superior classes closefar from sun Obj ected religiously 0 Tycho Brahe prince 15461601 0 O O Observational astronomer built observatories Contradicted Copernicus rejected heliocentrism Key observations I Formation of new star supernova 39 Comets cut through heavenly spheres I Dual Model sun rotates around earth all other planets rotate around sun 0 Kepler 15711630 0 CO 0000 Mathematician supports Copernicus I writes Cosmographic Mystery supports Tycho s supernova amp works with him until he dies Protestant universe must have geometric plan in gods image Projective Geometry shaped projected into space conic sections ellipses Laws of Planetary motion I Planets do not have uniform speed Mathematical model of Mars orbit using Tycho s observations Suggested ways to improve telescope w Galileo s optical theory Forced to leave work in Prague bc religious wars break out Write s Epitome of Copernican Astronomy I becomes primary teaching book of astronomy Galileo 1564 1642 0 At Arsenal at Venice 0 Ballistics consultant for cannons curves amp parabola equations projectile motions 0 Mathematics to design buildings and warfare 0 Wrote about gravity experiments w inclined planes 0 Improved the telescope O From 9X to 30X magnification 0 Rejected Kepler and converted to copernicanism I but could not defend beliefs Sunspots sun changes Venus has phases like moon Charged with heresy Newton and the Scientific Revolution takes about 200 yrs Isaac Newton 16421727 0 Worked with calculus laws of motion amp tangents to curve 0 Improved telescope refraction 0 Laws of Motion 0 Didn t know reason for gravity 0 Accomplishments I Mathematization Principia I Experimentation Opticks I Theology bible written in secret codes I Alchemy philosophers stone worked in coin making 0 Arianism didn t believe in Holy Trinity Gottfried Leibniz O Simultaneous studies during newton working on same concept 0 Calculus used today differential calculus integral calculus Air pump series of experiments on vacuum 0 Does sound travel in vacuum 0 Earth can be broken down into compounds 0 Fire was questionable bc removal of air prevents it from sustaining 0 What is matter 0 Microscope Antoine van Leeuwenhoe 0 Problem with experimentation convincing people it was real and not a trick 0 Roval Societv 0 1St scientific society founded 1660 0 collaborations of studies debates publishes works sent from other countries amp reviewed by the society 4mm 0Historiography making sense of history historians construct narratives of what happened then asked what these episodes mean 0 Scientific Revolution change in natural philosophers world view toward learning the truth and uncovering nature s laws 0 Term science used by the 20th century 0 Scientific or Revolutionary 0 Revolutionary no strong break btw medieval and modern science everything built off each other amp cultures ideas still continuing today 0 Scientific small scientific improvements over time still expanding scientific innovations amp technology 0 Technology of ships 0 Caravel fast ships long in shape 0 Nau traveled distances for new informationdiscoveries OPtolemy s Map of the World 1200 CE 0 No Americas no continuity of ocean Magellan amp Elcano Circumnavigation 15191522 0 Spain I South America I Indian Ocean I Africa I Spain Hernan Cortez discovers Tenochitlan O Built canals amp series of islands present day mexico city 0 Aztec pyramids O Challenged idea of what new world was Francisco Hernando del Toledo Expedition 15711577 0 1St scientific voyage supported by Spain 0 seeked plants minerals medicinal herbs animals of new lands and new people 0 discovered pineapple cocoa and maize corn 0 began growing new agriculture in Europe I Royal Botanical Gardens Paris Kew Gardens London Madrid Royal Gardens Naturalists worked in research gardens 0 J ose Celestino Mutis 0 Linnaeus Carl Von Linne works mid 1700s as botanist l Classified Animal Kingdoms classes orders genera species I Wrote books for plant classification Was natural history a true science 0 Natural Philos0phv mathematized descriptions of motion theories and laws 0 Experimental Philosophy descriptions of experiments and results 0 Natural History Classification and description of natural things 0 Natural Theologv evidence of God in the natural world could be description or theoretical Science in 18th Century 0 Science is becoming modern 0 Unstable connections