HNF 300 Exam 3 Study Guide
HNF 300 Exam 3 Study Guide 300
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Moore on Friday August 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 300 at Michigan State University taught by Nettles in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 150 views. For similar materials see Experimental Approaches to Food in Nursing and Health Sciences at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 08/07/15
HNF 300 F14 Exam 3 Chapters 10 22 23 24 Review Chapter 10 Summary Fats are present in many foods and play a variety of roles in food preparation and nutrition Fat present naturally is often referred to as invisible fat whereas fats that are added to foods are called visible fats To reduce the risk of heart disease saturated fat intake of 10 or less of kilocalories is recommended Solid fats including tropical oils are high in saturated fats therefore should be limited in consumption Fats provide essential fatty acids and carry the fat soluble vitamins and therefore in moderation are important to the diet Fats contribute flavor color texture tenderness and moistness to foods Fats are an effective method of heat transfer and are one phase of emulsions Fats are insoluble in water Fats that are solid at room temperature are called fats and those liquid at room temperature are called oils The melting point of fat is influenced by the type of fatty acids form of the fatty acids cis or Trans and length of the carbon atoms Fats demonstrate plasticity because of a unique combination of liquid and solid crystals that allows the fat to be molded or pressed into various shapes Hydrogenation changes liquid oils into solid fats such as shortening or margarine by adding hydrogen Other methods of processing oils to produce the desirable characteristics of hydrogenation fats being used to reduce transfatty acids produced during hydrogenation Interesterification and fractionalization are two such methods Oils are obtained from fruits seeds and nuts generally by pressing Winterized oils or salad oils have been processed to remove the triglyceride molecules that crystalize or become cloudy under refrigeration Butter is the fat of cream that is separated from the other milk constituents by agitation or churning Butter is a waterinoil emulsion Lard is the fat rendered from the fatty tissues of the hog Although lard is used less widely than in the past it is still preferred by some for pie crusts and biscuits due to its shortening ability and for the flavor it provides in Mexican cuisine Fat may deteriorate in flavor due to rancidity resulting from hydrolysis or oxidation A special type of oxidative deterioration flavor reversion involves a change in edible fats characterized by the development of an undesirable flavor Fats can be protected against rancidity to some degree by controlling the storage conditions and by using antioxidants Panfrying and deep frying are two methods of cooking that utilize fat as the cooking medium Fats selected for deepfat frying must highly stable have a high smoke point and have a neutral or desirable flavor Fats that become excessively dark foam or smoke at a normal temperature for deepfat frying should be discarded Fats that are well maintained by routine straining and filtering will last longer Several factors influence the amount of fat absorbed by foods when cooked by deep fat frying The amount of fat can be reduced when cooking through the careful selection of low fat foods cooking methods and recipes Food processors are using a variety of ingredients to replace or partially replace fat in food products Fat replaces must be GRAS or must be approved by the FDA as food additives Fat replacements may be fat based carbohydrate based or protein based Emulsions are found naturally in many foods or may be formed during processing or preparation The term emulsion is applied to a system consisting of one liquid dispersed in another liquid with which it is immiscible Temporary emulsions separate on standing Permanent emulsions such as mayonnaise can be held or stored without separation There are many types of salad dressings that can be purchased commercially or made in the home Mayonnaise French dressing and salad dressing all must meet standards of identity to be labeled with these names in the marketplace Chapter 22 Salads include a wide array of dishes including mixtures of meat fish poultry cheese nuts seeds and eggs as well as all kinds of vegetables and fruits Salads may be served before the main course or as a dessert Salads can contribute to the goal of consuming more fruits and vegetables A variety of ingredients may be used to prepare salads Leafy greens vegetables fruits pasta grains legumes meat poultry fish and eggs are all used to create salads Sanitary food handling practices are important in salad preparation to reduce the risk of foodborne illness Most salads should be prepared shortly before the salad is to be served When preparing salad plants wash thoroughly and remove inedible portions Storage of the vegetables in the refrigerator after washing will provide an opportunity for the vegetables to crisp Salad ingredients may be marinated to improve flavor The length of time that salad ingredients are marinated varies with the type of ingredient Excess marinade is drained off during final preparation of the salad Many types of salad dressings are available Dressing may be placed on some salads in advance and others are added just before service or are provided on the table for individuals to serve themselves Salads should be attractively arranged with a consideration for color and shape Garnishes provide decoration but are also edible constituents that form part of the salad Salads should be properly refrigerated and maintained cold to prevent to prevent