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UTD / Information technology / ITSS 3300 / What is the definition of computer data?

What is the definition of computer data?

What is the definition of computer data?


School: University of Texas at Dallas
Department: Information technology
Course: Information Technology for Business
Professor: James scott
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 50
Description: ITSS Final Review Ch
Uploaded: 07/10/2017
20 Pages 431 Views 0 Unlocks

∙ What types of applications exist, and how do organizations obtain them?

∙ Q2 what do business professionals need to know about software?

∙ Q1: What do business professionals need to know about computer hardware?

ITSS Final Review Ch. 4: Hardware, Software, and Mobile Systems ∙ Q1: What do business professionals need to know about computer hardware? ∙ Computer hardware consists of electronic components and related gadgetry that input, process,  outputs, and stoWe also discuss several other topics like What is the marketing mix? Describe its elements.
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re data according to instructions encoded in computer programs or software.  ∙ Hardware Components o Central processing unit (CPU)- every computer has a CPU, which is sometimes called  “the brain” of the computer. The CPU selects instructions, processes them, performs  arithmetic and logical comparisons, and stores results of operations in memory. Dual processor computers has two cpu’s, quad-processor computers have four, some have  more o CPU works in conjunction with main memory. CPU reads data and instructions from  memory, and stores results of computations in main memory. Main memory is  sometimes called RAM, for random access memory. o All computers include storage software- used to save data and programs. Magnetic disks are still the most common storage device, although optical disks such as CDs and DVDs  are also popular. Thumb drives are small portable devices to back up data and transfer  from one computer to another. ∙ Types of Hardware o Personal computer (pc), tablet (slate), smartphone, server, server farm o Server- a computer that is designed to support processing from many remote computers and users. Like a PC on steroids.  o Server farm- a collection of, typically, thousands of servers.  o Increasingly, server infrastructure is delivered as a service in what is termed the cloud. o PCs, tablets, and smartphones that access servers and the cloud are called clients ∙ Computer Data- capacities of computer hardware are discussed according to data units o Computers represent data using binary digits¸ called bits. A bit is either a zero or a one.  Bits are used for computer data because they are easy to represent physically. A  computer can be designed so that an open switch represents zero and a closed switch  represents one. ∙ Computer Data Sizes- all forms of computer data are represented by bits. The data can be  numbers, characters, currency amounts, photos, recordings, etc. All are groups of bits. Bits are grouped into 8-bit chunks called bytes. Ex: a character in someone’s name will fit into a byte.  1,000 byes of memory can hold 1,000 characters. o Kilobyte or k- 1,024 bytes o Megabyte or MB- 1024 kilobytes o Gigabyte or GB-1024 megabytes o Terabyte or TB- 1024 gigabytes o Petabyte, or PB- 1024 terabytes o Exabyte, or EB- 1024 petabytes. ∙ Specifying hardware with computer data sizes- computer disk capacities are specified according to the amount of data they can contain. 500GB disk can contain up to 500GB of data and  programs o CPU speed is expressed in cycles called hertz o The cache and main memory are volatile, meaning their contents are lost when power is off. Magnetica and optical disks are nonvolatile, meaning their contents survive when  power is off. ∙ Q2 what do business professionals need to know about software? o Operating system (OS)- a program that controls the computers resources. Some  functions are to read and write data, allocate memory, perform memory swapping, start  and stop programs, respond to error conditions, and facilitate backup and recovery. In  addition, the OS creates and manages the user interface, including the display, keyboard, mouse, and other devices. o Two types of application programs exist. Native applications are programs that are  written to use a particular operating system. Ex: Microsoft Access. Native applications  are also called thick-client applications o Thin-client application- is designed to run within a computer browser like firefox, and  can run on any type of computer.  o Nonmobile client operating systems- are used on personal computers. The most popular  is Microsoft Windows  Modern style applications- distinguishes the most recent version of windows,  are touch-screen oriented and provide context-sensitive, pop-up menus.   Mas OS- apple’s own operating system.   