TEST ONE MSCI 575 STUDY GUIDE WITH OLD TEST Q&A
TEST ONE MSCI 575 STUDY GUIDE WITH OLD TEST Q&A MSCI 575
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by BaylessK on Tuesday August 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MSCI 575 at University of South Carolina taught by Pickney in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 189 views. For similar materials see Marine Ecology in Marine Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 08/04/15
The concentration gradient in the diffusive boundary layer increases as ow around a particle increases Viscosity the internal resistance of the water which acts to resist and smooth out the gradients in velocity oil analogy Reudv Reynolds numbera way to quantify the forces due to viscosity is the ratio of the inertial force to the viscous force Small values of Re Reynolds indicate that the organisms world is dominated by viscous forces Large values of Re indicate that the inertial forces are more important and viscosity can be ignored Re has important implications for prey capture by small organisms The kinematic viscosity of air is greater than water Feather would fall faster in water than in air A particle the size of a bacterium falling through the atmosphere would settle faster once it enters water Small organisms that are swimming in liquids have no momentum when they cease swimming they stop immediately Flexible oars cilia or corkscrews agella push them through the water Stokes Law For a given density and viscosity a sphere will increase its sinking speed in proportion to the square of the radius Living and dead cells have different sinking rates Possible reasons include Variation in the cell content of lowdensity oils and fats Variation in the amount of lights Living and dead cells sink slower than predicted by stokes law Nutrient supply to a stationary cell is a diffusionlimited For very small cells 110 micro meters viscosity dominates their world and diffusion is faster than water supply for nutrient acquisition Flagellates can increase uptake rates by swimming For example a 50 micrometers cell can increase the nutrient ux by 100 if it swims at a rate of 10 body lengths per second Swimming is really important for nutrient acquisition Active uptake and motility enhances nutrient uptake Sinking and motility reduce boundary layer 110 micrometer cells are usually not motile due to viscosity Small cells sink very slowly and rely on large surface area for nutrient acquisition Turbulence usually favlors LARGE non motile cells Strati cation usually facors SMALL agellated cells Uptake ls usually temperature dependent One ml of water sample weighs 103564 what s the dt13564 Biomassdirect counts and bio volume pigments uo spec hplc ow cytometer Productivityusually ln units of carbon or oxygen per unit volume per unit time Methods include 14C02 and uorescencePAM FRR Passive Red eld ration stoichiometry Problems with CChl CN rations and Photosynthetic quotient PQ PR rations lf PgtR then the system is net autotrophic lf PltR then the system is net heterotrophic Total oceanic production 50 pentagrams5010quot15 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS FROM PINCKNEY A major source of iron for the central basin of the Paci c Ocean is Atmospheric Dust Particles ln Polar regions phytoplankton production is generally LightLimited ln Nature Sulfur can exist as a Solid liquid or gas Sulfate is the most abundant ion in seawater Third For a standard phytoplankton growth curve the doubling time is the speci c growth rate Less Than The internal resistance of the water which acts to resist and smooth out the gradients in velocity is Viscosity values of Reynolds Number Re indicate that inertial forces are more important and viscosity can be ignored Large Turbulence favors the growth of phytoplankton cells Large The surface area of a cell is important for biogeochemical cycling because Rates are directly proportional to surface area If the density of seawater is 101632 then the speci c gravity of seawater is 1632 The Red eld Ratio is for CNP 106161 For very small cells usually limits the availability and uptake rates of dissolved compounds Molecular Diffusion Stokes Law for particle sinking velocities the sinking rate of living and senescent cells Overestimates Lecture Notes 14 water animals 98 benthic Lecture 2 Primary Production Processes oQuick Review 0 General phylogenetic tree for bacteria and other organisms based on 16S ribosomal sequence similarity 3 major branches Bacteria Archaea Euka rya Introduction 0 Primary production PP the formation of organic matter by trapping light energy and assimilating inorganic elements Seaweeds seagrasses microscopic algae and some bacteria primary