foodborne illness Special attention is needed to control the temperature of salads at summer picnics Any salad composed of high protein neutral pH and high moisture foods will spoil readily if temperature abused Gelatin is a highly efficient gelling agent It may be used in various salads and desserts as a foam stabilizer or thickener or to control crystal size in some candies Gelatin is obtained by the hydrolysis of collagen The chief sources of commercial gelatin are animal hides skins and bones Gelatin is a protein food derived from animal sources yet it is a protein of low biological value A gel is a special kind of structure that might be described as something between a solid and a liquid Gels occur in a variety of food products including most starchthickened puddings and pie fillings eggs custards fruitjellies and gelatin molds Gels are composed on mainly fluid but they behave much like rigid solids Gels contain long thin chain like molecules called polymers that are joined or crosslinked at random spots to produce a three dimensional structure something like a pile of brush Gels may vary from being soft to fairly rigid Temperature concentration degree of acidity and presence of salts sugar and enzymes influence the strength of the gelatin gel When preparing gelatins with canned fruits the juice should be drained and then used as part of the measured liquid Generally solid ingredients should be added to a gelatin mixture after the gelatin has partially set or the ingredients will float rather than being evenly dispersed Aspics are usually a beef flavored gelatin mixture although fish poultry and tomato aspics may also be prepared A gelatin dispersion can be beaten to form a foam It will increase two to three times its original volume Bavarian creams include fruit pulp and whipped cream Spanish creams are prepared with a soft egg custard whipped egg whites and gelatin Chapter 23 The annual per capita consumption of milk has decreased Yogurt and cheese consumption has increased Milk is rich in calcium and provides a dependable source of riboflavin vitamin A vitamin D when fortified and protein Milk is composed of water carbohydrate protein fat and ash minerals Casein and whey are the two primary types of protein in milk The milk fat is composed of primarily triglycerides but also phospholipids and sterols The fat in milk is dispersed in milk serum thus milk is an emulsion The chief carbohydrate is lactose Some individuals may be lactose intolerant and may find dairy products such as yogurt aged cheese and lactose reduced milks to be better tolerated The white appearance of milk is due to the reflection of light by colloidally dispersed casein micelles and calcium phosphate salts Carotenes and riboflavin are two yellowish pigments that are also contribute color to milk The flavor of milk is bland and slightly sweet with a mild aroma Off flavors may be produced when milk is exposed to light Fresh milk has a nearly neutral pH Raw milk gradually increases in acidity on storage because of lactic acid producing bacteria The grade A pasteurized milk ordinance provides regulations to protect the milk supply Sanitary codes generally determine the grading of milk If a manufacturer of dairy products uses the USDA grade or quality approved shield on product labels the plant must operate under continuous inspection of USDA agents Pasteurization is required by law for all Grade A fluid milk and milk products that enter interstate commerce for retail sale The pasteurization process involves heating raw milk to a sufficiently high temperature for a specified length of time to destroy pathogenic bacteria Homogenization consists of pumping milk or cream under pressure through tiny openings to increase the dispersion of fat and prevent the cream from separating on standing Milk is commonly fortified with vitamins A and D The fortification with vitamin D is optional but vitamin A fortification is required in low fat and nonfat milks 0 Milk is marketed as fluid milk reduced fat fluid milk concentrated fluid milk dry milk cultured milk products filled or imitation milks and cream 0 Heat acid enzymes phenolic compounds salt and freezing have an effect in milk and milk products 0 Several changes may occur when heating milk Whey proteins coagulate calcium is less dispersed and may precipitate fat gobules coalesce surface films may form and the sugars and proteins may brown 0 Casein is highly sensitive to precipitate on the addition of acid This curdling is desirable when making products such as buttermilk yogurt sour cream and some cheeses o A number of enzymes from plant animal and microbial sources are capable of clotting or curdling milk Chymosin or rennin is such an enzyme The enzyme bromelin found in fresh pineapple also clots milk but later digests the clot o Phenolic compounds found in plants may cause curdling of milk when cooked Sodium chloride also promotes coagulation of casein 0 Fat globules tend to coalesce when milk or cream has been frozen The dispersion of protein and calcium phosphate is also disturbed by freezing 0 Milk products such as cream evaporated milk and nonfat dry milk may be whipped to create a foam Cream that is cold and higher in fat than 30 will whip most successfully Sugar should be added after the cream is stiff o Fluid milk should be stored at 41 degrees or below immediately after purchase The milk container should be closed to prevent absorption of other food odors Milk should be protected from light to retain riboflavin Nonfat dry milk should be stored in moisture proof packages at room temperature or cooler Evaporated milk should be turned periodically to retard the settling of milk solids 0 Cheese is a concentrated dairy food defined as the fresh or matured product obtained by draining the whey after coagulation