Final Exam Study Guide BIO 301
Final Exam Study Guide BIO 301 BIO 301L
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by BaylessK on Tuesday August 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 301L at University of South Carolina taught by Penderghast in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Molecules to Organisms in Biology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 08/04/15
08052015 Final Exam Exam 1 exponential growth model continuous increase or decrease in a population at a rate that is proportional to the number of individuals at a given time geometric growth model increase or decrease in a population as measured over discrete intervals in which the increment is proportional to the number of individuals at the beginning of the interval topdown forces need more carnivores to balance out the large numbers of herbivores overusing the plants ecology the scienti c study of interactions of organisms with one another and with their environment population consists of individuals of a species within a given area suitable habitat come together to reproduce and mix the gene pool of the population and ensuring its continuity carrying capacity the number of individuals of a species a habitat can sustain with its resources once the number is exceeded either competition increases over resources leading to death or spread of pathogens can also lead to a lesser number of new borns making it to adulthood population structure attributes of a population including the density and spacing of individuals within its geographic range and the proportion of individuals in each age and sex class includes density of individuals and scale of patchiness includes demography and genetic characteristics of the population hypothesis a conjunction about or explanation proposed for a pattern or relationship in nature embracing a mechanism for its occurrence proposed explanation for natural phenomena stochastic extinction resulting from chance events can cause a population size to vary in a constant environment such as death the population size times the chance of death will vary coin tossing even with the probability it might not match up extinction birth and death rates are equal but populations often come across a unlucky period extinction occurs faster in populations with high turn over rates realized niche the range of physiological conditions over which species can persist fundamental niche realized niche can limit the distribution by pathogens predators and competitors rescue effect prevent a population from going extinct less likely to affect distant populations prevention of the extinction of a declining subpopulation by immigration of individuals of a more productive population Math 1 p hat 1 ec e probability of going extinct c rate of colonization 2 life table survival rate nx1 nx mortality rate 1sx survivorship x n currentn0 3 growth rate Nt N0equotrt yeAr to get future prediction plug in year 4 dNdt change in pop size change in time Exam 2 Population in nonHardy Weinberg equilibrium set population size nonrandom mating mutations occur in nucleotide sequence natural selection migration between populations Darwins 5 observations Observation 1 The capacity to overproduce is a characteristic of all species but only a small fraction of offspring produced complete their development and reproduce successfully to leave offspring of their own Observation 2 Populations tend to remain stable in size except for seasonal uctuations Observation 3 environmental resources are limited Observation 4 individuals of a population vary extensively in their characteristics no two individuals are exactly alike Observation 5 much of this variation is heritable Darwins inferences genetic variation heritable traits large population size variation Fitness increment and social interaction cooperation sel shness altruism spitefulness altruism bene ts the recipient at the cost of the donor social insects sterile evolution any change in the populations gene pool individuals whose traits allow them to reach higher rates of reproduction leave more descendants and the alleles responsible for that trait increase the gene pool Directional Selection left or right individuals with an extreme phenotype are ttest can go back and forth between extreme ends Disruptive Selection both ends ttest at extremes at either end may be from strong competition increases genetic and phenotypic variation Stabilizing selection middle individuals with intermediate or average most common phenotypes have higher reproductive success 1 successful phenotype in unchanging environment inclusive tness the tness of an individual plus the tness of its relatives weighted by the coef cient of their relationship the total tness of a gene responsible for a particular behavior sexual dimorphism 1 dissimilar function of males and females lead to different considerations in the evolution of life history and ecological relationships fecundity increases with body size may cause larger females 2contests between males favor weapons for combat 3 mate choice determined superior genetics plasticity an adaptation that enhances an individual s tness environment change over time and space and individuals adjust to the change by altering their behavior their physiology and structure microhabitats animals pick the environment that best enhances their survival and reproduction because of temp moisture salinity shaded ground in desert capacity of an individual to exhibit different responses to its environment may be evolved trait subject to natural selection Math 1 frequencies total alleles times 2 for homozygous and total BBx2 Bb total x2 Exam 3 Speciation The evolutionary process by which new species arise Speciation causes one evolutionary lineage to split into two or more lineages Anagenesis the evolution of species involving an entire population rather than a branching event as in cladogenesis When enough mutations have occurred and become stable in a population so that it is signi cantly differentiated from an ancestral population a new species name may be assigned A key point is that the entire population is different from the ancestral population such that the ancestral population can be considered extinct A series of such species is collectively known as an evolutionary Hneage Cladogenesis an evolutionary splitting event in a species in which each branch and its smaller branches forms a quotCladequot an evolutionary mechanism and a process of adaptive evolution that leads to the development of a greater variety of sister species Species concept esp BSC a species as a group of quotactually or potentially interbreeding populations which reproductively isolated from other such groupsquot Species are groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such group phylogenetic species concept is especially useful for systematists becauseit focuses on the phylogenetic history of organisms It de nes species as recognizable geographic forms that have a unique evolutionary history In essence species are the quottipsquot of a phylogenetic tree lndividuals within the metapopulation are all part of the same gene pool and as a result their evolution displays a level of genetic cohe sion that is not evident between members of different metapopulations the general lineage species concept Reproductive Isolation before mating ecology of different species time courtship rituals body differences after mating before fertilization courtship compatible with storage gametic incompatibilities after fertilization post zygotic barriers may have alleles that cannot develop together sterile offspring Allopatry when populations are in separate non overlapping geographic areas geographic isolation not likely to interbreed Vicariance a process by which the geographical range