Old Exams BIOL 20A - 01
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BIOL 20A - 01
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Karla Martinez on Friday August 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 20A - 01 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Tamkun,J.W. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 142 views.
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Date Created: 08/07/15
Bi020A Spring 2014 First Exam 1 Which of the following is a purine a galactose gtgtgtb guanine c thymine d uracil e cytosine 2 When two nucleotides join to form a nucleic acid what parts form the bond that connects the nucleotides gtgtgta the ribose binds to the phosphate b the ribose binds to the nitrogenous base c two phosphates join d the nitrogenous base binds to a phosphate e the nitrogenous base binds to the ribose 3 Glycerol is used to make which of the following molecules gtgtgta phospholipids b cholesterol c glycogen d fatty acids e polypeptides 4 What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats a Saturated fats have 3 fatty acids unsaturated fats have 2 b Saturated fats also have sterols unsaturated fats do not c Unsaturated fats have one double bond saturated fats have several gtgtgtd Unsaturated fats are more likely to melt at body temperature e Unsaturated fats are more abundant in animals than in plants 5 Lipids are amphipathic molecules What is the polar region of a cholesterol molecule a the lipid tail b four fused rings c a fatty acid chain d a carboxyl on a fatty acid gtgtgte a hydroxyl group 6 Integral membrane proteins often form an alpha helix that crosses and is embedded in the lipid bilayer Approximately how many amino acids does it take to form a lipidspanning helix a 5 gtgtgtb 20 c 50 d 100 e 500 7 Louis Pasteur s experiment was designed to test a the theory of evolution gtgtgtb the theory of spontaneous generation c the cell theory d the origin of life e the genetic theory 8 What is the maximum number of electrons in the first shell of an atom gtgtgta2 b 4 c 6 d 8 e 16 9 Which of the following elements is present in the human body at only trace very low amounts gtgtgta boron b hydrogen c oxygen d phosphorus e nitrogen 10 How many hydrogen atoms are in a molecule of ribose a 5 b 6 c 8 gtgtgtdlO e 12 11 Which of the following is an amino acid with a nonpolar side chain The answer is e CHOH 3 2 b H c 0 d e H H C O OH HN3C O H H H H H H H H H I 0 IH g NH Hic39lc39c39lll AWE R 0HH HCHOH I IIIIIIIIH 0H HO39 39l H H H H H H H H CH I l H HO CH3 N 0 H30 CH3 H OH H 12 Which of the following is likely to contain peptide binds a polysaccharides b DNA gtgtgtc enzymes d an amino acid e cellulose 13 Most but not all organelles are enclosed by a single lipid bilayer Which of the following is enclosed by two lipid bilayers gtgtgta nucleus b ER c Golgi d transport vesicle e lysosome 14 The synthesis and delivery of plasma membrane proteins is done by the endomembrane system In what order does a newly synthesize protein move through the endomembrane system a ER 9 lysosome a Golgi a transport vesicle gtgtgtb ER a Golgi a transport vesicle c Golgi 9 ER 9 transport vesicle d nucleus 9 lysosome 9 ER e nucleus a Golgi 9 ER 9 transport vesicle 15 Which of the organelles is likely to have the lowest internal pH a nucleus b ER c Golgi d transport vesicle gtgtgte lysosome 16 What is the function of peroxisomes a protein synthesis b attachment of sugar to proteins c synthesis of cholesterol gtgtgtd special degradative reactions e assembly of ribosomes 17 Which of the following proteins can catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP gtgtgta dynein b tubulin c keratin d actin e chromatin 18 Kinesin can walk on which the following components of the cytoskeleton gtgtgta microtubules b keratin c actin d dynein e intermediate filaments 19 Which of the following is not a correct statement about the structure of biological membranes gtgtgta the lipids bind to each other by covalent bonds b the lipids move freely in the membrane c the proteins