CHAPTERS 4-6 COMM 1101
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachael Kroeger on Thursday August 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 1101 at Ohio State University taught by ASHLEY KENNARD in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see HISTORY OF COMMUNICATION in Journalism and Mass Communications at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 08/06/15
CHAPTER 4 1 Early images a Types i Images from Altamira caves 1 First cave paintings found 2 20000 35600 years old ii Reproducible images 1 Likely created by using stamp cylinders b Reproduction i Lithograph woodblock print engraving on copper 2 The camera obscura a Why was it created i To make highly accurate and realistic paintings b Who used it i Joseph niepce c How does it work i Light passes through small hole in wall of dark chamber image is upside down and backwards 3 The rst photographs a View from the window at le gras 1826 b Method used to capture them i Pewter plate covered in bitumen light hit it and hardened to get image ii Chemical solution that would x an image in short amount of time 4 Daguerreotypes a Recorded on a copper plate covered with lightsensitive silver emulsion b Very fragile in viewing cases c Mirrorlike nish made hard to see from angles 5 Matthew Brady a First photojournalist civil war and new york b Technique i First studio images were daguerreotypes ii Travelling darkrooms operated by assistants c Contribution i Did not shy away from battle aftermath ii First time us public see reality of war 6 The colloidal process a Used glass sheets to produce negatives b Negatives used to print paper copies of image c Made photography commercially viable 7 The halftone process a Photographs printed using printing presses b Widespread dissemination of photos with mews magazines and books 8 The power of photography a Have ability to shift public opinion and create interest in previously unacknowledged problems 9 Digital image sharing a Affordances i Photos widespread using internet able to go viral ii Individuals begin to act as photojournalists in own right b Cultural shiftchange i Becomes dif cult for those in power to prevent those not in power from recording and spreading images CHAPTER 5 1 Technological problems that needed to be overcome a How to simulate movement i Moving images depend on quick sequential display of images with slight changes ii Animation toys iii Persistence of vision 1 Image will stay in our perceptions for brief amount of time after image has disappeared based in physical operation ofeyes iv Phi Phenomenon 1 Brain lls blank space between still images shown in quick succession illusion created within mind a Why we see motion as opposed to persistent series of still frames b How to project things i Lens device causes light to either converge or diverge ii The magic lantern c How to capture movement with a camera and how to project the moving picture i Problem how to capture sequential images quickly enough 2 The magic lantern a What was it i Create special features as part of spiritual or magic shows b How was it usedhow did it work i Focuses light through lens through transparent slide onto screen 3 Leland Stanford and Eadward Muybridge a Does a horse ever have all four feet off the ground during a gallop b Muybridge captures single image of horse with all hooves off ground but contested c 24 camera series triggered by trip wire capture images for rst moving picture d Show quick sequence at California school of ne arts the rst movie 4 The socialcultural climate that impacted the popularity of movies a Enormous popularity of movies didn39t depend entirely upon new technology b Development of mass audience c A rich history of theater d Economic and social change 5 Mass audience interaction a Printing press mad mass media and mass audience possible b 2 ways of mass audience interaction i Simultaneous many people readingwatching the same thing But doing so primarily alone ii Synchronous many people readingwatching the same thing together c Mass audience will dominate mass media through late 20th century 6 The in uence of live theater on movies a During colonial era simple stage plays are popular Shakespeare b Companies travel and put on longform plays and musicals i Shakespeare still most popular but musicals are new entertainment form c Several actors become internationally famous precursors to silver screen stars d Audiences accustomed to large theaters lled with other people e Appeal of quotstar powerquot was well established f National culture beginning to take shape 7 The industrial revolution a Social amp economic change i Social reforms improved working conditions shorter hours and higher pay ii More jobs in factories than farms people move to cities in great numbers iii Workingclass Americans have extra