Psych 110 final study guide
Psych 110 final study guide PSY 110
Popular in PSY 110
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 72 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Sinkus on Sunday August 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 110 at University of Miami taught by Gillis in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 186 views. For similar materials see PSY 110 in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
Reviews for Psych 110 final study guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/09/15
1 De nition of Psychology 11 III a Scienti c study of the mind and behavior bPeople study the behaviors produced by the mind cMind is the product of a healthy brain Six Approaches to Psychology a Psychoanalytic Freud i Idea of the unconscious mind not knowing why we do things ii Behaviors formed by early childhood experiences iii Mind made up into ego superego etc bBehavioral Watson Skinner i Disagreed with Freud can t measure ego superego ii Believed those were ideas imaginary can t measure iii First to study behavior as a science cGestalt Kohler Wertheimer i The whole is more than the sum of the parts dHumanistic Maslow Rogers i Believed all people are born motivated to reach their full potential learn love act succeed etc but get stopped along the way by the negativity of in uential important people in their lives ii Raise children with more positivity iii Self actualization the realization or fulfillment of one39s talents and potentialities especially considered as a drive or need present in everyone iv eCognitive i Thinking memory language problem solving creativity other than behaviors f Biological Medical Physiological Fields of Specialization aHuman Services i Clinical focus on serious mental conditions ii Counseling therapy focus on everyday problems of living life iii Community iv School disciple academic impairments lack of motivation in students bApplied i Educational learning amp teaching techniques ii Forensic anything legal help to choose a jury study interactions in court rooms evaluate suspects iii Sports motivation visual iv Industrial Organizational improve leadership work relationships industry v Health applied to a medical setting vi Engineeringhelps design equipment to be more user friendly c Experimental i Social ii Personality iii Cognitive iv Developmental V PhysiologicalMedicalBiological IV History of Psychology aCharles Darwin 1859 i Theory of Evolution natural selection adaptations survival of the fittest ii Fitter organisms will survive in greater numbers and pass their traits on to offspring iii Start of genetics not a theory proven iv Depends on individual difference in organisms in characteristics and mental ability bSir Francis Galton 1884 i Darwins cousin ii Measured these individual differences 1 Beginning of psychology as a scientific study of differences iii Believed in Eugenics killing off people who aren t the best in order to help evolution along iv Set up a lab in London where he collected data on people called Anthropometric Lab 1 Measured weight height breathing etc 2 Esp interested in relatives 3 Looking for patterns of characterists 4 Established that further relationships shared less similar characteristics cWilhelm Wundt 1879 i First scientific psychologist made it a scientific discipline ii Set up a labschool in Lipseig Germany where people start to perform research iii Experimented with selfobservation iv StudentzTitchener started first US School of Structuralism in 1893 at Cornell University v Structuralism to describe mental structures break experience down into elements vi lntrospection to look within study oneself problems bias controlled dWilliam James 1890 i Functionalism emphasis on the functional or practical nature of the human mind ii Agreed with Darwin studied how perceiving learning and thinking help people adapt iii First to make observations of behavior iv Broadened psychology to nonhumans v Introduced the stream of consciousness vi Wrote Principles of Psychology a book summarizing everything known so far vii Most famous American Psychologist e Sigmund Freud 1900s i Approximately when he becomes famous throughout Europe originally from Vienna Austria ii Wrote book about his theories on dreams 1 Psychoanalysis 2 Motivated by subconscious mind f Ivan Pavlov 1920s i Dogs amp bell experiment 1 Originally studying digestive enzymes amp saliva in dogs 2 Why is dog salivating to man not the food 3 associate bell with food 4 moved from digestion to learning processes 5 discovered classical conditioning g John Watson 1920s i Critical of Freud s work 1 Believed ideas were analogies that cannot be measured or observed ii Created his School of Behaviorism in America 1920s iii Behaviorism to study processes by which stimuli and responses become connected and associated how we learn iv Little Albert Study 1 Believed that phobias could be classically conditioned 2 Conditioned baby to be afraid of rat turned into anything furry little white by banging things behind the baby to frighten him 3 Eventually afraid of animal by sight because association of being frightened V Ethical Issues aInstitutional Review Boards IRB i Create set of rules of what you cancannot do ii Any organization that uses humans for research UM for eX must submit forms to IRB who will review the guidelines of each study in order for approval bSome guidelines i Minimize risk ii Informed consent of participants iii Participants have right to privacy iv Right to a debriefing v Must keep any and all records vi Animal research has other strict guidelines set by the IACUC vii university could lose funding if these guidelines are not followed VI Overview of Scientific Method Purpose of theory further understanding of the observations True Exneriment correlational Method 1 Randomly Divide 1 Measure Two Variables Subjects 2 Manipulate the 2 Calculate the Independent Relationship Variable 3 Measure the Dependent Variable Example Mean Coffee gp Example Pearson s 75 bpm correlation 90 Mean no Coffee gp 65 bpm May infer that coffee Support for hypothesis but CAUSED an increase in cannot infer Causality Heart Rate Remember Correlation does not imply causa on Correlational studies often have Directionality Problems andor Third variable problems The Biological Basis of Behavior Overview of the Nervous System a Flow chart II The Neuron a Four important parts dendrite cell body axon terminal buttons bThe Synapse a junction between two nerve cells consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of neurotransmitters c Neurotransmitters 1 Acetylcholine first discovered plays role in attention and arousal 2 Norepinephrine response to stress 3 Dopamine helps control reward and pleasure centers 4 Serotonin involved in the transmission of nerve impulses 5 Gammaaminobutytric acid GABA most abundant calms nervous activity d Neuromodulators Natural Opioids Endorphins Ill The Brain A Imaging techniques 1 CAT or CT 2 PET 3 MRI and FMRI 4 Lesions stimulation and recording 5 EEG skullcap of electrodes that monitor brain waves B Overview of Brain 1 Cerebral Cortex aka Cerebrum Neocortex neo bc most recent structure of brain to evolve largest structure of the brain Left amp Right hemispheres connected by corpus callosum 2 Corpus Callosum bundle of fibers that connects the two hemispheres of cerebral cortex 3 Contralateral Connection left hemisphere controls right side of brain amp vis versa everything in the eyes is backwards and upside down contralateral connection puts images back into the correct side of brain field of vision 4 Cerebellum aka old brain reptilian brain controls movement coordination reflex breathing not a conscious part of the brain many animals full brains separates us C The Cerebral Cortex 1 Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex o Largest structure 4 lobes 0 Has a left and right hemisphere connected by corpus callosum o Frontal lobe Planning emotional behavior organizing sensory info voluntary movementmotor control area learning personality Motor control area motor cortex Broca s area 0 Temporal lobe Heanng Located beneath temples on each side of brain Wernicke s area 0 Occipital lobe Vision Back of the brain Visual cortex 0 Parietal lobe Bodily sensations Sensory cortex sensory projection area a Broca s area Located in left hemisphere of the frontal lobe next to motor cortex Controls speech production Control of tongue lips throat etc Aphasia stroke in this area victim would be unable to speak but would still understand b Wernike s area Located in temporal lobe Language comprehension multiple languages Aphasia unable to comprehend language including words grammar etc depending on severity of stroke c Primary Visual Cortex PVC Located in the occipital lobe at the back of the brain left and right in middle ofVAC the geography of the visual field is retained in the PVC more than 180 degree field of vision exact image in your visual field is mapped out in the PVC cat experiment brain damage in the PVC would change visual field d Visual Association Cortex VAC image is retained in the PVC then info sent out to VAC controls ability to recognize what you re looking at brain damage here is more limiting inability to recognize images objects called Visual Agnosia e Central Fissure Motor and Sensory regions Motor cortex frontal sensory cortex parietal run parallel to each other More than 50 of motor cortex devoted to face neck throat head lots of muscles in these areas 0 Important for speech amp eating 0 Nonverbal communicator Adjacent area in sensory cortex is feeling in the face neck head etc f Brain plasticity Adjacent areas of brain can take on functions abilities of other areas 0 Requires lots of practice amp reteaching of brain 0 this happens after a stroke part of brain damaged beyond repair 2 Split Brain and Lateralization a Left Hemisphere Analysis Verbal activity talking understanding speech reading writing b Rightsynthesis putting elements together perceive whole maps 3D sketch Roger Sperry aware people suffered from very severe debilitating epilepsy called Tempera Lobe Epilepsy brain injury caused by birth trauma 0 electrical storm with feedback mechanism between hemispheres caused seizures 0 thought cutting corpus callosum would fix problem 0 split brain cats experimentseemed fine 0 split brains of severe epileptic patients cured seizures 0 discovered the two brains no longer interact with each other different functions Statistics I The field of Statistics can be divided into 2 branches Descriptive and lnferential A The goal of is to present large amount of data in an easy to understand way This includes 1 Measures of Central Tendency average negatively influenced by outliers b Median middle c Mode most 2 Measures of Variability a Range maxmin extent of deviation from the me c Variance Z 3 z score S 4 The Normal Curve and zscores see graph in notes 1 34 2 14 3212 5 Correlation coefficient Pearson s r Ranges from 10 to 10 A correlation has 2 qualities direction and magnitude 6 Graphs There are many kinds a Bar Graphs b Histograms c Line Graphs 7 Data tables B is the branch that uses some descriptive statistics like the Mean and Standard Deviation along with probability theory to make judgments or inferenc about reality A few inferential tests are 1 ztest 2 ttest 3 Ftest or ANOVA 4 Regression 5 Chi Square or X2 Such tests when used properly allow us to determine if obtained results are can be replicated Everything is motivated from hypothesis derived from a theory High 39 amp I H 70 85 10 15 10 3 Z39STWS 3 2 H1 0 1 2 3 53 Siadard deviation W 95 o Wquot score W9Z Visual Perception and Attention 1 Visual perception of form a Figure Ground our ability to distinguish foreground from background in visual images b Illusory Contours Line or boundary that does not eXist Whole experience more than the sum of the parts source of optical illusions eX Wine glasses amp faces c Grouping of Elements Gestalt laws of grouping B Law of Proximity Objects that are close together are perceived as belonging together columns vs rows C Law of similarity Objects that are similar are perceived as belonging together D Law of good continuity Lines are seen as belonging together instead of individual lines and angles See an image in a way that makes the most sense E Law of closure Connect the dots to make one element simplest image F Law of Common Fate Objects that move together are perceived as belonging together 11 Depth perception a Binocular Cues 2 eyes i Binocular disparity 1 The difference in retinal image of an object as seen in each eye due to the difference in viewing angles 2 Ex Objects appear to move closing one eye 3 Learned in childhood 4 Leads to stereopsis in the brain ii Convergence 1 Two eyes must converge or rotate inward to view objects up close closer than 25 feet b Monocular cues 1 eye i Motion parallax 1 Moving objects appear to move a greater distance when they are close to the viewer than when they are far away 2 Objects far