producers in the ocean Phytoplankton can bloom rapidly if given enough light and nutrients Marine and terrestrial PP are approx equal l 50 Pg C per year 55 billion tons Macroalgae can produce up to 14 kgCmquot2y 31 lbs Although phytoplankton production is much less than macroalgae production per unit area phytoplankton productivity is much greater on a global scale oSize Classi cations of Plankton O O O 0000 Femto lt 02 pm mostly just viruses Pico 02 2 pm mostly bacteriacyanobacteria Nano 2 20 pm includes about half of the phytoplankton prokaryotic and eukaryotic and HNAN s Micro 20 200 pm includes other half of the phytoplankton prokaryotic and eukaryotic heterotrophic agellates and ciliates and most small zooplankton and larvae Meso 02 20 mm some phytoplankton Macro 2 20 cm l nekton Mega gt 20 cm l nekton Size relationship between bacteria and a ciliate krill compared to a whale oMarine Viruses 0 Ocean waters contain approx 4E3O viruses l translates to 200 O megatons of carbon Equivalent to the carbon in about 75 million blue whales If all the viruses in the ocean were stretched end to end they would span approx 10 million light years oPhytoplankton o Picoplankton Some of the smallest primary producers 02 2 pm in diameter Discovered in early 1980 s Important contributors to oceanic PP Usually most abundant in the open ocean l chlorophyll max Major groups Cyanobacteria l ex Synechococcus Discovered in mid 1970 s 0 12 pm in diameter prokaryote most successful and abundant genus on Earth 0 Very abundant in ocean Prochlorophytes l ex Prochlorococcus o Discovered in early 1980 s 0 12 pm in diameter prokaryote most successful and abundant genus on Earth 0 Contain form of chlorophyll b 0 Very abundant in ocean Picoeuka ryotes l ex Micromonas o Discovered mid 1990 s 0 12 pm in diameter 0 Very abundant in ocean o Smallest known Eukaryote 0 Community composition l phytoplankton come in all shapes and sizes morphology and size limitations Single cells chains and laments Some are mixotrophic photo and heterotrophic 0 Major groups nonmotile cyanobacteria diatoms and motile ageHa o Diatoms have heavy silici ed frustules l pectin and amorphous silica Heavier than water sink quickly Usually the most abundant group in estuarine and coastal waters l gt80 biomass Participate in asexual and sexual reproduction l diatom division diagram 0 Dino agellates l 2 agella many species are mixotrophic most harmful algal species dino agellates In most estuaries nanoplankton have the highest biomass and PP 0 But oligotrophic habitats picoplankton have the highest biomass and PP o Occasionally blooms of microphytoplankton occur under nutrient enriched conditions in the open ocean oPhotosynthesis o 6C02 6H20 l C6H1206 602 C02 water and radiant energy required to make glucose and oxygen 0 C4 pathway of photosynthesis used by the salt marsh cordgrass Spartina oAnoxygenic Phototrophs O O O Photosynthetic bacteria use H2S as the electron receptor instead of H20 Anoxygenic photosynthesis cyclic photophosphorylation uses only photosystem I May be important PP s in surface sediments with high H2S concentrations Proteorhodopsin a bacterial pigment l can also be used for a type of anoxygenic photosynthesis ATP production Protein functioning as a lightdriven proton pump in cell membranes May contribute as much as 5 of total PP and 10 of the microbial community in the open ocean oProduction O O O O OO O Dissolved CO2 reacts chemically with SW most of the CO2 in SW exists as the bicarbonate ion HCO3quot Ocean major CO2 reservoir l CO2 in ocean gt in atmosphere 0 Forms complex equilibrium in SW CO2 H2O l H2C03 carbonic acid H2C03 I HC03quot Hquot hydrogen ion bicarbonate ion HCO3quot l CO3quot2 Hquot hydrogen ion carbonate ion Total dissolved inorganic carbon DIC weight of carbon in CO2 H2C03 HC03quot DIC in SW 22 mgC L 2 mMC Usually much lower in freshwater 110 mgC L Approx 90 of DIC occurs as HCO3quot and most of the rest CO2 Low DIC conc and high pH can limit phytoplankton productivity Form of DIC in marine systems governed by pH temperature and salinity pH of ocean 81 83 The enzyme RUBISCO requires CO2 as a substrate Some phytoplankton use the enzyme carbonic anhydrase to convert HC03quot to CO2 within and outside the cell Others may use carbon concentrating mechanisms CCM to maintain high levels of CO2 within cells oBiological Effects on Seawater pH 0 O O Photosynthesis removes C02 pH increases Respiration produces C02 pH decreases Due to carbonate equilibrium 1 lrradiance O 0 Dual nature of light l particles and waves l photons and energy Units umol photons mquot2s 1 Einstein 1 mole photons Full sunlight is around 2000 2200 umol photons mquot2s o PAR photosynthetically active radiation l visible