Unix- operating system developed by Bell Labs. Workhorse of scientific and  engineering communities, seldom used in business  Linux- a version of Unix developed by the open source community- loosely  coupled group of programmers who mostly volunteer their time to contribute  code to develop and maintain linuxo Mobile client operating systems o Symbian- popular on phones in Europe and the Far East o Blackberry OS- the former most successful mobile operating system for business users on BlackBerry devices o iOS- iphone, ipod touch, ipad o Android- operating system licensed by google. Android devices popular among  technical users o Windows RT- a version of Windows designed for ARM devices. ARM is a  computer architecture and instruction set that is designed for portable devices  such as phones and tablets. o Server operating systems o Windows server- a version of Windows that has been specially designed and  configured for server use.  ∙ Virtualization- the process by which one computer hosts the appearance of many computers o Host operating system- runs one or more operating systems as applications. Those  hosted operating systems are called virtual machines (vm). Each virtual machine has  disk space and other resources allocated to it.  Pc virtualization-a personal computer, hosts several different operating systems  Server virtualization- a server computer hosts one or more other server  computers Desktop virtualization- a server hosts many versions of desktop operating  systems.   From slides(below)  PC Virtualization  Personal computer hosts several different operating systems  E.g. Run Windows 10 and Ubuntu on a Macbook Pro running Mac OS X  Server Virtualization  A server computer hosts one or more server computers  Makes cloud computing feasible  Desktop Virtualization  Allows access from any computer a user has authorization to use  Sometimes called roaming desktop  E.g. Use Remote Desktop to connect to a server computer and access your  desktop ∙ Own Versus License- when you buy a computer program, you are not actually buying that  program, instead you are buying the license to use that program. ∙ What types of applications exist, and how do organizations obtain them? o Application software- performs a service or function. Ex: excel, word, quick books  Horizontal-market application software provides capabilities common across all  organizations and industries. Word processors, graphic programs, spreadsheets,  and presentation programs are all horizontal-market application software.  Vertical-market application software serves the needs of a specific industry.  Examples of such programs are those used by dental offices to schedule  appointments.  One-of-a-kind application software is developed for a specific, unique need. Ex:  IRS has software unique to their organization  You can acquire applications off-the shelf, off-the-shelf with alterations, or  custom developed software.  Custom development is difficult and risky ∙ What is firmware?- a computer software that is installed into devices such as printers, print  servers, and various types of communication devices. Coded like other software, but installed  into special, read-only memory of the printer or other device. Can be changed or upgraded. ∙ Q3: Is Open Source Software a Viable Alternative o GNU- a self referential acronym meaning GNU for creating a free unix-like operating  system.  ∙ Why do programmers Volunteer their services? Programming is an intense combination of art  and knowledge and can be very addictive. ∙ How Does Open Source Work? o Open source means that the source code of the program is available to the public o Source code is computer code written by humans and understandable by humans. It is  compiled into machine code that is processed by a computer.  o In a closed source project, like Microsoft office, the source code is highly protected and  only available to trusted employees. o Open source succeeds because of collaboration. ∙ Q4: What are the differences between native and thin-client applications?∙ Developing native applications- developed using serious, heavy-duty, professional programming languages. All of these languages are object-oriented, which means that they can be used to  create difficult, complex applications, and, if used properly, will result in high-performance code  that is easy to alter when requirements change o The downside of native applications is that they are native. They only run on the  operating system for which they are programmed. Ex: iOS must be completely recoded  to run on android o The cost of native applications is high, can be outsourced to India, typically distributed  through a company store ex: iTunes ∙ Developing thin-client applications- applications that run inside a browser such as Firefox,  Chrome etc. o Can be written by professional programmers, however, it is possible for technically  oriented people to develop them as well. o Limited by the capabilities of the browser o Unlike native applications, you can assume that a thin-client application has one code  base and one development team ∙ Which is better? In general, thin-client applications are cheaper to develop and maintain, but  they may lack the wow factor. ∙ Q5: why are mobile systems increasingly important? o Mobile systems are information systems that support users in motion. Mobile systems  users access the system from any place using a smart device. Major elements in a mobile system are users in motion, mobile devices, wireless connectivity, and a cloud-based  