away seem to move slower objects closer have more apparent motion ii Elevation above the horizon 1 Relative size 2 Objects closer seem bigger iii lnterposition 1 Perceiving objects that block the view of another object as closer to the viewer 2 Ex Deer blocking another deer must be in front closer iv Linear perspective 1 Parallel lines converge to a vanishing point when stretched into the distance v Aerial perspective 1 Objects appear hazier as the move further away 2 Creates depth in artwork vi Relative brightness 1 Objects closer are perceived as brighter vii Texture gradient 1 Textured surfaces appear smoother denser and less textured when they are far away from the viewer viii Shading 1 The way light falls on an object is reflected from an object and the shadows the object casts helps the brain determine the shape of the object lll Perceptual Constancy a Size constancy i An object becomes smaller in the distance and larger as it gets closer to the viewer brain still perceives the object in a constant size b Shape constancy i Objects at angles are perceived as not changing shape c Brightness constancy i Objects in poor lighting are perceived as the same brightness ii Brain can compensate for lack of light to perceive these objects ex white paper in dark room lV Other Issues in Perception a TopDown Processing i See the whole before noticing the elements ii Ex Human mind does not read every letter but sees the words as a whole b BottomUp Processing i Using the elements to construct the whole ii Ex Having to sound out a word V Attention a Not only visual b Focus awareness on particular subject c Dichotic Listening Studies of 1950s i Participants shadowed one ear while ignoring input to the other ear ii Other ear still detecting information and shoving it into subconscious awareness iii Cocktail Party Phenomenon can hear your name amp swear words become aware of these although not paying attention Sleep and Altered States I What is consciousness a aware of being aware b the Mark Rouget Mirror Test test of self awareness a young child would not know they are looking at themselves in the mirror child becomes self conscious of themselves in the mirror at a certain age primates elephants and dolphins will pass the test 11 What is Altered Consciousness a Any various state of awareness other than normal waking consciousness b Ex Sleeping dreaming III EEG monitors brain waves a Wide awake beta waves b Begin to relax but awake alpha waves IV Sleep the best studied altered state a Brain activity varies during sleep b Hypnogogic state feeling relaxed alpha waves right before people fall asleep the begin to review events of the day esp things that cause anxiety stress strain c 4 stages of nonREM sleep 8590 of time spent asleep 1 Stage 1 transition period altered perception often don t realize you are asleep theta amp alpha waves ii Stage 2 4555 of sleep time high stimuli required to wake someone iii Stage 3 58 of sleep time deep sleep iv Stage 4 1015 of sleep time deep sleep typically occurs in the first 13 of the night 1 REM stages dreams heart rate amp blood pressure high rapid eye movement i Tonic muscle atonia stage ii phasic irregular pulse amp breathing stage iii tends to get longer in duration throughout night longest dream about 20 min e complete sleep cycle about 90120 min f 37 cycles per night V Circadian Rhythms daily rhythms humans normally based on sunlight tired after sun goes down wake up when sun goes up 0 hormone called melatonin regulates rhythm along with sunlight makes you tired arti cial light interrupts natural melatonin cycles see through eyelids melatonin levels change over a lifetime VI Why do we sleep 2 theories Repair Therapy Sleep to repair recover from damage during the day physical emotional mental Necessary to the physical health of the body replenishes chemicals and repairs cellular damage Adaptive Nonresponding 0 Driving principle is adaptation to environment We have adapted to sleeping because humans don t have night vision safer to sleep at night Evolution makes us sleep be best for survival 0 Different animals have different sleep requirements VII Why do we dream 4 theories Repression Hypothesis 0 Freudian theory 0 Push uncomfortable memories feelings into unconscious awareness denial Dreams caused motivated by unconscious mind Every dream image has two ways of looking at it o Manifest content literal thing train 0 Latent content hidden content other associations dream landscape is the private property of the dreamer 0 cannot tell dreamer what it means to you be projecting own ideas 0 ask appropriate questions which cause person to come to own associations ActivationSynthesis Hypothesis when you go to sleep although cerebral cortex is off it remains randomly active reptilian brain tries to synthesize make sense of random neural input from cerebral cortex random Problem Solving Hypothesis dream to solve problems rst dreamsomething that happened today secondthird dreamsimilar to rst but happened earlier in life thirdfourth synthesis between two trying to resolve problem in rst with info from second based on anxieties if you are not allowed to dream wake up between REM may become psychotic unab to process things around you Memory Consolidation why babies need a lot of REM sleep moving today s memory into long term storage pick out important info we want to store Sleep Disorder Insomnia no or insuf cient sleep Narcolepsy uncontrolled sleep attacks can be triggered by emotions Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SIDS very rare disease unknown cause one explanation is that babies don t have functioning CO2 detector amp pass out from breathin their own air back to sleep program Sleep Apnea adults stop breathing in the middle of the night more common in men th women overweight men than reg sized gasping snorting noise which pulls them out of sleep thousands of times in a night restless sleep causes many health issues Sleep walking Somnambulism Sleep talking Bed wetting Enuresis Nocturnal Myoclonus people start thrashing in their sleep uncontrollably deep state 01 sleep A few ideas for Test 1 Chapter 1 History You are responsible for all of the names terms and concepts listed on the course outlines or mentioned in lecture There is no point trying to list every one of those things here so this is not intended to be a complete list of what you need to know Here I have listed a few pointers or hints to help you on the first exam Most of these are points often missed or overlooked by past students 1 Know the six approaches to Psychology and the focus of each 2 Understand the basic scientific approach as outlined in class and the important differences between a true experiment and the correlational approach 3 William James Whilhelm Wundt Charles Darwin Sir Francis Galton James Watson Titchener 4 What is introspection 5 A testable hypothesis must be disconfirmable or falsifiable so that an experiment can either support it or not Some people might in stead explain one outcome with one explanation and a second outcome with a second explanation and a third with a third and so on They make to attempt to disprove anything They just find alternate explanations It is always easy to offer an explanation of any finding after the fact The trick in science is to make a prediction and ONLY THEN collect the data to see if it comes out as predicted 6 We begin a true experiment by randomly dividing subjects into 2 or more groups in order to get groups that are equal on uncontrollable variables such as age Intelligence gender and so on By doing this we have equaled the effect of all such extraneous variables We have not actually controlled those variables just evened out any effect they might have on the Dependent variable If we don t do this any of those extraneous third variables might explain any effect we observe on the dependent variable and we could not infer causality 7 We randomly select subjects in some research in order to get a sample that represents a population of interest This allows us to generalize any findings from the sample to the larger population 8 understand the important difference between True Experiments and Correlational Studies and how that relates to causation 9 Study the fields of specialization in the text book 10 Charles Darwin s brilliant book On the Origin of Species pointed out that natural selection acts on individual differences in the population and that natural selection could not occur if there were no natural variation in a population to begin with This led to investigations of individual differences in people which led to psychology Statistics and Methods 11Area under the normal curve about 34 14 2 13 12 the dependent variable and the independent variable 13 descriptive and inferential branches of statistics 14 There are s measures of central tendency mean median and mode and 3 measures of spread or variability range standard deviation and variance 15 What does it mean to manipulate a variable 16 Verbally explain the standard deviation 17 Correlations have two independent qualities Magnitude and Direction 95 is still a very strong correlation It just happens to be negative The weakest correlation would be 0 which is actually no correlation at all 18 Know what a zscore is It is also called a standardized score Such conversions allow us to compare scores that are on different scales with different means and standard deviations or even different units of measure For example we might say that since your 2 score for height is67 while your 2 score for weight is 80 you are heavier than you are tall 19 Understand the third variable problem and the directionality problem as they relate to correlational studies 20 In the book read about research methods other than true experiments and correlational studies Brain and Behavior 21 Know the lobes of the cerebral cortex and the one thing mentioned in class that happensin each lobe Also know Broca s and Wernicke s areas 22 Know the Primary Visual Cortex PVC and the Visual Association Cortex VAC and what each region does Perception 23 There are lots of terms in this chapter Know them all but also notice how they fit together In college it is not enough to know every term You also have to understand the organization Why do certain terms go together For example what do convergence and binocular disparity have in common Spend some time studying the organization or outline of every lecture 24 Be sure to look in the book for the several different visual illusions mentioned there Know the names of each illusion Sleep and Altered Consciousness Melatonin the rouge and mirror test Alpha waves produced when relaxed but awake Beta waves produced when wideawake Dreams have both a Manifest apparent content and a Latent hidden content The Hypnogogic state occurs between waking and sleeping Chapter 6Learning 1 Different Kinds of Learning relatively enduring change in potential behavior that results from experience a HabituationSensitization folowing a novel stimulus if nothing bad happens 9not dangerous organism stops responding habit if you respond more strongly sensitized b Classical ConditioningPavlovian Conditioning Associative Learning 1St learning theory 2 stimuli associates with something Learning that takes place when a neutral stimulus CS is paired with a stimulus UCS that already produces a response UCR After conditioning the organism responds to the neutral stimulus CS in some way The response to the CS is called a conditioned response CR c Operant Conditioninglnstrumental ConditioningSkinnerian Conditioning rewards amp punishment BF Skinner operation must be performed animal behavior leads to consequence Learning an association between one s behavior and its consequence reinforcement or punishment d Observational LearningSocia Learning emphasizes the role of observation in learning lmitative LearningModeing person imitates another and learns through observation an individual acquires a behavior by observing someone else performing that behavior e Insight Learning Kohler s apes learn through thinking on your own apes with sticks combines 2 sticks to make big one thought amp solution f Conditioned Taste flavor Aversion once you eatdrink something that makes you sick you won t eatdrink that again learned aversion to a relatively novel taste or smell that occurs following illness or nausea 2 Classical Conditioning a Ivan Pavlov 19205 i Elements 1 Unconditioned Stimulus UCS a stimulus that elicits an unlearned response or reflex 2 Unconditioned Response UCR an unlearned response or reflex caused by an unconditioned stimulus 3 Conditioned Stimulus CS a stimulus that elicits a response only after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus 4 Conditioned Response CR a learned response to a conditioned stimulus Unconditioned stimulus UCS leads to unconditioned response UCR controlled stimulus leads to controlled response Acquisition Training the process of learning to associate a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus iv Extinction training the process by which a conditioned response is eliminated through repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus v Reinstatement the reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction has taken place vi Spontaneous Recovery the spontaneous reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction has taken place vii Generalization process by which an organism responds to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus without undergoing conditioning for each similar stimulus viii Discrimination the process by which responses are restricted to specific stimuli ix Simultaneous Conditioning learning that takes place when the conditioned stimulus is presented at the same time as the unconditioned stimulus x Trace Conditioning learning that takes place when presentation of the conditioned stimulus begins and ends before the unconditioned stimulus is presented xi Backward Conditioning presenting the unconditioned stimulus prior to the conditioned stimulus results in little or no conditioning xii Delayed Conditioning learning that takes place when conditioned stimulus is presented just before the unconditioned stimulus is presented and continues until the organism begins responding to the unconditioned stimulus b Therapy i Phobias Watson reasoned that phobias are partly learned took baby gave baby phobia of white rats not ethical thought he could remove phobia by counter conditioning 1 UCS Mother s fear 9baby s fear UCR 2 CS Birds9CR baby s fear ii Systematic Desensitization Wolpe go to therapist line up things from least fear provoking to most learn to breathe amp relax gradually let them cope and evolve into Exposure Therapy ET iii Aversive Conditioning breaking habits by replacing positive feelings associated with habit to negative feelings iv Drug Addiction have to deal with other things that are associated with the drug 3 Operant Conditioning cont a Thorndike amp Puzzle Box Put cat in puzzle box with food outside engage in trial and error behavior does not reason food was satisfier rewards annoyers punishment realized that cat will take less time each day Law of Effect any behavior that is followed by a reward will be more likely to occur in the future vice versa with punishment foundation of operant conditioning Behavior followed by reinforcement will be strengthened while behavior followed by punishment will be weakened RewardReinforcement something that makes the behavior of interest more likely iv Johnny 9 always is punished 9 behavior getting worse 9 craves attention therefore getting rewarded 9 need to focus on him when doing good things v Reinforcement any procedure where an event following a specific response increases the probability that the response will occur 1 Positive Reinforcement any stimulus presented after a response that increases the probability of the response 2 Negative Reinforcement any stimulus that increase the probability of a response through its removal e pounding on the wall operant behavior may be maintained by the termination of loud noise negative reinforce in an adjoining room vi Escape Conditioning learning that takes place when an organism performs a response that will terminate an aversive stimulus vii Avoidance Conditioning the learning of a response to a discriminative stimulus that allows an organism to avoid exposure to an aversive stimulus viii Primary hunger thirst shelter sex a stimulus that satisfies a biologically based drive or need vs Secondary Conditioned Reinforcement gain value through the fact they allow you to get primary reinforcers a stimulus that takes on reinforcing properties after being associated with a primary reinforcer lt Cumulative Record a chart recording of operant responses over time Time increments are indicated along the horizontal axis and operant responses along the vertical axis as response rate increases the slope of the record increases x Discriminative Stimulus a stimulus that controls a response by signaling the availability of reinforcement b Skinner s Operant Conditioning Chamber i The Skinner Box an operant conditioning chamber ii Manipulandumlever iii Schedules of Reinforcement 1 Continuous Reinforcement the presentation of a reinforcer for each occurrence of a specific behavior 2 Partial Reinforcement a schedule that reinforces behavior only part of the time Le a ratio or interval schedule a Partial Reinforcement Effect behaviors that are acquired on partial instead of continuous reinforcement schedules tend to be established more slowly but are more persistent when no reinforcement is provided b Fixed Ratio FR reinforcement occurs after a fixed number of responses Variable Ratio VR reinforcement is provided after an average of a specific number of responses occurs d Fixed Interval Fl reinforcement is provided for the first response after a specified period of time has elapsed e Variable Interval VI opportunities for reinforcement occur at variable time intervals iv Resistance to Extinction quickest way to learn is continuous reinforcement quickest way to extinction is continuous reinforcement v Shaping quotSuccessive Approximation in operant conditioned a technique in which responses that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior are reinforced step by step until the desired behavior occurs vi Chaining stringing together behavior vii Punishment a procedure in which the presentation of a stimulus following a response leads to a decrease in the strength or frequency of the response viii Superstitious behavior as reinforcement approaches random ix Acquisition the process of learning to associate responses with a reinforce or punisher x Extinction process of eliminating a response by discontinuing reinforcement for it xi Discrimination the process by which responses are restricted to specific stimuli xii Generalization process by which an organism responds to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus without undergoing conditioning for each similar stimulus c Applications to behavior problems i Behavior Modification ii Token Economy Biofeedback 4 Observational LearningSocial Learninglmitative LearningModeling Albert Bandura learning process wherein an individual acquires a behavior by observing someone else performing that behavior a 3030 Doll Studies 1965 kids imitating violence b Notrial learning learn something by never doing it c Vicarious reward and punishment kids divided into 2 groups randomly one group exposed to reward after attacking 3030 one exposed to punishment kids who saw reward beat up 3030 kids who didn t more likely to do it if it s a good thing child learner Distinction between learning and behavior learn something amp never do it because it is wrong Discrimination the behavioral consequence of prejudice in which one group is treated differently from another group Chapter 7 Memory Memory process or process of storing newly acquired information for later recall recall for a specific experience or the total collection of remembered experiences stored in our brains 1 Time Frames of Memory a Sensory Register Sperling 1960 Sperling used tachistoscope projects letters unconscious projected for 120th of a second 45 out of 9 letters obtained of average college students i Tachistoscope slide projection with 110 150 of second difference between pictures ii Sensory Memory first system in the three system model of memory in which brief impressions from any of the senses are stored fleetingly disappearing within a few seconds if they are not transferred to short term memory 1 Iconic Memory visual sensory memory including fleeting impressions of what we see Visual Memory 2 Echoic Memory auditory domain remembering what you heard a moment before auditory sensory memory fleeting impressions of what we hear 3 Eidetic lmagery photographic memory the very rare ability to retain large amounts of visual material with great accuracy for several minutes b Short Term Memory Less than 1 minute sentences sometimes too long holds something temporarily immediate recollection of stimuli that have just been perceived unless it is transferred to longterm memory information in this memory system is usually retained only momentarily Also called working memory i Serial Position Effect horse garage bench calendar fire apple puppy fire ship position in series words said 1St and last remembered the best middle words easily forgotten primacy effect 1St words well remembered ii Recency Effect most recent way remembered proactive in iii Proactive interference call out old girlfriend s name iv Retroactive interference v Very limited capacity 1 Miller 1959 hired to see how many phones numbers can hold 7 present phone number standard today vi Chunking process of grouping items into longer meaningful units to make them easier to remember 1 Le TVFBlJFKYMCA TVFBIJFKYMCA c LongTerm Memory get graph from outline Information transferred from shortterm memory to longterm memory may be stored for periods of time from minutes to years perhaps even indefinitely i Episodic Memory personally experienced events remember easily autobiographical memories about one s own experiences ii Semantic Memory facts and abstract knowledge everything learned in college hardest general nonpersonal knowledge about the meaning of facts and concepts iii Procedural Memory skills and habits learning to ride a bike or write not just in brain involves muscles recall for how to perform skills such as swimming or bike riding iv Declarative Memory recall of specific facts such as information read in a book v DualCode Model of Memory theory that memories may be stored either in sensory codes or in verbal codes vi Testing LongTerm Memory 1 Recall a subject s ability to reproduce information that he or she was previously exposed to Fill in theblank and essay questions test recall 2 Recognition a subject s ability to recognize whether he or she has been previously exposed to information multiplechoice and truefalse questions test recognition 3 Relearning technique for testing memory that involves measuring how much more quickly a person can relearn material that was learned at some previous time 4 Overlearning technique for memorizing material that involves rehearsing information after it has already been learned The Encoding Process moving short term memory 9 long term process of perceiving information then categorizing or organizing it in a meaningful way so that it can be more easily stored and recalled Encoding process by which encoded material is retained over time in memory a Shallow Processing i Rehearsal maintenance rehearsal repeating 1 Maintenance Rehearsal system for remembering that involves repeatedly rehearsing information without attempting to find meaning in it b Deep Processing Effortful Processing 1 Elaboration Elaborative Rehearsal system for remembering that involves using mnemonic devices it is more effective than maintenance rehearsal ii Organization helps to remember 1 Le outlines iii Visual Imagery 1 Mnemonic Devices links new info to something you already know memory system such as clustering or acrostics that organizes material in a meaningful way to make it easier to remember a Clustering involving grouping items into categories b Method of Loci links info to locations shower 9 shampoo involves forming pictorial associations between items you wish to recall and specific locations along a designated route you might travel c Acrostics sentences whose first letters serve as cues for recalling specific information d Acronym meaningful arrangement of letters that provides a cue for recalling information c Retrieval process by which information stored in memory is accessed 3 Forgetting failure to retrieve a Theories to explain forgetting i Decay Theory Neural Decay memory trace has decayed don t use it you lose it ii Interference Theory something interfering with you remembering 1 Proactive the phenomenon that occurs when earlier learning disrupts memory for later learning 2 Retroactive the phenomenon that occurs when a later event interferes with the recall of earlier information iii Motivated Active Forgetting Freudian Repression unconscious don t remember someone s name because you don t like them we want to forget Freudian slip b Amnesia i Retrograde person because of traumatic event leads to loss of all past memories or part of past memory loss for certain details or events that occurred prior to experience brain trauma a form of organic amnesia 1 Le not remembering accident could forget everything orjust a moment ii Anterograde unable to form new memories memory loss for information processed after an individual experiences brain trauma caused by injury or chronic alcoholism iii Organic memory deficits caused by altered physiology of the brain which might result from an accident or certain physical illnesses 4 The Reconstructive Nature of Memory not a perfect recording must reconstruct a Eye Witness Testimony unreliable no correlation between certainty and accuracy person who is 100 could