penetrate completely through the lipid bilayer d at least some of the proteins move freely in the membrane e the hydrocarbon chains are in the interior away from the water 20 Which of the following best describes the molecular composition of most biological membranes gtgtgta Approximately 60 protein 40 lipids plus a small amount of carbohydrate b 95 lipid 5 carbohydrates c 50 cholesterol 50 phospholipid d 80 phospholipid 20 protein e 33 fat 33 phospholipid 33 sterol 21 A transport protein in fungal plasma membranes hydrolyses ATP to move H out of the cell This protein is likely to be gtgtgta a primary active transporter b a secondary active transporter c a channel d a carrier e a receptor 22 All of the following types of transporters can move Na across a biological membrane Which is likely to permit the highest rate of Na transport a a primary active transporter b a secondary active transporter gtgtgtc a channel d a carrier e a cotransport system 23 Animal cells have an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane What is the nature of this gradient a High Na outside the cell net positive charge inside the cell gtgtgtb High Na outside the cell net negative charge inside the cell c High K outside the cell net positive charge inside the cell d High K outside the cell net negative charge inside the cell e High Na inside the cell net positive charge inside the cell Bi020A Spring 2014 Name First Exam 1 A centimeter cm is 10392 meters How many meters are each of the following nm 10399 A 103910 um 10396 2 Draw the structure of a carboxyl group at low pH COOH 3 What is the concentration of protons at pH 3 Don t forget to give the units 10393 M same as 0001 Molar or 10 mMolar or 10000 uMolar 4 The side chain of the amino acid alanine is CH3 Draw the structure of two alanines joined by a peptide bond H 0 H 0 N C lt N C H OH H I OH O H H I II I I 0 N C C N C C Peptide Bond A molecule of water is removed from two glycine amino acids to form a peptide bond 5 What type of molecule forms this structure What is the name of this particular structure This is a protein a polypeptide chain forming an alpha helix Note the CCN backbone Cend Bi020A Spring 2014 Name First Exam 6 Draw the structure of a 141 fatty acid 14 carbons with one double bond The end carbon is part of a carboxyl group 7 De ne osmosis Osmosis is the movement of water through a semipermeable membrane 8 Describe one difference in the structure of plant cells compared to animal cells Examples In plants cell wall vacuoles versus lysosomes chloroplasts In animals centroioles 9 In which compartment in eukaryotic cells are ribosomes assembled The nucleus specifically the nucleolus 10 Enzymes accelerate the rate of a chemical reaction Define the meaning of this phrase the rate of a chemical reaction Rate is amount per time For an enzyme the rate is the amount of product formed per time for example 5 mmolsmin Biology 20A Second Exam Spring 2014 Version 1 1 Which of these molecules is NADH d c r x N r rrrrr 4 9 T i c l 4H c c 6 397 N N cm I NH fH 0 llgt OILO E O C tic H 0 0 a H CH H CH Ciquot no O HgH I l H quotI H HT IH o P O N h O L CH 0 c 0 CH I 0 Oi O on OH NHl 0 11 0 I H wig N 1ch O H I u C OH HO PO I OZIP O ltN N H OH OH gt 0 o O NH H OH H O 39 39 O H OH 2 The complete oxidation of glucose produces C02 and H20 How many 02 molecules are consumed when one glucose is converted to C02 and H20 a 1 b 2 c 4 gtgtgtd 6 e 12 3 The glycolysis pathway has 10 steps catalyzed by 10 enzymes How many of these enzymes produce C02 as a product gtgtgta 0 b 1 c 2 d 4 e 6 4 Which of the following is not a product of any enzyme in glycolysis a ADP b ATP gtgtgtc FADH2 d NADH e Pyruvate 5 What is a major function of fermentation gtgtgta to allow glycolysis to continue by regenerating NAD b to produce C02 from ethanol c to produce acetylCoA d to convert pyruvate into ATP e to use oxygen to make ethanol 6 What is the rst reaction in the Krebs cycle a pyruvate NADH make citrate b pyruvate NADH make OAA gtgtgtc acetyl group OAA make citrate d acetyl group pyruvate