HNF 300 Exam 1 Study Guide
HNF 300 Exam 1 Study Guide 300
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KIN202 Wesley Smith Applied Nutrition for Health & Performance
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Moore on Friday August 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 300 at Michigan State University taught by Nettles in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 126 views. For similar materials see Experimental Approaches to Food in Nursing and Health Sciences at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 08/07/15
HNF 300 F14 Exam 1 Ch 1567 Review Chapter 1 Chapter summary Food is influenced by family social cultural and religious traditions Factors such as health and nutrition food availability economic resources technological developments and emotions impact what we eat In the 21St century food selection is influenced by time restraints and lead to the consumption of fast replacement meals 2010 Dietary guidelines MyPlate nutrition labeling Economic and marketplace factors have an impact on food selection EX Household size and income Food industry develops products packaging and preservation methods are used to enhance the quality and availability of food Sensory characteristics Evaluation of food accomplishment using human sensory test panels or objective measurements Chapter 1 Study Questions 1 Why is it important for the student of food to be able to evaluate the palatability and quality of food To then be able to prepare meals with great appetite appeal What is meant by palatability Pleasing to the taste acceptable to an individual and agreeing to his or her taste Discuss how family society culture and religious practices may affect the eating patterns that an individual develops All of the following influences development of our food habits preferences values time restraints food patterns or guidelines Identify several regional or ethnic food patterns and then discuss how these foods are becoming integrated into home and restaurant menus America is becoming more global in its food tastes 910 Americans regularly eat ethnic food at home or out at a restaurant Ex Italian Mexican Chinese Mediterranean Spanish Greek Thai and Japanese Summarize the recommendations for health found in the MyPlate and USDA Dietary Guidelines and identify suggested changes in the typical American diet to meet recommendations more closely Maintain calorie balance over time to achieve and sustain a healthy weight Focus on consuming nutrient dense food and beverages Promote health and reduce the risk for major chronic diseases by providing recommendations for healthy eating Half of your plate should be fruits and vegetables 10 11 12 13 14 Economic marketplace and technological changes have an impact on food selection and availability When food budgets are strict less expensive foods like fast food meals occur more frequently Low income families spend 25 of their income of food compared to high income families who spend around 98 of their income on food Technology allow for more convenient foods Ex Irradiation Aseptic packaging and biotechnology How can the appearance of food influence your evaluation of its flavor or other quality characteristics Without an attractive quoteye appea foods may be rejected before being tasted Define or distinguish among the terms flavor taste odor and aroma Flavor A blending of taste and odor Taste Sensations perceived through taste buds Odor A smell pleasant or unpleasant perceived through stimulation of the olfactory center Aroma Given to pleasant odors List the five primary tastes Sweet sour bitter salty and umami Briefly describe how the heating of food produces the sensations of taste and smell in humans Produces precursors different cooking methods affect food differently Gives pleasant flavor and appearance Discuss what effect the temperature of a food has on your perception of its flavor Give pleasant flavor Of what practical importance to humanity is research on flavor chemistry Foods may be flavored so that they are accepted by consumers in their unique cultural environment Develop new foods and flavors Which human senses perceives the texture and consistency of a food Touch or feeling known as the tactile sense Provide methods of each type of evaluation Describe several situations or conditions under which quality evaluation of specific food products may be desirable Trained sensory panels Desirable for a complete analysis of all flavor components Consumer Panels Introducing new products Objective evaluation Using lab instruments to test eating quality I Chapter 5 Chapter Summary Knives and cutting boards are among the most important tools used in preparation of food The French knife is best for cutting or dicing a wide array of foods Knives should be well balanced and made from high quality materials High carbon stainless steel blades sharpen easily and resist erosion Thermometers are an essential item to have in the kitchen to control food safety and quality Correct proportion of ingredients is vital to success in the preparation of many food products US recipes generally call for volume measurements Weighing id generally more accurate Recipe ingredients are measured with dry and liquid measuring cups They DO NOT interchange Recipes list the ingredients and describe the procedure for preparing products Written simple and clear A recipe is standardized only after it has been tried and evaluated Recipe yields may be adjusted to meet individual needs May not provide consistent high quality products if large yield adjustments are made Chapter 5 Study Questions 1 What are the advantages and disadvantages of the three materials used for knife blades Carbon steel sharpens easily but also can corrode and discolor easily Stainless steel blades do not corrode or discolor easily but are difficult to sharpen High Carbon stainless steel blades are sharpened easily and do not corrode easily Explain how to sharpen a knife and how to hold food when cutting or slicing Use a sharpening stone and press the blade evenly against the stone at a 20 degree angle as if slicing the stone Repeat on both sides until the blade is sharp Finally hone the blade with a steel to straighten the blade Explain how to grasp a knife and how to hold when cutting or slicing Hold a French knife with the thumb and index finger gripping the blade Hold the handle with the other 3 fingers