be wrong i Study man ran in classroom and shot professor during lecture students couldn t agree on shooter s characteristics b Elizabeth Loftus asked question about something not there shows movie of car crash i Implanted Memories suggesting something and creating a memory that wasn t there 1 Le barn implanted memory crash 9glass If really saw barn primary visual cortex ii Schema mental framework reconstruction of memory around what the scene should be every word is a schema crash conceptual frameworks that individuals use to make sense out of stored information in Piaget s theory the mental structures we form to assimilate and organize processed information iii False Memory Syndrome therapy forcing false memories a memory of an event that never occurred false memories can be planted in a subject prior to recall by a variety of methods including hypnosis c Misinformation Effect the presentation of misleading information that leads people to erroneous reports of that misinformation d Statedependent Memory phenomenon wherein recall of particular events experiences or information is aided by the subject being in the same context or physiological state in which the information was first encoded e Flashbulb Memory an apparent vivid recall for an event associated with extreme emotion or uniqueness such as the assassination of a president or the bombing of Iraq 5 Explicitlmplicit Memory a Explicit Memory memories that you can recall through conscious effort b Implicit Memory memories that are unavailable to conscious awareness but contribute to explicit memories 6 Miscellaneous Topics a Search for the ENGRAM with Planaria 1962 small flatworm once trained can be chopped in half and grows new head or tail and both did what was trained memory not just in brain b Eric Kandel s work with Aplysia 1989 i Memory involves gene expression ii Thus both learning amp memory are extensions of the developmental process c Hebbian Rule information is transferred to longterm memory when new connections between neurons are formed These changes are thought to involve structural changes in the synapses between neurons which occur when cell assemblies are simultaneously activated d Engram a neural representation of a specific memory 100 Primacy Effect Recency Effect who RecaH Interfe nce Words in a Series Serial Position Effect Chapter 8 Motivation 1 Historical Theories of Motivation a condition or state that energizes and directs an organism s actions a Instinct Theory Evolutionary Theory quotmust be maternal instinct not part of psych today eros life instinct thanatos death instinct war depression aggression i lnstincts innate patterns of behavior that occur in every normally functioning member of a species under certain set conditions b Drive Theories Drive Reduction Theory must be a drive for everything i Biological Need need for food9Negative Drive State hunger9Behavior to reduce drive eating ii lncentive any external stimulus that can motivate behavior even when no internal drive state exists c Arousal Theory Optimal Level Theory YerkesDodson Law we seek a level that makes us feel right every person different older people need less stimulation principle that the optimum level of arousal for peak performance will vary somewhat depending on the nature of the task i SensationSeeking Motive an explanation for the apparent need for certain levels of stimulation including the need to explore the environment and the need for sensory stimulation ii Arousal a physiological state in which an individual is able to process information effectively and to engage in motivated behavior iii Optimum Level of Arousal level of arousal at which an individual s performance on a specific task is most efficient d Humanistic Theory Maslow 1970 needs hierarchy i Physiological Needs ii Safety Needs iii Love and Belonging Needs iv Esteem Self and Other Needs v Cognitive Needs vi Aesthetic Needs vii SelfActualization e Social Learning Theory our motivations are taught to us socially learn by observation accepted theory today SellFul llment needs Self actualiza tion dchieVirjgvone Squot r inquot PQt ntiol including trauma ocf Vities Esteem needs Random in Motivation prestige and feeling of accomplishment Z ccjlological Belongingness and love needs intimate relationships friends Safety needs security safety Basic needs ice Need for Achievement nAch complex psychosocial motive to accomplish difficult goals attain high standards surpass the achievements of others and increase selfregard by succeeding in exercising talent Cognitive Expectancies a learned expectancy of relationships between stimuli in Pavlovian conditioning and between responses and outcomes in operant conditioning Cognitive Dissonance Theory Theory that people experience psychological discomfort or dissonance whenever two related cognitions or behaviors are in conflict Eating Disorders 0 Obesity condition in which an individual weighs 20 percent or more above the desirable weight for his or her height 0 Anorexia Nervosa characterized by prolonged refusal to eat adequate amounts of food This condition is most common among young females 0 Bulimia characterized by periodic episodes of binge eating followed by deliberate purging using either vomiting or laxatives Androgens male sex hormones the most common of which is testosterone Estrogens hormones that influence female sexual development Cultural Mores established customs or beliefs in a particular culture Sexual Orientation sex to which an individual is attracted Homosexual primary erotic psychological and social interest in members of the same sex even though that interest may not be expressed overtly MEN M w M g Chapter 9 Personality 1 Define personality scientific study of stable characteristics that differentiate people distinctive patterns of behavior emotions and thoughts that characterize an individual s adaptations to his or her life a TraitState distinction insert table from outline 2 Personality Social Psychology Trait State Internal External Stable Unstable Typical Situational a Early Attempts i Astrology in terms of the stars meaning in patterns that stars form ii Phrenology brain makes up personality iii Somatotypes body type gives clues to personality 1 Ectomorph skinnythin uptight 2 Mesomorphmuscularangry 3 Endomorphfatobesejolly iv Palm Reading lines on your hand predict a fortune v Graphology look at handwriting b Gordon Allport s Trait Theory of Personality i Cardinal Trait n Gordon Allport s trait theory of personality a powerful dominating behavioral predisposition is an organizing principle in a small number of people s lives ii Central Trait a major characteristic such as honesty or sensitivity iii Secondary Trait any of a variety of less generalized and often shortterm traits that affect people s behavior in specific circumstances c Raymond Cattell s Trait Theory of Personality i Surface Traits dimensions or traits that usually obvious such as integrity or tidiness and that tend to be grouped in clusters that are related to source traits ii Source Traits basic underlying traits that are the center or core of an individual s personality 3 Psychoanalytical Approach technique developed by Freud in which an individual s revelations of normally unconscious cognitions are interpreted a Freud Brief History 1856 Austria Married into wealthy family forced to move cause of Nazis they allowed him to leave Neurologist that was fascinated by hypnosis Played with cocaine as medicine i Psychoanalytical Theory theory of personality that views people as shaped by ongoing conflicts between primary drives and the social pressures of civilized society ii Free association psychoanalytic technique developed by Freud in which patients relax and say whatever comes to their minds iii The Structure of Personality 3 components personality like ice berg a little bit is conscious to you but the vast majority is beneath visibility consciousness 1 ID Pleasure Principle baby is born with id Self center Completely unconscious and motivated to seek pleasure and avoid pain A baby wants food now and doesn t care about other peoples needs It s selfcentered Primitive animalistic selfish urges in order to feel human we suppress those The biological component of personality consisting of life and death instincts a Pleasure Principle principle guiding the id that seeks immediate gratification of all instinctive drives regardless of reason logic or the possible impact of behaviors b Libido psychoanalytic theory the energy that fuels the id and motivates all behavior c Primary Process Thinkingwish fulfilling mental imagery used by the id to discharge tension Ego Reality Principle partly conscious partly unconscious guided by reality and life experiences consequences for actions If you steal a toy may strike RewardPunishment Learned The component of personality that acts as an intermediary between the instinctual demands of the id and the reality of the real world a Reality Principle the tendency to behave in ways that are consistent with reality The reality principle governs the ego Superego Morality Principle partly consciouspartly unconscious Guided by morality principle I know I wont do it because I know it is wrong Not because god will punish me Man and women walking down street together and a beautiful woman approaches The man notices The id says go for it seek pleasure Ego says been down that path before better not look or wife will be pissed don t even look Superego is I m not even interested in other women I love my wife Consists of an individual s conscience as well as the egoideal the quotshouldsquot of behavior a Morality Principle the superego is guided by moral values that motivate us to do what is right iv The Ego Defense Mechanisms 1 3 Anxiety freefloating fear or apprehension that may occur with 0 without an easily identifiable source Defense mechanism an unconscious maneuver that shields the ego from anxiety by denying or distorting reality Repression ideas feelings or memories that are too painful to deal with on a conscious level are banished to the unconscious Rationalization an individual seeks self justifying excuses or explanations for the real reason for behaviors V 10 Proiection an individual reduces anxiety created by unacceptable impulses by attributing those impulses to someone else Displacement diverts his or her impulse driven behavior from a primary target to secondary targets that will arouse less anxiety Regressio an individual attempts to cope with an anxiety producing situation by retreating to an earlier stage of development Reaction Formation though is doing opposite of what ID says ID says sex sex sex you say no I will wait till marriage Repress sexual instincts and preach opposite The ego unconsciously replaces unacceptable impulses with their opposites Denial a person refuses to acknowledge the truth about themselves Sublimation no civilization without sublimation Converting uncomfortable urges into more socially acceptable urges IF sex doesn t want to spend all of your time watching porn so instead become art critic Focus on nude paintings but sublimated your urges into art Use anger problem to be a soldier for country Impulse driven behaviors are channeled toward producing a socially valued accomplishment Psychosexual Development Freud said sexuality emerges in 5 stages 5th is true sexuality Before Freud people though that sexuality emerges on your wedding night Stages of development in Freud s perspective in which the focus of sexual gratification shifts from one body site to another 1 Oral 02 Oral Fixations first sexuality stage baby s born with an intensive oral fixation and will suck on anything and explore anything lips and mouth are the primary erogenous zone a Freud said if baby is breast fed too much or too little will have a personality issue no specific time is known to be the right amount but babies will turn away from breast feeding and turn to real food b Experts say 6 months to a year is normal c If a child is orally fixated they are known to eat too much smoke cigarettes or talk too much Anal 23 where children typically become toilet trained and gaining control of bodily functions children want to grow up and get rid of their diapers a Anal Retentive children that are toilet trained too harsh are considered Anal Retentive very neat and organized OCD or obsessive compulsive personality OCP b Anal Expulsive too little toilet training completely disorganized Phallic 37 where children become interested in boys and girls by age 7 most kids have issues of Oedipus boys might all have to go through this complex where little boys become more strongly attached to the mother and see the father as a threat and a competitor for the mother s love a Oedipus Complex the attraction a male child feels toward his mother and jealousy toward his father during phallic stage i How to Solve when the child begins to identify with the father if the boy never identifies with the father and sees him as a role model then the male kid will