of an individual taxon or a whole xbiota is split into discontinuous parts by the formation of a physical barrier to gene ow or dispersal Sympatry species that coexist in the same geographic area differences in phenotype that reduces the chance of interbreeding Punctuated Equilibrium Ecology a theory in evolutionarv bioloov which proposes that most species will exhibit little net evolutionary change for most of their geological history remaining in an extended state called stasis When signi cant evolutionary change occurs the theory proposes that it is generally restricted to rare and rapid on a geologic time scale events of branching speciation called cladogenesis Cladogenesis is the process by which a species splits into two distinct species rather than one species gradually transforming into another Symplesiomorphy if a derived trait has arisen recently and appears in only one of the two most closely related species the two most distantly related species share teh same trait Synapomorphy a shared derived trait the more traits to species have in common the more closely they are related Monophyletic as a taxonomic group consisting of all descendants of the group39s most common ancestor and no other members Nonmonophyletic includes neither the common ancestor of the members shown at the root of our tree nor all descendants of that common ancestors Polytomy a node with more than 2 branches arising from it Parsimony The parsimony principle is basic to all science and tells us to choose the simplest scienti c explanation that ts the evidence Biodiversity the variation among organisms and ecological systems at all levels including genetic variation within populations morphological differences between species and variation in biome structure and ecosystem processes in both terrestrial and aquatic systems Species richness the number of species within an area simplest most general indices to biodiversity Species area relationships more species in large area rather than small ScAquot2 oca sampling the formation of a variety of habitat types within an environmentally heterogeneous region the evolution of distinct lineage on isolated continents species extinction on islands Island Biogeography Theory the number of species on an island balances regional processes governing immigration against local processes governing extinction immigration and extinction balanced smaller islands support fewer species because of higher extinction rates islands closer to the mainland support more species because of higher immigration rates Determinants of Diversity Alpha Beta Gamma Alpha oca diversity the number of species in a small area of homogeneous habitat Gamma regional diversity the total number of species observed in all habitats within a geographic area that includes no speci c barriers to the dispersal of organisms Beta differences in species from one habitat to another Species Sorting the species present within the regional species pool are thus sorted into different communities based on their adaptations and interactions Environmental Filters contribute to species sorting certain environmental condition eliminate species who cannot withstand said conditions Species lnteractions 0 commensalism 0 amensalism symbiosis individuals of different species that live in close association includes mutualism as well as parasites Mutualism interactions between two species that bene t both supply complementary resources insect pollinate plants in return for nectar Amensalism elephant crushed grasshopper commensalism bird puts a nest in a tree helps bird but doesnt affect the tree Competition when two consumers share the same resource each reduces availability and engage in this consumerresource predatorprey herbivore plant parasite host organize biological communities into food chains through which food energy is passed through ecosystems predator capture individuals and consume them remove them from prey population and gain nutrition to aid in reproduction parasite consumes parts of a living prey of organism attach to inside of host and feed on their tissues blood or partially digested food in intestines does not remove prey from population parasitoid species of wasps and ies whos larvae consume tissue eads to hosts death herbivores eat plants predator if they eat whole plant parasite is the eat some grazing detrivore consume dead organic matter no effect on population 0 Direct vs Indirect interactions direct interaction consumer resource indirect predator plantgt predator gt herbivore gt plant single source by two or more consumers consumer 1 gt resource lt consumer 2 consumer 1 ltgt consumer Resources amp Limiting resource resource any factor that is both consumed by an organism and supports increased population growth rates as its availability in the environment increases 1 a resource is consumed and its amount is reduced 2 a consumer uses a resource for its own maintenance or growth 3 when resources are reduced consumer population growth is reduced renewable constantly regenerated nonrenewable not regenerated imiting resource no longer satis es the populations need for it population increases until this supply leibigs law of the minimum Predatorprey dynamics Competitive exclusion principle two species cannot coexist inde nitely when the same resource limits both must have subtle differences lntra vs interspeci c intraspecific competition competition between individuals of the same species regulates competition in a density dependent manner interspecific competition competition between individuals of different species can depress the population of both species Competition population model 1N dNtdt r1k1 K1N1a12N2 r1 is the exponential rate of increase N2 number of individuals of species a12 competition coefficient Zero Net Growth lsoclines equilibrium isocline predator numbers on vertical prey on horizontal dvdt0 below line population of prey increases because of small number of predators above prey population decreases predator population increases when to the right of prey line predator population decreases on the right of the line R Theory Exploitative indirect form of competition where there is a limiting resourceold tall trees collect more light interference direct form of competition where an organism directly interferes with another organism39s ability to obtain resources apparent competition interactions between competing species that are mediated by consumers the depressing effect of one of the competitor species resembles exploitative or interference competition but represents the action of a different mechanism Allelopathy chemical competition a toxic substance causes injury to another individual directly generally inhibit growth of plants near to them Keystone predation consumer some consumers can maintain diversity among resource species and thereby in uence the structure of the community when removed the community tumbles vital to stability Food webtrophic chain energy and nutrients follow many different interconnected paths through the exosystem Trophic cascade levels bottom autotrophic plants primary producers nexts primary consumers consumers of primary resources next carnivores secondary consumers when the direct effects of consumerresource interactions extend through additional trophic levels of a community when bottom levels control the top top down when the size of a trophic level is determined by the rate of production of its food resource bottom up Succession the sequence of change initiated by disturbance climax community id the ultimate association of species achieved primary the establishment and development of communities in a newly formed habitat previously devoid of life secondary regeneration of a community following a disturbance
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