make citrate e acetyl group plus OAA make succinate 7 In the Krebs cycle How many ATP s are made each time one OAA molecule goes around the cycle a 0 gtgtgtb l c 2 d 4 c 6 8 What was Peter Mitchell s major idea to explain how ATP is made a NADH is used to pump electrons through the ATP synthase gtgtgtb high energy electrons are used to make an electrochemical gradient for protons and this gradient drives ATP synthesis c NADH is used to make highenergy phosphate d Most ATP synthesis is driven by substratelevel phosphorylation e ATP synthesis occurs when protons are pumped from the cytosol into the mitochondria 9 Racker and Stoeckenius used lipid membranes bacteriorhodopsin and ATP synthase to test Peter Mitchell s hypothesis In this experiment a bacteriorhodopsin synthesized ATP b ATP synthase generated a proton gradient across the membrane c the lipid vesicles were put into an acidic solution d the ATPsynthase used NADH to make ATP gtgtgte light was used to generate a proton gradient 10 Cytochrome oxidase the last enzyme in the Electron Transport Chain uses electrons oxygen and protons to make water What is the electron carrier that binds to and transfers an electron to cytochrome oxidase a NADH b FADH2 c quinone gtgtgtd cytochrome c e acetylCoA 11 What binds directly to the ATP synthase and provides the energy for synthesis of ATP a NADH b electrons from NADH gtgtgtc protons d uncouplers e oxygen atoms 12 Which of the following components in our food is most likely to increase the production of urea gtgtgta meat it has amino groups in the amino acids b carbohydrates c high fructose corn syrup d starch e plant oils 13 When we catabolize our food which of the following will produce the largest number of acetyl groups per gram gtgtgta soybean oil It has a lot of hydrocarbon chains like d in Ql4 b protein c starch d fructose e carbohydrates 14 Which of the following is likely to have the largest number of calories per gram 1 OH OH O a 2 0 0 OHbH T 0 C CHLHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH e39H Ill 0 H If39l l NC 39llllllllllllllllf NCC ICOH HCII H OH OH HCE tEtCtECctctrzrzccR H le OH I ll Ho C C amp HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH UH x I H HO CH3 N H30 oH3 H OH H 15 What is the correct order of events in the cell cycle gtgtgtaGl S G2 M bGl G2 S M cS Gl G2M dGlS M G2 eM S Gl G2 16 In a human cell that is about to undergo mitosis how many DNA molecules are in one chromosome a l gtgtgtb 2 One in each chromatid the DNA was replicated in S phase c 4 d 23 e 46 17 What is a key event at anaphase in mitosis a the chromosomes condense gtgtgtb the chromatids separate c the chromosomes line up in the middle d the nuclear envelope breaks down e the nuclear envelope reforms 18 What is the name of the protein complex that attaches microtubules to chromosomes a centrosome b dynein gtgtgtc kinetochore d tetrad e centrioles 19 If you inject the cytosol from an Mphase cell into a Glphase cell the chromosomes of the Glphase cell will condense What is in the Mphase cytosol and not in the G2phase cell that triggers this condensation a centrioles b DNA synthesis enzymes c kinesin gtgtgtd mitotic cyclin e kinases 20 Assume that a nucleus in prophase of the rst meiotic division has contains 20 picograms of DNA How much DNA would be in each nucleus when meiosis is complete gtgtgta 5 picograms You start with a tetrad 4 chromatids Each ends up in one nucleus b 10 picograms c 20 picograms d 30 picograms e 40 picograms 21 In meiosis which of the following is m correct a the chromosomes do not split at the centromere during the rst division b a diploid cell is converted to haploid cells c chromosomes split during the second division d recombination occurs when tetrads form gtgtgte DNA is replicated between the rst and second meiotic division No it isn t 22 At which stage of meiosis does crossing over occur gtgtgta rst meiotic prophase b second meiotic prophase c rst meiotic metaphase d rst meiotic anaphase e between rst and second meiotic divisions 23 If an organism is homozygous