be a mommy s boy or homosexual b Electra Complex saying girls form a stronger bond with the father female counterpart to the Oedipus conflict c Penis Envy Freud said that when a little girl notices a boy has a penis and she doesn t she is envious and feels cheated and will spend months trying to get a penis of her own d No Research showing the Oedipus complex and penis envy theories are true there is some evidence Latency 7Puberty Extending from age 7 to puberty during which sexual drives remain unexpressed or latent age of puberty gets earlier in developed country because of better nutrition NOTHING important happens in this era according to Freud Genital Sexual feelings that were dormant during the latency stage reemerge adult sexuality if people get stuck in latency they are watching porn on the internet get addicted b Carl Jung founded the School of quotAnalytical Psychology disagrees with Freud a Swiss psychologist and 12 years younger than Freud Freud believed when he died that Jung would be the new leader of the School of Psychoanalysis school of thought instead Jung made Analytical college Freud said ego is partly conscious and mostly unconscious below water line on iceberg Jung said ego is all conscious if you think you are a good person i Collective Unconscious a kind of universal memory bank that contains all the ancestral memories images symbols and ideas that humans have accumulated throughout their evolvement 1 Archetypes powerful emotionally charged universal images or concepts element of shared collective unconscious wicked witch she is an old haggard woman with a wart we all have the same image She has a cat and broom and black hat Mandala any concentric image ying yang symbol cross Jewish Star swastika wagon wheel These images are everywhere what makes them so renown Represent the self striving for wholeness wedding ring Anima feminine side of each of us Every man has anima and every woman has animus Animus masculine side of all of us lntroversion personality trait expressed as shyness reclusiveness and preoccupation with the inner world of thoughts memories and feelings Extroversion personality trait manifested by sociability friendliness and interest in people and events in the external world ii Personal Unconscious part of the unconscious that is akin to Freud s concept of a reservoir of all repressed thoughts and feelings c Erik Erikson founded the school of Psychosocial Development said Freud focused too much on sex for personality Erik focused on social development identity crisis if don t form identity when young and don t graduate school with major will feel like did not succeed 4 Behavioral Model of Personality says your personality is learned f aggressive learned to be aggressive through someone else if you can learn to be aggressive you learn to be unaggressive a Personality is Learned through i Classical Conditioning ii Operant Conditioning iii Observational social Learning 5 Humanistic Models of Personality every person is motivated to reach their full potential a b Carl Rogers 2 big ideas i Positive Regard 1 Conditional strong negative statement against you If try to sing and parents say quotyou are tone deaf shut up 2 Unconditional the message a parent should give to children is quotI love you I will always love you no matter what but right now I m disappointed with what you ve done I don t think anything is wrong with you just don t like what you just did Unconditional love Take issue with behavior not person If raised like this in all parts of life you will reach full potential ii Active Listening we make 5 common responses to emotional communications reflect evaluate interpret reassure or probe 1 Therapist has to listen to you instead of making an evaluation oh don t be silly interpret it s only one test don t worry probe how d everyone else do Start asking questions rather than helping them Most helpful one is reflect which active listening When person says quotI m so upset I failed that test Say quotoh you failed a test quotYes Bio it was big 0 blah blah repeat and reflect what they are saying to show listening Just reflecting to person so he can think it out quotI m I I thinking of dropping out of schoo You don t judge or criticize you say quotThat s a big step Abraham Maslow self actualization 6 Biology Affects Personality lots of evidencegenetics do affect personality a b Breeding animals can breed dogs to be aggressive or kind Gender differences wars created by man men predominately dominant women aggressive have higher levels of testosterone Drug induced changes drug can temporarily change moodpersonality Jerome Kagen shyness infants in crib dangles a mobile above their head Observe their excited reaction or confused Reaction is genetic shynessbig reaction Identical Twin studies Minnesota twins study Twins separated at birth came together to find out about genetic roots Look for genetic similarities See if same even though raised in different environment religiousness look alike talk alike same personalities Heritability an estimate ranging from 0 to 10 that indicates the proportion of variance in a trait that is accounted for by heredity 7 The Measurement of Personality a Objective Tests test where there is only 1 right answer Answer key is predetermined so very easy to grade No judgment in grading i MMPl2 Minnesota Multiphasial personality inventory a set of yesno questions Take answers and graph and determine personality traits Profiling person Only to diagnose mental illness ii 16PF 16 personality factors Profiles and graphs by 16 of these factors can write paragraph about personality iii MCMI Ted Millon Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory Several distinct personality axes Thinks MMPI is like Wright Brother s airplane while his is jet Clinical tests designed for populations so is MMPI iv NEOPI Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Agreeableness amp Conscientiousness 3 main personality dimensions personality inventory the big 5 personality test used more than other tests for research b Projective Tests Ambiguity personality tests that consist of loosely structured ambiguous stimuli that require the subject s interpretation i Rorschach inkblot test Asked people what they saw and what comes to mind Projective hypothesis when interpreting an ambiguous stimulus your interpretation reveals your unconscious mind Have associations and discuss them ii TAT thematic apperception test Subject is shown cards depicting various scenes and is asked to describe what is happening in each scene iii Incomplete Sentence a series of incomplete sentences and you finish the sentences iv Word Association read words and says first word that pops into your mind v DrawaPicture draw a picture house tree and me Drawings very meaningful c Research Measures i Type AB Type A or B personality A is time oriented Want to get shit done efficiently Coronary prone personality heart attack Type B is the absence of type A ii InternalExternal Locus of Control big personality scale developed by Rotter nterna External How in control do you feel about things grades is it within your power to influence internal or do you think no matter what I do I m going to low grades because of themexternal iii OptimismPessimism some are more of one Mother is greatest determiner of this iv Need for Achievement some people have a higher need for achievement than others In part learned socially Generally measured with TAT 8 The Social Learning Perspective a Reciprocal Determinism According to Albert Bandura the principle that individual behaviors and thus personalities are shaped by the interaction between cognitive factors and environmental factors b SelfEfficacy individual s belief that he or she can perform adequately and deal effectively with a particular situation c Behavioral Observation behavior assessment method that involves observing individuals behavior as they interact with the environment Chapter 10 Intelligence 1 What is intelligence the ability to learn from and adapt to the environment 2 History of Intelligence a Darwin s Origin of Species 1859kicked off psychology b Sir Francis Galton s Anthropometric Lab in London if Darwin right with survival of fittest than individual differences theory true Attempted to measure differences grip strength and such First person to try and measure c Alfred Binet in Paris developed BinetSimon Scale schools overcrowded so kids in school not able to learn in environment Slowing down system Wanted Binet to develop intelligence test to determine which kids are good enough for school 1 on 1 test Follow pencil see if hear understand and comply Do tests d Terman StanfordBinet Intelligence Scale brought Binet Simon scale to Stanford and turned it into English i StanfordBinet Test IQ test developed by Lewis Terman who revised Binet s scale and adapted questions to American students e Army Alpha and Beta during WW1 army wanted to give soldiers intelligence tests to see what position they d best fit First group administered intelligence test Test problems though with environment and literacy Beta tests verbal beause people couldn t read A maze with a pencH f David Wechsler published Wechsler scale i WPPSI age 46 preschool and primary up to first grade ii WISClll age 616 C is for children When first created scale thought six was young enough then decided to go younger iii WAlSR age 16 and up Wechsler adult intelligence scale Most widely used intelligence scale for adults 3 Measurement of Intelligence or any psychological variable Psychometrics a Reliability Consistency any test must be reliable One way to establish consistency is to give test twice dependable consistency of a test over time or the consistency in responses among similar items on the same assessment i TestRetest if give test now and in five 1 month intelligence should be stable Should give you same score twice Calculate correlation r 9 SAME TEST giving subject the same test more than once ii SplitHalf internal consistency when don t want to give same test twice give a test and gauge how you do on the evens They should correlate to how you do on the odd Comparing performance on half of the test items with the other half iii Alternate Forms Reliability subjects take two different forms of a test that are very similar in content and level of difficulty b Validity Accuracy are you measuring accurately what is needed to be measured IQ test should not be measuring motivation Measure thing you need to measure i Content Face Item analysis if worried about content validity of test Graduate student must show Dr Gillis stat test and he will determine if content is fair On surface can appear to be good instructionslength Item analysis ii Criterion Predictive future Concurrent current GPAs more mathematical need to correlate it with something else Make sure it tests intelligence as well as past tests Stanford Benet Give you new test and SB Correlate two scores Comparing peoples test scores on other measures already known to be good indicators of the skill or trait being assessed 1 High Correlation evidence of criterion validity 2 R95 but comparing to an already valid test Correlate SAT with GPA to get into school When wait Predictive Validity determining the accuracy with which tests predict performance in some future situation could see how students with high SAT do first year of college Not waiting give test today concurrent validity comparing test performance to other criteria that are currently available correlate test with high school GPA iii Construct looking at the validity of the idea not as much the test IQ is a construct your intelligence is a psychological construct an abstract thing that is tricky to define sum of all validities iv Mental Age in IQ testing the chronological age of children who on the average receive a test score similar to that of the subject For instance a six year old whose composite score is equivalent to that of a nine year old has a mental age of nine v Intelligence Quotient IQ intelligence measurement derived by dividing an individuals mental age by the chronological age then multiplying by 100 1 Norm standard that reflects the normal or average performance of a particular group of people on a measure such as an IQ test vi Aptitude Test test designed to predict an individual s ability to learn new information or skills vii Achievement Test test designed to measure an individual s learning as opposed to the ability to learn new information c Standardization exact testing conditions uniform and consistent procedures for administering and scoring tests such as IQ or personality tests i Same directions ii Same time limits iii Same testing conditions 4 Theories of Intelligence a Charles Spearman s 2 Factor Theory 5 and g i Gfactor consists of general intelligence which is largely genetically determined ii Sfactor the structure of intelligence s factors are specific abilities or skills b Thurstone s 7 Primary Mental Abilities the separate and measurable attributes for instance