light in range of 400 700 nm Quality of light is more important than quantity for photosynthesis o Planar vs scalar spherical irradiance and implications for phytoplankton Upwelling and downwelling irradiance 0 Factors determining ambient irradiance Light is re ected absorbed or scatteredrefracted by particulate and dissolved substances in water CDOM I Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter ie DOM that absorbs light oLight Absorption in the Ocean 0 Chlorophyll a primary photosynthetic pigment for all oxygenic photoautotrophs Absorbs red and blue light re ects green light 0 Other pigments are used to help capture light at other wavelengths l chlorophylls b amp c carotenes etc 0 Some are accessory pigments l transfer energy to photosynthetic reaction centers Others provide photoprotection 0 Absorption spectrum Blue light is attenuated more than red light in coastal waters We see the color of the re ectedrefracted light ROY G EN right to left from 700 to 400 nm 0 Attenuation The vertical distribution of light Measured by the attenuation coef cient lsub z lsub 0 equotkz l 2 depth lsub z irradiance at depth 2 lsub 0 irradiance at surface k diffuse attenuation coef cient wavelength speci c usually PAR o Phytoplankton not responsible for large percentage of light absorption water easily absorbs the most oBiomass and Productivity Measures 0 Biomass l direct counts and biovolume pigments measured using uorometer spectrophotometer HPLC ow cytometry o Accessory photosynthetic pigments and chemotaxonomy l accessory pigments can be used to ID certain groups of microalgae oReview o PhoticEuphotic Zone the lighted region of the water column in oceans and estuaries O O O OO O Aphotic Zone regions of the water column that are permanently dark Attenuation l the exponential loss of light with increasing depth CDOM l colored dissolved organic matter that absorbs light Even in the clearest oceanic waters light seldom penetrates deeper than 200 m Humicrich dissolved organic matter often colorsclouds coastal waters l colored water has very different optical properties than noncolored waters Bubbles particles and surface ripples greatly alter the underwater light eld oTypes of Metabolisms O O O O O Phototrophs l use energy derived from light to make organic compounds by photosynthesis Photoautotrophs Photoheterotrophs derive energy from light to make organic compounds from organic precursors in photosynthesis organic acids Heterotrophs l assimilate carbon derived from oxidation of OM Oxygenic Heterotroph uses oxygen Anoxygenic Heterotroph uses nitrate or sulfate Chemotrophs l use energy derived from chemical compounds to make organic compounds by chemosynthesis Chemoorganotrophs oxidize organic compounds in anoxic environments Chemolithotrophs use inorganic chemicals as energy source Mixotrophs l use both phototrophic and heterotrophic nutrition Phagotrophs l ingest OM oPhotosynthesis vs lrradiance Curves P vs E O O O O O 0 Description a plot of photosynthetic rate vs irradiance Usually normalized to biomass Chl a Abbreviated as Pl or PE curves Xaxis intercept is method dependent 02 vs 14C methods xE 3E PHI39I39FI PING P Pmax 6 6 Sy m bo l s E irradiance P photosynthesis per unit chlorophyll B irradiance at onset of photoinhibition Ec compensation irradiance Ek saturation irradiance or initial slope of the curve 0 Pg gross photosynthesis Pn net photosynthesis R respiration Pmax light saturated maximum photosynthetic rate PE curves combined with measurements of in situ irradiance can be used to calculate and model PP oPhotoacclimation O O O O The ability of plants to acclimate to a given light regime mostly by altering the concentration of Ch a andor accessory pigments per cell or per unit cell area Can be accomplished by l changing the or the size of PSU s PSU I photosynthetic unit A reaction center Ch a plus accessory pigments Pigment packaging l a way that cells can rapidly photoacclimate to a changing light environment Karyostrophy l process where chloroplasts move in reaction to changes in light conditions Low irradiance maximal surface area exposure High irradiance minimal surface area exposure 0Compensation Depth 0 Depth at which GPP R NPP O oCritical Depth 0 0 Depth at which integrated daily production the daily integrated respiration If the Mixing Depth gt Critical Depth phytoplankton growth is limited by light and there is NO net phytoplankton growth Lecture 3 Nutrients and Biogeochemical Cycling oNitrogen O O N key constituent of life on Earth Occurs in complex array of different chemical pools and states in the biosphere Le gas solid and liquid Most of atmosphere is gaseous N2 78 02 21 and C02 003 o All living organisms require N for growth 0 O O N