resource. o Mobile systems offer the potential of just-in-time data, which is data delivered to the  user at the precise time it is needed. Ex: a pharmaceutical salesperson uses just-in-time  data when she accesses a mobile system to obtain the latest literature on the new drug  while waiting for the doctor to whom she will pitch it. ∙ What characterizes quality mobile user experiences?o A user interface (UI) is the presentation format of an application. It consists of windows,  menus, icons, dialog boxes, toolbars, and so on. o User experience (UX) is a newer term that refers not only to the UI, but also to the way  the application affects the user’s emotions and motivation to continue to use the  interface ∙ Feature content- quality user interfaces should place the primary emphasis on users’ content,  giving such content as much of the display as possible Rather than show menus, toolbars, and  heavy window borders, the content should be shown clearly on the center stage o Chrome- a term that refers to the visual overhead in a computer display. It is the  windows, the menus, and other apparatus that drive the application. Mobile screen  often limited, so applications eliminate as much of it as possible. o Direct interaction- using content to drive application behavior. Ex: when you see blue,  underlined type, you know to tap on it to navigate to that Web site. Ex2: tap to highlight ∙ use context-sensitive chrome- meaning it pops up in the display when appropriate. Ideally no  button or command name is never shown in a disable state. Instead when its disable it doesn’t  show it. ∙ Roaming- occurs when users move their activities, especially long-running transactions across  devices ∙ Push data is the data that the server sends to, or pushes onto, the device ∙ Pull data is data that the device requests from the server ∙ Q7: What are the challenges of personal mobile devices at work? o Advantages and disadvantages of employee use of mobile systems at work Advantages: cost savings, greater employee satisfaction, reduced need for training, higher productivity,  reduced support costs Disadvantages- data loss or damage, loss of control, compatibility problems, risk of infection, greater  support costs ∙ Survey of organizational byod policy o BYOD (bring your own device) policy is a statement concerning employees’ permissions  and responsibilities when they use their own device for organizational business. o Mobile device management (MDM) software employees turn their devices over to the  IS department which cleanses and reloads software and installs programs that enable  the IS department to manage the device remotely. This backs up and restores mobile  devices, wipes employer software and data from devices that are lost or if the employee  leaves, reports usage etc.  Benefits the organization but some employees resist turning over their devices Chapter 5: Database ProcessingQ1: What is the purpose of a database?- to keep track of things. Spreadsheets are good for tracking  items with just one theme versus a database that tracks things involving more than one theme  Q2: What is a database? ∙ Database- a self-describing collection of integrated records. o Byte- a character of data o Columns AKA fields o Rows AKA Records o Table or file- a group of similar rows or records Relationships among rows- values in one table relate rows of that table to rows in a second table ∙ Key (primary key)- is a column or group of columns that identifies a unique row in a table. Ex:  Student number is a unique identifying number that you can use to determine one and only one  row in another table. ∙ Foreign keys- primary keys displayed on a different table than the one in which they reside ∙ Relational databases- databases that carry their data in the form of tables and that represent  relationships among foreign keysMetadata- data that describes data Q3: What is a Database Management System (DBMS)? ∙ a program used to create, process, and administer a database. ∙ Companies license products from vendors such as IBM, Microsoft, Oracle etc. ∙ DB2 from IBM, Access and SQL Server from Microsoft, and Oracle Database from the Oracle  Corporation. Also, MySQL is an open source DBMS product that is license-free ∙ DBMS and a database are two different things. A DBMS is a software program; a database is a  collection of tables, relationships, and metadata ∙ Creating the database and its structures o Database managers use the DBMS to create tables, relationships, and other structures in the database. ∙ Processing the database o The second function of the DBMS is to process the database. The DBMS provides  applications for four processing operations: to read, insert, modify, or delete data o Structured Query Language (SQL) is an international standard language for processing a  database.  ∙ Four DBMS operations  o Create (Insert) o Read o Update (Modify) o Delete data∙ Administering the database- a third DBMS function is to provide tools to assist in the  administration of the database o Database administration involves a wide variety of activities, Ex: the DBMS can be used  to set up a security system involving user accounts, passwords, permissions etc. To  provide database security, a user must sign on using a valid user account before she can  process the database. DBMS provides security functions, administrative functions such  as backing up data and adding structures to improve performance, removing data that  are no longer needed, etc. Q4: How Do Database Applications Make Databases More Useful? ∙ Database application- a collection of forms, reports, queries, and applications programs that  serves as an intermediary between users and database data. Database applications reformat  database table data to make it more informative and more easily updated. ∙ The specific purposes of the four elements of a database application are: o Forms- view data; insert new, update existing, and delete existing data o Reports- structured presentation of data using sorting, grouping, filtering, and other  operations o Queries- search based upon data values provided by the user o Application programs- provide security, data consistency, and special purpose  processing, e.g., handle out-of-stock situations The components of a database application system Traditional Forms, Queries, Reports, and Applications- in most cases, a traditional database is shared  among many users. In that case it resides on the users’ computers and the DBMS and database reside ona server computer. A networks, not the internet, used to transmit traffic back and forth. Traditional  database application programs are written in object-oriented languages such as C++ and VisualBasic.  Thick applications that need to be installed on computers Browser Forms, Reports, Queries, and Applications- nearly always shared among many users. The users’ browsers connect over the internet to a web server computer, which in turn connects to a database  server computer. Browser applications are thin-client applications that need not be pre-installed on the  users’ computers ∙ Graphical queries- query criteria are created when the user clicks on a graphic. Multi-user processing- involves multiple users processing the same database. Very common, but poses  unique problems.  ∙ Lost-update problem Q5: How Are Data Models Used for Database Development? ∙ The database development process starts with interviewing users to identify database  requirements. Then, requirements are summarized in a data model. Once users have validated  the data model, it is transformed into a database design. That design is implemented into  database structures. Database development process ∙ Data model- a logical representation of database data constructed before building a database. What is the entity-relationship (ER) data model? – ∙ a tool for constructing data models. ∙ Describes contents of a data model by defining entities and relationships among entities ∙ Developers use it to describe the content of a data model by defining the things (entities) that  will be stored in the database and the relationships among those entities. A second, less popular, tool for data modeling is the Unified Modeling Language.  ∙ Unified Modeling Language (UML ), less popular, tool for data modeling Entities- some thing that the users want to track. Ex: Order, Customer, Salesperson, etc. ∙ Entities have attributes that describe characteristics of the entity. Ex: attributes for Order would  be OrderNumber, OrderDate, etc.∙ Entities have an identifier, which is an attribute (or group of attributes) whose value is  associated with one and only one entity Relationships- Entities have relationships to each other. An order, for example, has a relationship to a  Customer entity and also to a Salesperson entity.  ∙ Database designers use entity-relationship (ER) diagrams to help make design decisions ∙ Crow’s feet- the little lines that depict a I:N, or one-to-many relationship, because one  department can have many advisers, but an adviser has at most one department. ∙ The line between advisor and student has crow’s feet at either end, and this notation signifies  that an adviser can be related to many students and that a student can be related to many  advisers. Relationships like this are called N:M or many-to-many relationships\ ∙ Picture above is called a crow’s foot diagram version of an entity relationship diagram. ∙ Maximum cardinality- maximum number of entities that can be involved in a relationship,  clearly shown by this type of diagram ∙ Minimum cardinalities- constraints on minimum requirements ∙ Crow’s feet also indicate the maximum cardinality (i.e., maximum number of entities that can be  involved in a relationship) with a vertical bar on the connecting line. The vertical bar means that  at least one entity of that type is required. The symbol for minimum cardinality is a small oval.  The oval indicates the relationship is optional.  Q6: How is a Data Model Transformed into a Database Design? ∙ Database design is the process of converting a data model into tables, relationships, and data  constraints. The database desing team transforms entities into tables and expresses relationships by defining foreign keys. ∙ Normalization- is the process of converting a poorly structured table into two or more well structured tables o Normalizing tables eliminates data duplication, but can slow processing times. In  general, the goal of normalization is to construct tables so every table has a single topic  or theme. To do that, a table is split into two normalized tables with each table having a  single theme. ∙ Data Integrity Problems o A table with data integrity problems will produce incorrect results and inconsistent  information.  