numerical ability that make up intelligence i Verbal Comprehension Word Fluency Number Ability Spatial Ability Associative Memory Perceptual Speed General Reasoning Ability don t need to know c JP Guilford s Three Factor Structure of the Intellect i 5 Contents x 6 Products x 6 Operations 180 abilities d Howard Gardner s Theory of Multiple lntelligences i Linguistic Musical LogicalMathematical Spatial Bodily Kinesthetic Interpersonal understand other people lntrapersonal understanding yourself MEMORIZE e Triarchic Theory of Successful lntelligence intelligence is a multidimensional trait comprising analytical creative and practical abilities 5 Controversies in Intelligence Testing a NatureNurture to what degree does each contribute to intelligence i Arthur Jensen 80 genetic 20 environment people mad ii The Bell Curve 1994 60 genetic 40 environment b Test Bias i Culture free or Culture fair tests ii Bias differential predictive validity Things to Know 1 3 Questions on Ego Defense Mechanisms 5 Questions on definitions from margin of textbook Know Mnemonic Devices Freud Instinct Theories Operative Reinforcement Stuff Observational Learning Bobo Doll Studies HPFPPEquot Know names of people Psych Test 57 questions questions from the book learning chapter l memory3 motivation3 Terms that defined in the margin big section with heading learned helplessness few questions from learning chapter memory chapter motivation chapter habituation and sensitization all theories of learning flavor aversion and insight learning schedules of reinforcement negative reinforcement not punishment shaping vs chaining chain several behaviors together instinct theories gateway to new theories and motivation freud39s life and death instincts arrows etc not widely believed today defense mechanisms 3 questions classic situation and general function all personality objective vs projective history of intelligence testing name questions binnet terman jensen thurstone guilford cognitive dissonance schedules of reinforcement fixed ratio etc defense mechanisms 8 of them be able to apply carl rogers unconditional positive regard active listening 5 responses to emotional communication same test twice test retest reliability 2 different tests validity ch 11 Development Definintion Of development the scienti c study of growth and change overtime people originally started studying child development ages 1215 child is born and develops until they are an adult or sexually mature and stop developing retirement huge developmental crisis 0 today we acknowledge lifespan development birth to old age and death as you approach morality o prenatal development big part of development today 0 biggest issue between development avoid drugs that are bad seek proper nutritio o prenatal nutrition biggest issue with development 0 what can happen to you today that will negatively impact negative consequences when you have a child I eX radiation poisoning can permanently damage your egg cells Philosophical background 1 Middle ages Original Sin babies all born with original sin a Original sin rst came from Adam and Eve violated God s commandments punished all children b goal of childrearing was salvation bc child born with sin c think of it as newborns are animals goal is to civilize us 2 Renaissance 14th to 17th cen a In thel7th cen John Locke spoke of Tabula Rasa or Blank Tablet i Child born with a blank tablet ii Not born sinful but born neutral clean slate iii Who the child becomes is completely a result of nurture and how they are raised spend quality time with child teach them values and morals etc iv Today not thought to be true children are born with genetic limitations and tendencies b In the 18th cen Jean Jacques Rousseau spoke of Innate Goodness or the Noble Savage i Child is innately good and if you raise the child properly they will be good ii Not born neutral or with sin iii Innate goodness natural iv Nobel Savage belief that primitive Stone Age people are nobler than we are saying that the primitive people who are good to their environment even if they are savage are noble savages eX Tarzan American Indians etc v Books Continued Concept saying the stone age people had an easy life now there are gangs and wars and high school drop outs because they don t have enough love and attention 3 More recently in 1920 s scientists began carefully observing children became more scientific than philosophical a John Watson s demonstration with Little Albert in 1920 i Counter conditioning phobias ii Believed learned behaviors can be unleamed b In 1960 s US gov t put money into programs like Head Start money to poor children for essentials such as school supplies and books and Developmental Psychology took off i Professor thinks France puts a lot of money into raising children well he thinks Americans priorities are focused on money send kids to day care to attend jobs ii World War II when women s rights started to come about a radical change in social life as women and men both join workforce together began developmental programs 4 Development the study of growth and change over time Child Development vs Lifespan Development 11 Issues in Development A The NatureNurture Issue a Today 60 nature 40 nurture b Nature biology and genetics c Nurture learning and environment B ContinuityDiscontinuity a Linear nonlinear development is either continuous or discontinuous b Continuous growth a good example is a tree smooth growth throughout life i Child when children begin to learn math step by step start by adding and subtracting move to algebra and higher math continuous transitions c Discontinuous growth a good example is a butter y abrupt transition that makes growth discontinuous i Child when children walk or talk abrupt transition discontinuous C Cross SectionalLongitudinal research methods a Graph age on xaxis and average IQ on y axis b A large number of people in a random sampling compute the mean found that IQ drops rapidly after age 30 graph it to determine the IQ of different ages and saw decreases as they get older c Crosssectional method of research can t say something is true just because of the graphs d Longitudinal method of research how studies should be done much more thorough and there was a more steady even IQ found group will be examined every 5 years only problem is study takes much longer to complete e Early studies showed a drop off of IQ and then longitudinal studies showed that IQ does not drop off so much f Developmental Research looks for growth and development over time D Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence John Homl980 a Fluid the ability to learn new things i Intelligence starts high and drops rapidly when you age ii Ex best time to learn a new language is between 23 iii Languages acquired after age 7 will have an accent Abilities peak at a young age and drop off Ability to learn language math etc E Crystallized the ability to apply previous knowledge and learning to new situations a Intelligence gradually increases with age equated with wisdom Applying what you ve previously learned to new situations Improve as we age wisdom III Prenatal development 1 Stages Zygote 02 wks fertilized egg Embryo 28 wks starts to differentiate Fetus 2 9 months at this stage abortion debate becomes prevelant 2 Teratogens any agent that may cause a birth defect mostly chemicals some diseases or radiation elements that produce birth defects alcohol aspirin heavy metals like lead and mercury vitamin A and I in large doses thalidomide rubella and cigarettes Alcohol Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Mental retardation and mild facial deformities Been drunk in the womb interferes with learning in the womb studies find that babies exposed to alcohol in the womb can have learning delays Attention deficit bbu will be behind until up to 3rd grade Tobacco Attention deficit disorder 0 Premature death Aspirin Bleeding problems Respiratory problems Heavy metals like lead amp mercury Lead leads to mental retardation Mercury mental retardation and still birth death in young babies Mostly comes from sh Vitamin A and D in large doses Vitamin A Clef lips upper pallet in the roof of mouth and upper lip don t develop correctly Vitamin D mental retardation eye damage Thalidomide Invented as sleeping medication to cure insomnia thought to be nonaddictive Never approved by the FDA in the US used in Europe Began to be prescribed for morning sickness Babies began to be born with no arms no legs ipperlike arms and legs major birth defec of the limbs The exact day of taking thalidomide began to impact the capillaries which affected the grow of arms and legsshort time period 0 If taken on 23rd day of gestation baby born will no arms 0 If taken on 24th day little arm 0 Caused by absence of the capillary vessels which provide oxygen to the cells Now used in positive ways stop tumor growth in cancer patients leprosy Rubella German measles If woman contracts rubella while pregnant child may be born with impaired vision and hearing and possible nerve damage Cigrattes Still birth underweight 3 Advantages of breastfeeding over formula feeding strengthens babies immune system bond with mother babies tend to grow up happier and healthier IV Social Attachment strong bond that forms between baby and primary care giver A Freud bonds to mother because of Oral Grati cation a Breastfeeding bonds child to mother b Orally xated on the mother B Harlow and Zimmermanl959 Contact Comfort a Wanted to disprove Freud s theories baby bonded to the mother because of the contact and warmth b Contact and holding c Monkey raised in complete isolation in cages without other monkeys d Two surrogate mothers one with wire and bottle the other with a softer body no bottle e Baby bonds more with the softer mother f Needs to feel the mother cuddle it feel heartbeat C Konrad Lorenz Imprinting during a critical period a Famous for his research with geese and birds on a farm when a bird is hatched it will follow anything that moves b Babies follow the first thing that moves imprinting c Imprinting a hardwired system where an animal learns to see their mother d After about 36 hours critical period they are not able to imprint to anyone else iDebatable child given up for adoption can attach and bond to a new caregiver e More complex on humans iimprint to mother s voice and smell sensitized inside the womb ii become accustomed to face of mother iii its possible to bond with a new mother after a certain amount of time adoption D Erik Erikson 1968Trust vs Mistrust a Identi ed 8 stages of social development across lifespan identity stage b Age 02 trust vs mistrust iIf the child needs are met as soon as they arose hungry fed child would devel perfect trust iiAttachment for humans includes oral grati cation contact comfort imprinting iiiNo one has perfect trust in their primary caregiver impossible for every single need of a baby to be met immediately E Mary Ainsworth s Strange SituationTest Securely Attached InsecurelyAttached AvoidantResistant Ambivalent The goal is to nd out if the child is securely or insecurely attached to the primary caregiver ovc lifespan How it works child goes to an unfamiliar room where a stranger is and there are toys and a blanket in the room Mistrust o Securely attached When the mom leaves the child settles down and interact with the toys and talks to the stranger When the mom returns the child shows positive happiness and runs to the mother trusts mother 0 lnsecurely attached when mom leaves the child throws a t and fusses doesn t interact with the stranger stands and sulks doesn t play with the toys or explore their environment When mother returns shows anger or avoidance does not trust 0 Infants whose needs are not met have insecurity issues 0 Insecure attachment in marriage causes jealousy mistrust issues X iFuSI V Freud s 5 stages of Psychosexual development Not a lifespan theory goes from age 0 to sexual maturity around age 13 child development theory 1 Oral 2 Anal 3 Phallic 4 Latency 5 Genital VI Piaget s stages of Cognitive Development Assimilation and Accommodation SchemasEgocentricism most famous of the child development experts had four stages of Cognitive development sensorimotor preoperational concrete operational and forma operational believed in carefully observing children to determine which child matches with what form of development he was a philosopher and psychologist write about childhood learning and said all childhoo learning comes from accommodation cognitive developments refers to various behaviors such as perceiving remembering reasoning and problem solving Assimilation new information ts with existing schema beliefs 0 Ex a mother and child are walking in a park a bird ies by and the boy says Look bird a the mother says yes you are correct the little boy had a schema of the bird the mother con rms his belief he assimilates his schema of birds Accommodation new information does not t with preexisting schemas so you need to modify the information to