of casein Cheese manufacture usually involves 1 curd formation with a starter culture andor a coagulating enzyme 2 curd cutting to drain the whey 3 curd heating 4 draining knitting or stretching salting and pressing 5 curing or ripening The changes in cheese during ripening affect flavor and texture and improve cooking quality 0 Various types of organisms produce distinctive flavors aromas and textures in cheeses The mottled green appearance of some cheeses is due to the type of mold used Swiss cheese owes it large holes to special gas forming organisms 0 Cheese may be classified by the amount of moisture and the kind and extent of ripening USDA grade standards have been developed for some varieties of cheese 0 Cold pack or club cheese process cheese and process cheese foods are made by grinding and mixing together additional samples of natural cheese Additional ingredients and processes are allowed depending on the type of process cheese 0 All cheese should be stored cold although the flavor of many cheese is best when served at room temperature Freezing is generally not recommended 0 When cooking with cheese finely dividing the cheese by grating will facilitate melting without overheating The overheating of cheese results in the separation of the fat and the development of a tough rubbery curd Chapter 24 Eggs function in several roles in food preparation because of the ability to emulsify foam form gels coagulate and clarify liquids Essentially all of the fat and cholesterol can be found in the yolk The white is higher in water The major protein in the egg white is ovalbumin Lipoproteins are the major proteins in the yolk The lipoproteins are responsible for the emulsifying properties of egg yolks The lipids in egg yolk include triglycerides phospholipids and cholesterol The predominant yellow pigment of the yolk is xanthophyll No difference in nutritional value in noted between infertile and fertile eggs The eggshell is porous and allows for the exchange of gases and loss of moisture from the egg Eggshells may be brown or white depending on the breed of the chicken The natural cuticle may be replaced with a light oil coat after washing to reduce loss of moisture The egg white consists of thin and thick portions Chalazae are two strands if thickened white that anchor the yolk in the center of the egg As eggs age the proportion of thin white increases the chalazae disintegrate the yolk absorbs water from the white the air cell increases in size and alkalinity increases USDA grades for eggs are based on their candled appearance Grades AA and A eggs have larger portions of thick white that stands up around a firm high yolk Eggs are sorted into six weight classes Recipes are generally formulated on the basis of the large size Adjustments in recipes can be made for different sizes of eggs The FDA and the USDA share federal responsibilities for egg safety Since the mid1980s S enteritids has been frequently implicated in foodborne illness Unbroken shell eggs may contain the bacterium or the eggs may be infected as contamination on the shell exterior moves through the shell pores into the interior In 2000 the FDA finalized regulations to require safe food handling instructions on cartons and to specify refrigeration temperature during storage and sale Raw eggs should not be consumed Pasteurized eggs should be used in recipes such as Caesar dressing Casseroles and other dishes containing eggs should be cooked to 160 degrees F When serving high risk populations the use of pasteurized egg products is recommended Egg processing plants usually do egg breaking separation and pasteurization in preparation for liquid refrigeration products frozen eggs or dried eggs Pasteurization is required by the federal government for all processed eggs The functional properties of raw egg whites are not altered by freezing and thawing However frozen egg yolks become viscous and gummy on thawing unless they are mixed with sugar salt or syrup before freezing Drying is a satisfactory method for the preservation of eggs A variety of egg substitutes are available in the marketplace to offer a low cholesterol egg substitute Coagulation occurs not instantly but gradually Egg yolk protein requires a slightly higher temperature for coagulation compared to egg whites Diluted egg mixtures require a higher temperature for coagulation The use of low or moderate temperature for coagulation The use of low or moderate temperatures for egg cookery is recommended to avoid toughness and greater shrinkage of egg proteins Overcooked yolks may develop a green color Factors influencing the coagulation of egg proteins include 1 rate of heating 2 sugar in the mixture or 3 acid in the mixture Egg whites coagulate with mechanical beating First egg whites become foamy then soft moist peaks form Stiff peaks form with continued beating but overbeating will result in a dry lumpy foam The foam produced from thin whites is fluffier and has less body than one created from thick viscous whites Thick whites produce a more stable foam Eggs whip more easily and quickly at room temperature Whole eggs and egg yolks may also be beaten but produce less volume than egg white foam include 1 type of beater used 2 type of bowl used 3 or added substances such as fat salt acid and sugar Cream of tartar and sugar stabilize egg white foams but sugar should not be added until later in the whipping process Poached hard cooked or soft cooked in the shell fried scrambled shirred omelets crepes custards meringues and many other egg dishes may be prepared Microwave ovens may be used to prepare scrambled fried poached and other egg dishes However microwave ovens are not recommended for hard or soft cooked eggs in the shell because the shell can burst
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