o Data integrity problems happen when data are duplicated. o Data integrity problems are serious. Users will lose confidence in the information, and  the system will develop a poor reputation.  Other notes NoSQL databases- means nonrelational databases (does not mean no sql) that support very high  transaction rates processing relatively simple data structures, replicated on many servers in the cloud. ∙ mongoDB- open source document-oriented DBMS. Does not require normalized data, instead it  manages collections of documents where those documents have a variety of strucutures. Used  by companies like Craigslist and foursquare ∙ dynamo- by amazon.com after it determined that relational database technology wouldn’t meet  its needs. ∙ Bigtable- developed by google ∙ Facebook took concepts from both of the above and created a third nonrelational data store  called Cassandra ∙ Use of these NoSQL products has led to the definition of a new data store. BigData is used to  describe data collections that are characterized by huge volume, variety, and velocity. Chapter 6: The Cloud Q1: Why is the Cloud the Future for Most Organizations? ∙ Until about 2010, organizations constructed and maintained their own computing infrastructure. Organizations purchased and leased hardware, installed it on their premises, and used it to  support organizational email, web sites, etc. After about 2010, organizations began to move their computing infrastructure to the cloud, and is likely that in the future nearly all computing  infrastructure will be leased from the cloud. ∙ Three types of data centers for organizations to considero Company Owned o Leased Space o Virtual Data Center (e.g. The Cloud) What is the cloud? ∙ Cloud- the elastic leasing of pooled computer resources over the internet. ∙ “A large group of networked computer servers typically used by organizations for the remote  storage, processing, or distribution of large amounts of data.” (Source: Oxford Dictionary) ∙ The data center is a key component of an organizations overall IT architecture ∙ Elastic- first used this way by Amazon, means that the computing resources leased can be  increased or decreased dynamically, programmatically, in a short span of time and that  organizations pay for just the resources that they use. ∙ Pooled- because many different organizations use the same physical hardware; they share that  hardware through virtualization o Both cloud vendors and electrical utilities benefit from economies of scale- the average  cost of production decreases as the size of the operation increases.  ∙ Over the Internet Why is the cloud preferred to In-house hosting?When does the cloud not make sense? ∙ When, by law or standard industry practice, required to have physical control over its data. ∙ Financial institution might be legally required to maintain physical control over its data. Q2: What Network Technology Supports the Cloud? ∙ A computer network is a collection of computers that communicate with one another over  transmission lines or wirelessly. ∙ Local area network (LAN)- connects computers that reside in a single geographic location on the  premises of the company that operates the LAN. The distinguishing characteristic of a LAN is a  single location ∙ Wide area network (WAN)- connects computers at different geographic locations. The  computers in two separated company sites must be connected using a WAN. Typically owned  and operated by a third-party vendor ∙ Internet- a network of networks. Internets connect LANs, WANs, and other internets. The most  famous internet is “the Internet” (uppercase I). A private internet that is used exclusively within  an organization is sometimes called an intranet. ∙ To provide seamless flow, an elaborate scheme called a layered protocol is used. A Protocol is a  set of rules that programs on two communicating devices follow. Each type of network uses a  protocol What are the components of a LAN?* Switch  Is a special-purpose computer that receives and transmits messages to computers in the  LAN  Different from a hub  Network interface card (NIC)  Hardware component that connects each device’s circuitry to a cable allowing protocols  to send data across the LAN  Uniquely identified by a media access control (MAC) address  Transmission media  Provide the communication channels between nodes  Fiber optics, unshielded twisted pair (UTP), radio waves (WiFi)  Nodes  Devices connected to the network  LAN Protocols  Wireless LAN 802.11, Wired LAN 802.3 (Ethernet) ∙ The institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) sponsors committees that create and  publish protocol and other standards. IEEE Lan protocols always start with the numbers 802. ∙ The IEEE 802.3 protocol is used for wired LAN connections. This protocol standard, also called  Ethernet, specifies hardware characteristics, such as which wire carries which signals ∙ Most personal computers today support what is called 10/100/1000 Ethernet. These products  conform to the 802.3 specification and allow transmission at a rate of 10, 100, or 1000 MBPS ∙ Wireless LAN connectors use the IEE 802.11 protocol. Allows speeds of up to 1.0 Gps, though  few users have an internet connection fast enough to take advantage of that speed. ∙ Bluetooth- another common wireless protocol. Designed for transmitting data over short  distancesConnecting your LAN to the internet ∙ Although you may not have realized it, when you connect your SOHO LAN, phone, iPad, or Kindle to the Internet, you are connecting to a WAN. You must do so because you are connecting to  computers that are not physically located on your premises ∙ Internet service provider (ISP) has three important functions. First, it provides you with a  legitimate Internet address. Second, it serves as your gateway to the Internet. The ISP receives  the communications from your computer and passes them on to the Internet, and it receives  communications from the Internet and passes them on to you. Finally, ISPs pay for the Internet.  They collect money from their customers and pay access fees and other charges on your behalf. Cable Line ∙ A cable line is the second type of WAN connection. Cables lines provide high-speed data  transmission using cable television lines.  WAN Wireless Connection ∙ A third way that you can connect your devices is via a WAN Wireless connection.  Q3: How Does the Cloud Work? Using Internet for Hotel Reservation • Assume that you sent a message to a server in a New Zealand hotel. Message is too big to travel  in one piece, so it’s broken into packets and each packet passes along from WAN to WAN until it  reaches its destination. Once all packets arrive, message is reconstructed and delivered to server for processing. All these processes are accomplished by computers and data communications  devices that most likely have not interacted before. • Hop is movement from one network to another. Internet Addressing∙ IP address- what an Internet address is called, a number that identifies a particular device ∙ Public IP addresses identify a particular device on the public Internet. ∙ Because public IP addresses must be unique, worldwide, their assignment is controlled by a  public agency known as ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) ∙ Private IP addresses identify a particular device on a private network, usually on a LAN Public IP Addresses and Domain Names ∙ IP addresses have two formats. The most common form is IPv4 ∙ ICANN administers system for assigning names to IP addresses. Domain name a worldwide unique name affiliated with a public IP address. Affiliation of domain names with IP addresses is  dynamic. Owner of domain name can change affiliated IP addresses at its discretion. ∙ URL consists of a protocol (like http:// or ftp://) followed by a domain name or public IP address. ∙ URL (Uniform Resource Locator)- is an address on the internet. Processing on a Web Server ∙ Almost all Web applications use the Three-tier architecture- a design of user computers and  servers that consists of three categories, or tiers. o User tier- consists of computers, phones, and other mobile devices that have browsers  that request and process Web pages. o Server tier- consists of computers that run Web servers and process application  programs o Database tier- consists of computers that run a DBMS that processes requests to  retrieve and store data ∙ When you enter a url in your browser, the browser sends a request over the Internet to a  computer in the server tier. In response, a server-tier computer sends back a Web page, which is  a document that is coded in, usually, html ∙ Web servers are programs that run on a server-tier computer and manage traffic by sending and  receiving Web pages to and from clients.  ∙ Commerce server is an application program that runs on a server-tier computer. Typical  commerce server functions are to obtain product data from a database, manage the items in a  shopping cart, and coordinate the checkout process. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)- the cloud would be impossible without a design philosophy called  the service-oriented architecture. According to this philosophy, all interactions among computing devices are defined as services in a formal, standardized way. This philosophy enables all the pieces of the cloud  to fit together.  Protocols Supporting Web Service ∙ A protocol is a set of rules and data structures for organizing communication. Because the  cloud’s Web services use the Internet, the protocols that trun the Internet also support cloud  processing ∙ TCP/IP Protocol Architecture- the basic plumbing of the Internet is governed by protocols that  are defined according to an arrangement called the TCP/IP protocol architecture. This  architecture has five layers∙ Internet protocols: http, https, smtp, and ftp o Hypertext transfer protocol (http) is the protocol used between browsers and web  servers. When you use a browser, you are using a program that implements the http  protocol. o The Web is the Internet-based network of browsers and servers that process HTTP or  HTTPS. When you send or download a file using FTP, you are using the Internet, but not  the Web. o HTTP is the protocol used for data communication between browsers and Web servers. o HTTPS is a secure data transmission, secure version of http. When you have https in your browser, you can safely send sensitive data like credit card numbers. o SMTP- simple mail transfer protocol, is the protocol for email transmissions. o FTP is the protocol for transmitting files over the Internet. Q4: How do Organizations Use the Cloud? – the first and most popular way is to obtain cloud services  from cloud service vendors ∙ Cloud service from cloud vendors- cloud-based service offerings can be organized into three  subcategories.  ∙ An organization that provides software as a service (SaaS) provides not only hardware  infrastructure, but also an operating system and application programs as well. Ex: Google  provides Google Grid and Microsoft provides SkyDrive as a service. Office 365, etc. ∙ Platform as a service (PaaS)- vendors provide hosted computers, an operating system, and  possible a DBMS. Microsoft Windows Azure, for example, provides servers installed with  Windows Servers. Customers can then add their own applications of top of the hosted platform.  Microsoft SQL Azure provides a host with Windows Server and SQL Server. Oracle On Demand  provides a hosted server with Oracle Database. Amazon EC2 provides servers with Windows  Server or Linux Installed. ∙ Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)- the most basic of could offering, it is the cloud hosting of a  bare server computer or data storage From slides:  Software as a Service (SAAS) ∙ Google Docs  Platform as a Service (PAAS) ∙ Microsoft Azure  Infrastructure as a Service (IAAS) ∙ Amazon S3 Content Delivery Networks (CDN)- a system of hardware and software that stores user data in many  different geographical locations and makes those data available on demand. A CDN provides a  specialized type of PaaS but is usually considered in its own category.  ∙ Ex: a news organization could use a CDN to store copies of its news articles. The CDN vendor  replicates articles on servers, possible worldwide, so as to speed response time. When a news  reader accesses and article, the request is transmitted to a routing server that determines which CDN is likely to deliver the article to the user the fastest.∙ CDN Benefits: decreases load time, reduced load on origin server, increased reliability,  protection from DOS attacks, reduce delivery costs for mobile users, pay as you go Use Web Services Internally ∙ The third way that organizations can use cloud technology is to build internal information using  Web services. Q6: How Can Organizations Use Cloud Services Securely? Virtual Private Network (VPN)- uses the internet to create the appearance of private, secure,  connections. In the IT world, virtual means something that appears to exist but in fact does not.  ∙ VPN uses public Internet to create appearance of a private connection on secure network. ∙ A typical VPN- the remote user is the VPN client. That client establishes a public connection to  the Internet. VPN software on the remote user’s computer establishes a connection with the  VPN server in Chicago. The VPN client and VPN server then have a secure connection. That  connection, called a tunnel, is a virtual, private pathway over a public or shared network from  the VPN client to the VPN server. ∙ To secure VPN communications over the public internet, the VPN client software encrypts messages so their contents are protected from snooping.  Using a Private Cloud ∙ A private cloud is a cloud that is owned and operated by an organization for its own benefit. To  create a private cloud, the organization creates a private internet and designs applications ∙ Private clouds provide security within the organizational infrastructure but do not provide  secure access from outside that infrastructure.  ∙ Private clouds provide the advantages of elasticity, but to a questionable benefit. What can they  do with their idle servers? Using a Virtual Private Cloud ∙ A virtual private cloud (VPC) is a subset of a public cloud that has highly restricted, secure  access. An organization can build its own VPC on top of public cloud infrastructure. ∙ Organization can store most sensitive data on its own infrastructure, and store less sensitive data on the VPC. Thus, organizations required to have physical control over some of their data can  place it on own servers and locate rest on VPC. Q7: 2024? ∙ Remote action systems- IS that provide computer-based activity or action at a distance. By  enabling action at a distance, remote action systems save time and travel expense and make the  skills and abilities of an expert available in places where he or she is not physically located. ∙ Telediagnosis- a remote action system that healthcare professionals use to diagnose illnesses for rural or remote areas. ∙ Telesurgery- uses telecommunications to link surgeons to robotic equipment at distant locations ∙ Telelaw enforcement- cameras and motion-sensing equipment to issue tickets for red-light and  speeding violations.

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