recessive for a particular trait gtgtgta it has two identical alleles for the gene that speci es the trait b it has two different alleles for the gene that speci es the trait c all of its progeny will have the recessive phenotype d none of its progeny can have the dominant phenotype e the gene must be on a seX chromosome 24 What is Mendel s Principle of Independent Assortment a genes that are separate in the parents stay separate in the progeny b alleles for any single gene are always heterozygous gtgtgtc genes act as independent units when gametes form d each gamete contains one allele for each gene e the alleles for any single gene are always homozygous 25 Two plants with purple owers are crossed 75 of the progeny have purple owers Which of the following is most likely a one parent was homozygous recessive and the other heterozygous b one parent was homozygous dominant and the other heterozygous c one parent was homozygous recessive and the other homozygous recessive gtgtgtd both parents were heterozygous Pp X Pp e both parents were homozygous 26 Two plants are crossed one with geneotype AaBb the other with genotype aabb What proportion are expected to have the phenotype AB a l ofl6 b 2 ofl6 c 3 ofl6 gtgtgtd 4 Ofl6 e 9 ofl9 27 In a genetic cross of fruit ies one parent has long legs and black wings the other has short legs and white wings When the progeny are counted 46 are shortwhite 46 are longblack 4 are shortblack 4 are longwhite a the genes are assorting independently b the genes are on the seX chromosomes c the genes are 16 map units apart on the same chromosome d the genes are 46 map units apart on the same chromosome gtgtgte the genes are 8 map units apart on the same chromosome 8 of the progeny were recombinants 28 In humans redgreen color blindness is determined by an Xlinked recessive allele a while eye color is determined by an autosomal gene where brown B is dominant over blue b What gametes can be formed with respect to these genes by a heterozygous browneyed colorblind male gtgtgta XaB Xab By by This is the problem from the book b XaB By by c XaB Xab By d XAb Xab By by e XAB Xab Bb bb 29 Genes A B and C are all on the same chromosome Pairwise crosses yield the following results AaBb X AaBb 9 of progeny are recombinants AaCc X AaCc 3 of progeny are recombinants Bch X Bch 12 of progeny are recombinants What is the relative position of these three genes a A B C gtgtgtbB A C cA C B d A C B e B A C 30 Humans have 3 different alleles for the ABO blood type How many genotypes are possible a 3 b 4 gtgtgtc 6 AA BB 00 AB A0 B0 d 8 e 9 31 Griffith s experiments with the R and S forms of Streptococcus allowed him to prepare a transforming substance that could convert a benign form of the bacteria into a virulent form He demonstrated that the transforming substance a was only active if protein was present b could only be extracted from live cells c could be extracted from mice resistant to infection gtgtgtd could be extracted from dead cells and thus must be some type of molecule e could be inactivated by heat treatment 32 The HersheyChase experiment strongly suggested that DNA is the genetic material because a the S35 was found inside bacterial cells b mice injected with Streptococcus pneumonia were killed c protein degrading enzymes inactivated the genes d heatkilled bacterial viruses killed the cells gtgtgte the P32 from bacterial viruses was injected into cells not the S35 DNA contains P but not S 33 Beadle and Tatum found three mutant strains of Neurospora named A B and C that could not grow unless they were fed arginine When A was crossed with B all of the progeny required arginine for growth When A was crossed with C 25 of the progeny were wild type they did not require arginine Remember that Neurospora is haploid These data indicated that a A B and C were mutated in three different genes gtgtgtb A B were mutated in the same gene C in a different gene c the A and C genes were linked d A and B are dominant to C e C is dominant to A
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