accommodate the new information 0 Ex minutes later the kid sees a butter y and says Look bird and the mother says No you re wrong he needs to accommodate and revise his schema and then says ok a bird I a beak feathers and is larger butter y is smaller and has wings Schemas a mental framework or series of ideas about the way things are Egocentrisim oriented towards their own thoughts needs basically means self center Piag said all people are egocentric 0 Ex if a 15 year old gets a pimple they are so focused on themselves they think they will w in a room and everyone will see their pimple Centration in ability to take into account more than one perceptual factor characteristic the preoperational stage of development Decentration ability to evaluate two or more physical dimensions simultaneously Conservation the understanding that changing the form of an object does not necessarily change its essential character this term is a key achievement in Piaget s theory of cognitive development 1 Sensorimotor 02 all learning is accomplished through sensing and movement when someone teaches a child to tie a shoe the child learns and then is able to tie a shoe without even thinking about it they just do it a Object Permanence realizing an object out of sight still exists even when they are not in view a child got to play with a toy then Piaget put cardboard in front of a child and toy the ch thinks the object no longer exists the child realizes object permanence at 510 months 2 Preoperational 27 child is starting to use symbols and recognize words languages or mus notation but not able to engage in it concretely The child begins to acquire the ability to use symbols and represent people However the child cannot reason logically and thought tends to b limited to the inability to take into account more than one perceptual factor at the same time and perceive the world from any perspective other than one s own Symbolic Reasoning two even cups pour one into another taller narrower cup child would use the level of water as reasoning for which cup has more glass instead of numbers Therefore the preoperational child thinks the taller more narr cup has more water in it Conservation of Liquid 3 Concrete Operational 712 a mental manipulation of real physical objects The child makes major transition in cognitive development by shifting from a singledimensional emphasis on perception to a greater reliance on logical and concrete things During this stage children master principle of conservation Principle of Conservation children begin to know when looking at an object it i different from an 180 degree turn not new object if a teacher raises right hand facing students students raise left hand Your right or my right Concrete Operational children still have problems with the what if nature in which they must compare what they know to be true with what may be true If y01 asked a concrete operational child what it would be like if people could y their answer would probably re ect what they have actually seen in cartoons ex rathe than total abstractions 4 Formal Operational 12 amp olderindividuals acquire the ability to make complex deductions and solve problems by systematically testing hypotheses kids develop the ability to think abstractly ex patriotism about politics and religion in depth happens around 25 Abstract of Hypothetical Thinking formal observations or the ability to think abstractly children stop relying solely on previous experience and begin to consic possible outcomes and consequences can also think about abstract concepts and ideas Algebra tends to be more abstract variables can have multiple values if you try teach children algebra in concrete observational stage the child will be frustrated most children do not consider abstract concepts such as religion and politics unti this age and when they do opinions typically come from your parents begin to for own opinions around age 25 according to Piaget a 12 year old girl and her professor have the same level of intelligence starting at age 12 you have the intelligence level of adult VII Erikson Stages of Psychosocial Development lifespan theory name of crisis would be Trust vs Mistrust infant stage 1 Trust vs Mistrust 02 Infant trust leads to autonomy which leads to initiative the first term in each of the sections is what you strive to achieve 2 Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt 24 Toddler learn how to walk toilet train talk autonomy Learning independence and the ability to think for oneself shame amp doubt when a child feels incompetent making a child feel bad if they are not ready 3 Initiative vs Guilt 46 Early School initiative active exploration and investigation of environment ex cooking with mom and dad doing tasks learning things figuring things out guilt child not participating sulking 4 Industry vs Inferiority 612 Middle School industry eagerness to perform skills amp perform good work take initiative ex get involved at school build skills inferiority if a child labels themselves as not good at skills so they eventually give up ex main sources of inferiority in America is not doing well at school drop out bad path 5 Identity vs Role Confusion 1222 Adolescence also called the identity crisis f1guring out in detail who you are role confusion can lead to mid life crisis later on Early l218 high school young people work on group identity joining groups you identify with differen music style clothing groups of friends Late 1822 college a time when young people work on their true identity today people argue this stage goes until around 30 because there are more choices Erik Erikson found out at age 12 that he was adopted changed his name from Eriksone to Erikson becau he is his own son has no father Identity Foreclosure when a woman would wait and form an identity when she got married 6 Intimacy vs Isolation 2234 Early Adult aka mid life crisis intimacy the ability to experience open and supportive relationships without fear of losing your identitj should not fear judgement or loss of respect losing identity when coming together or coming together to make a cohesive identity isolation if you don t form an intimate relationship by 34 you will live life in isolation 7 Generativity vs Stagnation 3460 Middle Adult generativity care about people future making world better place getting involved with future generation raising children stagnation spend energy only worrying about self care about money wealth personal gain 8 Egolntegrity vs Despair 60 amp up Late Adult today it may be older integrity when looking back over life happy with decisions and relationships despair having regrets anger VIII Lawrence Kohlberg39s 19271987 student of Piaget asking what age children could make moral decisions Three Stages levels of Moral Development reasoning I Preconventional Punishment and Reward 4 to 10 years old teach children the rules moral thinking determined by punishment and rewards young children know right from wrong because they are punished or rewarded won t steal cookie because I will be punished 2 Conventional Rules and Laws early adolescence internalize amp familiarize with rule moral thinking determined by rules and laws won t steal the cookie because it is against the rules and therefore wrong 3 Post Conventional Internal Code as few as 25 reach this level of moral reasoning know amp understand laws amp rules look to own moral code and standing by that duty to disobey illegitimate orders from government moral thinking determined by the internal code believing in right from wrong eX crossing road sign says not to cross check for police see if there is traff1c know its not morally wrong eX Vietnam War people burn draft cards in protest of the reasons why the US are fighting war Thoreau wrote essay on civil disobedience saying it is everyones moral duty to disobey immoral orders given by the government IX Elizabeth KublerRoss 5 Stages of Death Dying and Grief how to comfort own morality and grief l Denial we spend most of our lives in denial defense mechanism stay in this stage so never have to process grief 2 Anger after you get over denial you begin to become angry 3 Bargaining after anger you sometimes bargain with religion and God 4 Depression if bargaining doesn t work become depressed 5 Acceptance after depression accept fate and death X Miscellaneous topics The Old Storm and Stress View of Adolescence adolescence is a period of storm and stress hormones mak you angry like a mental illnesss Believe that teenagers are all mentally ill hormones take over and want independence Perilous time for American youth In risk of damaging life between the ages of 1014 Parents hope to get through period safely so their child becomes normal responsible members society Mr CamegieMelon a study done on 1014 year old children concluded that half of these kid are at risk of storm and stress 1980s people say that most adolescents go through years unscathed B An Emerging Theory of Morality Jonathan Haidt and Jesse Graham in Social Justice Research 2007 Jonathan Haidt and Jesse Graham in Social Justice Research saying most traditional moral societies care about harmcare and fairnessjustice b He added ingrouponalty if we are good then you should kill groups that aren t c He added authorityrespect d He added puritysanctity don t eat pork it s not pure rules about what you do with your body or things you should or should not do sexually e His study when morality opposes justice conservatives have moral intuitions that liberals may not recognize look at the chart on the next page When Morality Opposes Justice Conservatives Have Moral lntuitions that Liberals may not Recognize Moral Focus by Focus by Foundation Liberals Conservatives Harm Care Yes Yes FaimessReciprocity Yes Yes Ingroup Loyalty No Yes AuthorityRespect No Yes PuritySanctity No Yes 1 HarmCare you should not hurt other people 2 FairnessReciprocity an eye for an eye karma or god punishing you 3 lngroupLoyalty we are the chosen people others are infidels and we should kill them because they are evil 4 AuthorityRespect do what bible or moses said 5 PuritySancity things you should not do because they are impure don t eat pork 6 Liberals vs Conservatives liberals are not for loyalty because it leads to war ch 12 Social Psychology What is itDefinition a The scientific study of interactions between two or more people b Real or implied Attitudes Beliefs or opinions about anything a person may claim to believe something but not act in a way that supports it The ABC Model Affective an affective component related to mood positive or negative 0 depression is an affective disorder 0 Every attitude has a mood associated with it Behavioral overt actions and verbal statements about behavior 0 Claim to love apples do you really love apples Cognitive component perceptual responses verbal statements of belief 0 Know if you like eat apples 0 Must be aware conscious 0 Must have positive or negative direction Persuasion Fascination with persuasion began after WW when Hitler persuaded good people to kill innocent Jews to help evolution 0 Changing someone s attitude towards something or opinion of something 0 Persuasion can be broken down in three characteristics person message and audience called the Yale Approach How convincing is the person How convincing is the message What is the audience like 0 The Yale Group in the 19503 studied persuasion through speaker and audience Wanted to study affects of persuasion Person Source speaker elements of persuasion credibility attractiveness and power inoculation Target audience gender knowledge forewarning inoculation Inoculation come up with simple weakened counterargument form of brain washing cults Forewarning people resist persuasion when they are warned someone will try to persuade you Gender Initial studies found women more easily persuaded than men 0 However bias studies o In 1970s redid studies concluded that persuasion affected by knowledge of argument and topic One sided v Two sided messages persuades in certain situations 0 One sided works well when the audience is initially in favor of the message 0 Two sided works well when the audience is initially opposed to the message Cognitive Dissonance 0 Proposed by Leon Festinger 1957 o A drive theory of motivation and attitude change one of biggest in social psych 0 Cognitive dissonance motivates us to do something to change our behavior change attitude seekjustification Attitude disagreement negative state guilt9 motivated to reduce guilt by three ways 0 Attitude discrepant behavior cognitive dissonance change attitude change behavior seek some justification in order to match attitude to behavior Ex against abortion but for the death penalty justify Ex if you steal something but think of yourself as honest person attitude disagreement attitude discrepant behavior 0 Change behavior don t steal again 0 Change attitude stealing doesn t make someone dishonest Justify stole it because store owner was rude and deserved it 0 Experiment one dollar twenty