ammonium amino acids proteins organisms N is thought to limit PP in much of the oceans and most estuaries Recent increases in N inputs by humans ie fertilizers in runoff emissions etc impacts global carbon cycle More CO2 xation and PP Eutrophication Nitrogen reservoirs on Earth About half of Earth s N is in the atmosphere as N2 2nOI mantle 3rOI the crust And a tiny bit is in the ocean as nitrate approx SE16 moles out of total 56E20 moles o Nitrogen in marine waters sources and inputs Rivers deliver organic and inorganic N in both particulate and dissolved forms Agricultural and urban watershed major sources of N Atmospheric deposition wet and dry acid rain 0 Sources for atmospheric N Groundwater septic systems are major source of N signi cant direct inputs Relative importance of different sources depends on location and climate N is removed from marine waters by denitri cation and sedimentation as particulates to the benthos o Nitrogen pools Most N in marine waters is N2 dissolved dinitrogen gas at concentration 1 mM Concentrations relatively uniform in open ocean l vary as a function of temperaturesalinitypressure dependent solubility N20 nitrous oxide and NO nitric oxide trace constituents in SW due to microbial activity oDissolved Inorganic Nitrogen DIN o Nitrate nitrite and ammonium most abundant nongaseous inorganic forms of N in marine waters N03quot is mobile usually the dominant form of N in runoff riverine input groundwater discharge and atmospheric deposition 0 Concentrations can vary widely large reservoir exists below the permanent thermocline 0 N02quot usually very minor component of total N l sometimes higher at redox interfaces due to microbial activity 0 NH4quot concentrations vary widely depending on location Usually at trace concentrations in open ocean Usually high in hypoxicanoxic zones near sewagewastewater inputs agricultural runoff and areas of high benthic biomass 0 DIN concentrations usually 1 100 M oDissolved Organic Nitrogen DON 0 Major N pool in marine systems composed of variety of compounds O 0 Amino acids nucleic acids urea l much of the DON is still uncharacterized De ne Labie vs Refractory oThe Nitrogen Cycle and enzymes 0 O Nitrogen xation l conversion of N2 gas to organic N and ammonium Enzyme nitrogenase cleaves N2 molecule Prokaryotes only Inhibited by high NH4quot concentrations and O2 Cyanobacterial heterocysts l sites of N xation Spatiotemporal separation of N xation Cyanobacterial mats and marine snow Benthic cyanobacteria cyanobacterial mats 7739ichode5mium l important N xing cyanobacteria in oligotrophic surface waters Measuring rates of N xation Nitrogenase enzyme cleaves triple bond N2 molecule Acetylene also contains triple bond which is cleaved by nitrogenase and forms ethylene Ethylene concentrations can be measured by gas chromatography Method actually measures nitrogenase activity Nitrogenase activity rate slightly higher than N xation rate Nitri cation Oxidation of NH4quot to NO2quot to N03 Requires O2 Dent ca on Reduction of N03quot to N2 Inhibited by 02 Limited by N03quot concentration Is a nitrogen export mechanism May be important in some estuaries Competition with Phototrophs Nitri cationDenitri cation coupled processes both microbial processes Ammoni cation Conversion of N03quot to NH4quot N03 and N02 must be converted to NH3 before it can be used by cells General Concepts Bottom water anoxia inhibits nitri cation l leads to high NH4quot concentrations in overlying waters The Cyanobacterial Paradox The Nutricline Coupling of oxicanoxic processes BenthicPelagic Exchanges oPhosphorus 0 Major element in OM and an important chemical for life on earth ATP and nucleic acids 0 Molar ratio in POM Red eld ratio 106C 16N 1P 0 No gaseous state in nature only exists in particulate and dissolved forms This property implications for transport mechanisms Aerobic environments P almost always occurs as orthophosphates Orthophosphate any salt of H3PO4 phosphoric acid Dissociation products H2PO4quot HPO4quot2 and PO4quot3 HPO4quot2 major ion in SW 0 Removal of H20 condensed forms Polyphosphates Common in cells rare in SW l may indicate pollution if found in SW Organophosphates low concentrations phosphate esters derived from living cells Two properties of P determine concentrations in SW Under aerobic conditions P adsorbs onto oxyhydrides CaCO4 and clay mineral particles Phosphates are substituted for silicates in the lattice structure of clays Phosphates tend to form insoluble compounds with certain metals but readily precipitate with cations l Caquot2 Alquot3 Fequot3 P concentrations usually very low in carbonate environments Le coral reefs carbonate sands O O O
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