money and leisure time iv Close living conditions leads to need to seek entertainment outside of home 8 Thomas Edison s patent a What was it i Thomas Edison held patents on majority of devices and supplies required to record and display movie lm lm camera kinetograph lm spooling technology several different projection devices ii Believed he deserves cut out of everything lm production companies produce b what did lmmakers do in response i lm companies fought back by importing Europeanmade lms in meantime ii nancially exhausted by Edison s persistence major motion picture rms in US approach him to license agreement 9 The House UnAmerican Activities Committee a Investigating variety of entertainers b Concerns over communist in uence in the lm industry c Many famous entertainers actually blacklisted and forbidden from working in the US McCarthyism d Some of war lms made earlier come under re as quotunAmericanquot e Hollywood scrambles to make antiSoviet anticommunist lms 10The Hayes Code a Developed and enforced by MPAA b Concerns that content of lms harming children g 11The N apem CHAPTER 6 MPAA creates voluntary production code to avoid government censorship lf MPAA refuses to pass lm it cannot nd place in theaters Motion picture need to avoid making illegal or immoral lives seem possible or pleasant Married couples should be shown with twin beds Cursing is forbidden sex god hell damn guts nuts louse ational Board of Review 1909 created Nongovernmental Movie producers can voluntarily submit lms Many theaters will not show lm unless it has been cleared by national board of review i At this time lms don39t have 1St amendment protection hence the NBR 1 The industrial revolution and advertising a b an Industrial revolution mass production 2 major impacts on advertising i Leads to changes in newspaper funding ii Leads to changes in how products are made and sold Penny press advertising larger audiences Leads to changes in newspaper funding Leads to changes in how products are made and sold i Mass produced products have a hard time competing with local products 2 As agencies a b New demand for advertising space in papers creates a new industry ad agency First ad agency establish by George Ryell 1812 London US Volney Palmer 1841 Philadelphia How did they worked i agencies worked as brokers and either 1 Purchases large amounts of space in newspaper and then sold it to clients or 2 Negotiated with newspapers39 advertising departments for clients What did they do i Agencies helped clients buy advertising space and would design advertisements for them ii Stayed this way until the 198039s 3 The Payne fund studies a b c One of rst efforts to study effects of mass media Prompted concerns over negative in uence of movies on children Consists of a series of studies 4 Branding a Brand product39s identity that which sets it apart from other products b Soap wars Pears vs Ivory c Why there was a need companies realize they need to set their products apart from both local and competitor products 5 Advertising in the 180039s a Not regulated by government b Often contain ridiculous exaggeration if not lies c Many ads still have great deal of text 6 The pure food and drug act a Mukrackers and reform movement i Sudden rise in social consciousness in uences advertisers ii Laws begin to emerge to regulate advertising claims b Instituted rules regarding the accurate labeling of the contents of packaged foods and medications i Required that any drug containing alcohol cocaine heroin morphine or marijuana be labeled with contents and dosages c Established what would become the FDA 7 The bureau of consumer protection a Created to protect consumers from quotunfair or deceptive advertising and marketing practicesquot b Responsible for prosecuting those who make false claims in advertising c Concerned with health claims 8 Propaganda a WWI i 1917 US enters and creates creel committee b WWII i Rise of broadcast advertising radio ii Radio needs to be ad supported because sales of radios don39t cover broadcasting costs 1 Regulated by FCC 2 Soap operas iii WWII propaganda lead to scienti c study of persuasive techniques iv Of ce of war information created 1 Moraleboosting propaganda for soldiers 2 First major use of social psychological research for widespread persuasive campaign c The creel committee i First major propaganda movement in US ii Goals 1 Convince US public that war is just 2 Convince US public to support the war iii Work through newspapers iers posters and word of mouth iv Produces over 6000 news releases and ads during war 9 Advertising today a Companies have internal PR department b PR rms melded with ad rms and becomequot integrated marketing companiesquot c Advertising goes digital i Loyalty cards internet tracking
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