When cutting food the product should be held with all fingers curled back Blade is guided by the flats surface of all the fingers between the first and second knuckle Identify the purpose for each of the tools described in the text Spoons can be used to drain away liquids from food whisks can be used to whip eggs egg whites or heavy creams Ladles are used to measure liquids or proportion food sizes Portion scoops are sized to create equal sized scoops Thermometers monitor proper heating cooling Other are colanders strainers china cap Identify the purpose for which of the following knives is best used French Chef s utility paring slicer serrated and butchers French knives Best used for chopping slicing and mincing Utility is all purpose used for cutting fruits and veggies or carving poultry Pairing Used for detailed work Serrated Used for slicing bread or pastry products Butchers Cut raw meats Discuss why accurate measurements are important in the preparation of quality food products Must know correct measurements for consistent products along with being able to increase decrease size or amount of food being made What type of measuring cups should you use to measure liquids and dry goods Use glass measuring cups for liquids Dry measuring cups fill up then scrap off excess method Equivalent measurements 16 tbsp 1 cup 3 tsp 1 tbsp 4 cups 1 cup 16 cups 1 gallon 10 11 12 13 14 15 If a recipe calls for the weight for a dry ingredient and you want to measure the ingredient instead can you covert the weight of any dry good to a measure using the conversion of 1 cup 8 fl Oz Explain No because the density of dry and liquid ingredients are different Describe the procedures for measuring flour liquid solid fat sugar and syrups Flour Spoon tbsp into dry measuring cups until heaping then scrape off excess Liquid Measure in glass measuring cups look for meniscus Solid Fat Press fat into dry measuring cup press fat until air spaces are forced out Level off Sugar Granulated sugar should be poured into a dry measuring cup and leveled off While brown sugar must be pressed down packed free of lumps Syrups Spray cup with nonstick spray fill cup completely and cut the excess of with spatula What is the metric system of measurement Where did it originate The Metric system is a system of measurement based on science rather than custom Originated in France during the French Revolution Advantages would be a universal measurements system but challenges were Americans did not want to make the change Name the basic metric units for Length volume and weight Length m Volume mL Mass g What is meant by soft conversion and hard conversion Soft conversion is when a container is sized and labeled in US customary then followed by metric Hard conversion containers are designed with the metric units first then followed by the US customary What is a standardized recipe Identify advantages to the use of it A recipe is standardized only after it has been tried and evaluated for quality and any necessary adaptions have been made Advantages are it can be used in grocery and purchase calculating food costs or nutritional content Identify three methods of recipe yield adjustment and explain how they are used Which method is most accurate when large changes in yield are to be calculated Factor Method Used for enlargingdecreasing yield Desired portions Current portions Percentage Method Weigh all ingredients calculate of all individual ingredients Multiply by desired total yield Baker s percentage Based on total weight of flour Weight each ingredient than divide by flour weight x 100 Chapter 6 Chapter Summary Heat is a form of energy resulting from the rapid movement or vibration of molecules Food is cooked to make it edible increase palatability increase digestion reduce or eliminate pathogenic microorganisms improve keeping quality and enhance enjoyment Heat is involved in the change of a substance from a solid to a liquid then to a gas Latent heat is required to change the physical state of a substance but does not change temp In conventional cooking heat is transferred from the energy source to the food by conduction convection and radiation Copper Aluminum and iron are excellent conductors Stainless steel is a high quality material but not as good of a conductor Induction cooking uses a high frequency induction coil that is placed underneath the surface to generate a magnetic current Air Water Steam and fat are Medias for the transfer of heat Chapter 6 Study Questions 1 List and explain five reasons for cooking food Ensuring foods are edible Ensuring food safety Improving digestibility of foods Improving nutritional value of some foods Giving food an aesthetic value Give examples of changes in flavor texture and color of foods that may occur during cooking Texture change from cooking fiber of vegetables becoming limp eggs becoming firmer crisp bacon and potato chips connective tissue of meat being tenderized Color changing from cooking Bright green vegetables become dull light brown crusts on baked bread rich brown gravy from meat cuttings Flavor change from cooking Toast is overcooked and burnt sugars are caramelized loss of flavor from overcooked veggies Define and compare latent heat and sensible heat How much energy is involved in the latent heat of fusion for water The latent heat of vaporization at boiling Latent heat The heat or energy required to change the state of a substance without changing the temperature of the substance Sensible heat Heat that can be felt by the senses and measured by thermometers 80 calories per gram are required in the latent heat of fusion for water 540 calories per gram are required for the latent heat of vaporization What is vapor pressure How is it related to the boiling point of water Vapor pressure is the pressure produced over the surface of a liquid as a result of a change in some of the molecules from a liquid to a vapor or gaseous state What is meant by the specific heat of water A heat capacity given to the water at 100 This indicates that one calorie is required to increase the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius Compare the Fahrenheit and Celsius thermometer scales Fahrenheit is an American scale Celsius is metric Conversion is 18C F 32 Describe how heat is transferred in food preparation by conduction radiation convention currents and induction heating Conduction Transmission of heat through