with state and economy 0 Not a profession still need patronage 0 Big Questions 0 Mar s relation to Nature 0 How should knowledge be organized 0 How do we know at all The Chemical Revolution 17601800 0 Beliefs up to this point 0 3 Principals O 4 elements 0 7 metals planets O earth is not a single element alchemy 0 Phlogiston named as substance produced after burning an object theory about why things burn explain how fire reacts if a substance is able to burn it has phlogiston in it if it stops burning have used all phlogiston believed it was naturally in air George Stahl 0 Joseph Black Scottish Natural Philosopher O Studied fixed air burned substance and created fixed air 0 Pneumatic chemistry study of elements of the air I Chemistry becomes experimental science 0 Pneumatic Chemists 0 Henry Cavendish mixed acids runs spark underwater explosive amp in ammable air I Apparatus for capturing in ammable air 0 Joseph Priestlev dissolves fixed air in water I C02 I Pneumatic trough apparatus captures wanted gases I Nitrous air I Acid air I Alkaline air I Dephlogisticated air 0 Antoine Lavoisier amp wife 0 Moves from mineral studies to air studies works with Priestley Thinks of air characteristics quantitatively combustion Law of Conservation of Matter Skeptic of phlogiston Makes up logical names for all elements amp chemical nomenclature 55 elements 0 Apparatus for decomposition of air expensive and elaborate sees what components are in what products French Revolution 1789 bloody political event 0 Antoine publishes Elements of Chemistry at a bad economic time 0 Farmers General amp Academie des Sciences suppressed Farmers Genreal arrested and executed 0 Antoine is target of terror group I beheaded May 7 1794 End Result chemistry is a scientific discipline by 1800 atomic theory develops over next 100 years Lavoisier called these changes an revolution in his lifetime 0 O O O Industrlll Revolution Great Britain 1760 development of capital moneyresources politics empire technology relatively peaceful has sole possession of Canada amp India 0 Natural Resources iron coal timber 0 Iron amp steel used for machinery I made everything more efficient shipbuilding production 0 Industrial pumping steam engines locomotive amp technology continues to develop 0 Human Resources 0 Factory labor surplus machines begin replacing workers people are moving from rural lands to towns migrant people looking for jobs 0 Develops book keeping system merchants keep track of money ow profits a trained job position 0 Industrial Making Industrial Manufacturing 0 Textile Making workers on means of production washing spinning weaving carding dyeing O Manufactoring advances I Kays Flying Shuttle weaved fabrics and cloth I Hargreave s Jenny 1760 spinning wheel w 20 spindles improvement of ying shuttle I Arkwright s Water Frame automated machine to produce lower quality yarn in large quantities U Arkwright Factory of the wealthiest people at this time from textile industry I Power Loom Cartwright innovation to weave to keep up with the high production of yarn spread from 2000 machines in 1818 to 20000 machines in 1824 in Manchester I prices of cloth began to drop 0 Power Sources 0 Water Wheel 0 Steam Engine 0 James Wattson worked with both power sources kept prices of power sources the same even though steam engine was cheaper Factories O Shaft from powers sources run up factories to multiple rooms to run all looms at one time Would be open 12 hours a day 6 days a week skills are no longer values everyone must be working at certain times different than agricultural work women amp child labor common because the can be disciplined men demanded higher wages bc they usually had more skill Production scales over time 0 0 56000 yrds in 1775 I 360000 yrds in 1783 36 shillings in 1786 I 7 shillings in 1807 Pollution 0 Water pollution sewage air pollution new to area I soot from coal amp lint from cloth Effects of Industrialization 0 000000 Demographic changes new industrial cities Manchester Birmingham Liverpool new centers of wealth amp power Time discipline working on a clock system Dependence on wages instead of land Poor laborers would see how wealthy lives Overproduction I risk of being shutdown Rearranging gender roles amp members of family would all go to different jobs Evolving working class
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