direct contact from one molecule or particle to the next one Heat moves from one heated coil to the next 10 11 Radiation Energy transmitted as waves or rays that vibrate at high frequency and travel very rapidly through space Waves go directly from the source to the material Waves can t penetrate the surface Convention Transfer of heat through air or liquid currents caused by the movement of different temperature areas of the gas or liquid Distributes the molecules uniformly Induction High frequency induction coil is placed just beneath the cooktop surface to product friction and thereby generates heat Generates a magnetic current through the pan which then transfer energy to the food Name four different media commonly used for transferring heat to food and give examples of several cooking methods that use each medium Air Roasting baking broiling and cooking on an outdoor grill Dry heat methods Water Simmering boiling stewing braising and poaching Moist heat methods Steam Baked potatoes meats and some seafood Moist heat method Fat Saut ing panfrying and deep fat frying Dry Heat cooking Explain why a 25 F reduction in oven temperature is recommended when cooking in a convention oven or when cooking in a standard oven with a glass baking dish A reduction of 25F is recommended to avoid overcooking Describe each of the following cooking methods Broiling roasting baking grilling saut ing panfrying deepfat frying poaching simmering steaming braising and stewing Broiling Radiant heat from an overheard source is used to cook foods placed on a rack over a pan Roasting Applies to mostly to meat and poultry The food is cooked uncovered on a rack or roasting pan in a heated oven Baking Foods are baked uncovered in a heated oven Grilling Heat source such as coals or barbeque cooks food placed on hot grates Saut ing A shallow pan is heated to a relatively high temperature with a small amount of oil to cook food Panfrying Fat should come up about 12 to 13 the height of the food being cooked Food is generally breaded Deepfat Frying Foods are emerged in oil heated up to 400 degrees F Poaching Food is placed in a liquid such as water broth or flavored liquids Simmering Food is submerged in a liquid heated to 185F to 205F slow cooked Steaming Generally does not touch liquid but placed over a boiling liquid Braising Food is browned in a small amount of fat then cooked with a small amount of liquid Stewing Generally food is browned in fat then immersed in liquid type simmering sauce for final cooking Identify moist dry and combination cooking methods Moist Poaching Simmering Boiling steaming Dry Broiling Roasting Baking Grilling Saut ing Panfrying and Deep fat frying Combination Braising and Stewing Chapter 7 Chapter Summary Microwaves are used generally for boiling water heat frozen foods defrost frozen foods and male popcorn Manufacturers are developing ovens that respond to consumer s desire of quality speed and convenience Food services use microwaves to reheat food or frozen food for individual meals Specialized equipment meant to temper meat precook bacon cook sausage dry pasta proof yeast breads and more Microwaves are high frequency electromagnetic waves of radiant energy Reflect by metals Work by interacting with electrically polarized molecules in food such as water protein and some carbohydrates Microwaves can penetrate 2in into food and cooks from outside in FDA regulates manufacture of microwaves since 1971 Offers several advantages such as fast but varies with quantity density and composition of the food Limitations to cooking in a microwave include lack of browning limited time savings for food such as rice and pasta that require a longer time to rehydrate uneven cooking in spots burns caused by superheated liquids and must use microwave safe containers and utensils Chapter 7 Study Questions 1 What are microwaves and how do they produce heat when they are absorbed by food Microwaves are high frequency electromagnetic waves of radiant energy When food absorbs the heat its created as a result of friction produced between the rapidly moving molecules Discuss several advantages and several limitations to the use of microwave equipment in home cooking institutional food service and industrial food processing Advantages Cooking times are 210x faster can reheat cooked foods and frozen Limitations Lack of browning not meant for cooking large quantities uneven cooking or overcooking causing superheated water Provide recommendations for safe endpoint cooking temperatures when using a microwave oven to prepare foods that may cause food borne illness Meats should reach and endpoint value of 165F Range is Low 54F to 86F What types of containers should be used to hold food during cooking in the microwave oven Why Plastic glass and ceramic microwave safe containers should be used for cooking because it allows for the waves to easily pass through the materials to the food Why should foods be stirred or turned at intervals during cooking in a microwave oven Of what value is standing time after cooking Explain Stirring or turning on intervals allows for a more evenly cooked product Standing time allows for hotter parts in the food to continue to cooler parts of the food evening out the temperature overall What precautions should be taken when reheating fully cooked plated meals in a microwave oven Why Denser foods should be placed on the outside while foods like vegetable pasta and rice should be placed near the center This allows for the denser foods to receive the most heat and have a better chance at heating thoroughly Why are on and off cycles used for defrosting in a microwave oven On and off cycles are used to allow the heat to be equalized throughout the food during the off cycle Give several suggestions for using the microwave oven in combination and conventional cooking Heating the sauce for pasta while the pasta is cooking conventionally Brown chicken on the grill after it has cooked in the microwave toast break conventionally and combine it with fillings prepared in the microwave What is superheated water How can it be avoided Superheated water occurs when water has been heated past its boiling point but does not appear to boil and touching the container can cause enough movement for a sudden violent eruption to happen It can be avoided by watching how long water is being heated for
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