dollar study done by Festinger randomly divided college students into two groups 0 Part 1 everybody did a task that was designed to be very boring and pointless turn spools of thread for 30 min 0 Part 2 one group was promised 1 dollar for participating other promised 20 dollars 0 Part 3 asked how interesting part 1 was on a ten point scale 20 group avg 20 I 1 group avg 85 Less is more theory group paid less changed their attitude group paid more found justification in the money Causal Attribution judgment about the cause of other s statements or actions or behaviors tend to make judgments about others many times a day 0 stable or unstable internal or external 0 ex a girl gets an A on her test SMART stable characteristic internal bc reflection of her abilities WORKED HARD doesn t typically work hard so unstable internal because reflection of her actions Test was EASY stable characteristic of test external out of her control Got LUCKY unstable characteristic could have gone either way external out of her control 00 OO stable I unstable internal smart effort external l easy test luck Fundamental Attribution Error For other s problem behavior we make a FAE overuse internal attributions blame person while not knowing their situation when judge others bad behaviors more judgmental ActorObserver Effect sometimes we observe others sometimes we are the actor SelfServing Bias For our own problem behavior employ a 888 overuse external attributions blame person for not knowing your situation when judge our own bad behavior look to external factors leads to all wars Groups When focusing on group psychology important not to focus on the group itself but on the individual person within the group A Social Influence anything that anyone does that influences other people any affect on your behavior due to a group you are a part of 3 types 1 Conformity Asch going along with social norms Asch s conformity study 0 Find line on right most nearly same length as standard line 0 Only 7th person was real subject other 6 confederates of experiment 0 Everyone else gave wrong answer 0 76 would conform to group 0 2 reasons why people conformed o 1 Knew b was right answer but wanted to fit in normative conformity o 2 Lack of confidence doubt their own thinking 0 all it takes is one ally 2 Compliance going along with direct request 0 compliance 2 step process 0 door in the face technique large request followed by small request ask for more than you actually hope to get fundraising 0 foot in the door technique small request followed by large request experiment in cali asked people what liquid soap they used week later called same people and asked if they could come into their house and analyze household products 3 Obedience Milgram direct command Milgram Study Yale University 1965 Motivated by Nazi Germany obedience 0 Thought it was a study on learning 0 1 participant teacher 1 confederate says he has heart condition learner experimenter psychology professor machine fake shock generator danger severe shock learner strapped to machine at some point my heart is starting to bother him experimenter tells him to continue at certain point pounding on wall stops responding continue shocking without answers 65 of men went all the way to the end 450 volts it is human nature to obey authority even to destructive behavior many variations of this experiment 0 one of which with two teachers 0 confederate teacher leaves the room ally 0 real participant does the same 0 power of ally to reduce obedience B Groupthink Janis 1967 bad decision made by a group or committee often make worst decisions when groupthink sinks in and there is a lot of pressure to conform to the group leader people go along with things just to be part of the group had serious reservations in their minds but never spoke out loud causes of groupthink o illusion of invulnerability 0 strong pressure to conform to group 0 strong leader who makes hisher opinion known at the start 0 mind guarding tries to quiet people who speak opinions belittle fire etc methods to prevent group think 0 someone who plays devils advocate o participation is anonymous 0 everyone told to raise as many objections as possible C Helping in an Emergency The Bystander Effect helping a person in an emergency the more people present in an emergency the less likely it is you will help Kitty Genovese murdered on her front steps with 38 people staring out their windows no one helped or called the police series of studies in NY subways fake emergency with different numbers of people concluded two possible explanations tendency to engage in social comparison before we react look around at what everyone else is doing a Fear of Social Blunder a Think everyone knows something you don t know b Fear of making social mistake don t react until someone else does c More people more social pressure longer it takes to react b Diffusion of Responsibility a If you re alone 100 of responsibility falls on you more likely to react b When there are more people say 10 each has 10 so less likely to feel compelled to do something IV Aggression no lecture text only A Instinct Freud Thanatos amp Eros From motivation lecture instinct theories of aggression gave way to drive theories B DriveFrustrationAggression Hypothesis1939 A popular but outdated theory that said all aggression stems from frustration of some desire C Social Learning The current theory that claims aggressive behavior is learned classically operantly or observationally This is more optimistic because it does not have to be learned A nonviolent world is possible c Interpersonal Aggression any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt another person d Ethology the scientific study of the evolution of animal behavior including humans biological bases of aggression e Sociobiology a specialization within biology that seeks to understand the biological factors that underlie social behaviors in all animal species including humans biological basis of aggression g FrustrationAggression Hypothesis theory that aggression is always a consequence of frustration and that frustration leads to aggression psychological basis of aggression h The effects of TV and media violence on aggression lead to violent behaviors V Prejudice A Define terms Prejudice an attitude 0 A belief or attitude about a person based solely on their group membership 0 Everyone is prejudice part of the way we judge social engagements 0 Judging based on preconceived idea Stereotypes a component of prejudice Belief about a group of people that makes a prejudice Belief that everyone in group is alike Discriminationa behavior 0 Behavior based on a prejudice an action 0 Illegal in US to discriminate against religion ethnicity gender sexual preference 0 Racism genetics The belief that observable differences among races are due to genetics 0 Sexism genetics The belief that differences between sexes are due to gene cs B Social Categorization The tendency to categorize people into us and them 0 Us safer trust our kind or group more intelligent and honest o Themless safe less moral less good inferior to us 0 Prejudice comes from this categorization 1 Us vs Them See other group as a threat Threatened by differences People that are like us are good all good things Them see all bad things interpret or assume all bad things Outgroup homogeneity find evidence to prove bad Ingroup heterogeneity find evidence to prove good i select data that supports bias ignore data that does not rhgbczpcrgn 2 Illusory Correlations a pattern that does not really exist the ultimate attributional error when they do something wrong it proves there is something wrong with their group when one of us does something wrong it is the individual s problem 3 SelfServing Bias again separating something bad done in my group justify from same thing done in their group VI Interpersonal Attraction Started studying in mid 1960s Love romance friendship 4 important factors Similarity of ideas in perception the principle that we tend to group elements that are similar to each other In social psychology similarity of beliefs interests and values are recognized as a factor attracting people to one another Proximity form relationships friendships with people who live work go to school etc near us perceptual grouping principle whereby all else being equal we tend to organize perceptions by grouping elements that are the nearest to eachother n social psychology the geographical nearness of one person to another which is an important factor in interpersonal attraction Reciprocity the tendency to respond to others in a way similar to how they respond to or treat us Physical Attractiveness most important factor in drawing people together initially physical features that persons of the opposite sex find appealing mere exposure effect phenomenon by which repeated exposure to novel stimuli tends to increase an individuals preference for such stimuli Explains in part why we are attracted to people close in proximity to us B Romantic Love Passionate love 0 starts strong drops off relatively quickly in a relationship that s normal intense romantic passion Companionate love friendship love grows as passionate love drops off 0 builds throughout relationship Ch 13 Emotions and Stress and Health Psychology A Emotions 1 Plutchik s Wheel of Emotions took a color wheel and categorized colors as emotions with blue yellow and red as the three primary colors a Saying there are eight primary emotions do not need to know what they are just know how many b Adjacent emotions can mix to form eight secondary emotions adjacent emotions can mix but not opposites such as joy and sadness c Therefore there are 16 distinct emotions d The center is no emotion as you move out there are more intense emotions 2 How do we know others emotions body language facial expressions nonverbal cues polygraphs graph variations of what is being measured a Paul Ekman wrote Lie to Me leading the charge on how to identify when people are lying and specifically identified this through facial expressions and mapped muscles i He went around the world and concluded Darwin was right in the sense that people make the same facial expressions when they are feeling a certain emotion ii Ekman also came up with the idea that we have many different smiles he identified 18 different smiles 1 Duchenne smile a truly happy smile the eyes must be wrinkled 2 Ekman was the first person who first named all the facial human muscles your eyes get involved in a Duchenne smile which is a truly happy smile TEST QUESTION on Ekman and Duchenne smile b Darwin said there are six facial expressions are part of our genetic heritage that everyone smiles when they are happy 3 How do we know our own emotions three theories of the experience of emotions each with different geometries a JamesLange Theory of emotions a theory that explains emotional states a linear theory first you perceive a stimulus then your body responds and then you experience an emotion it is the response that determines the emotional experience you see a bull and your body responds to it by running and your adrenaline flows which leads to us saying oh boy l was scared b CannonBard Theory of emotions first you perceive a stimulus and simultaneously your body responds and experiences emotion i Saying emotion is a cognitive event that is enhanced by bodily reactions a theory that emotions occur simultaneously with psychological changes rather than deriving from body changes as the JamesLange theory suggests c Schachter and Singer Theory of emotions first you perceive a stimulus which causes body arousal coupled with a cognitive label a thought which then leads to the experience this theory says that any intense emotion feels the same i This theory can from an experiment from the Suproxin study students volunteered to get injected with Suproxin which is a vitamin that was fake that was said to improve vision Half were told that one side effect was arousal when the other half wasn t told anything And then you have to wait in the other room with a confederate that was either happy or angry two independent variables People rated their happiness and angriness on a 10point scale The subjects who were not told what to expect from the Suproxin whether with the happy or angry confederate rated it a 10 The subjects who were told that the Suproxin would arouse them rated their happiness and angriness a 5 We are influenced by what we think every emotion feels the same but you label them differently ii It s a theory that a given body state can be linked to a variety of emotions depending on the context in which the body state occurs TEST QUESTION one or two questions on the three theories read more in book each individual theory and the Suproxin Study 4 Are Emotions taught no they are genetic Darwin said facial expressions are part of our genetic endowment cultures teach us how to display emotions certain parts of emotions are taught and how and when to express these emotions recognition of emotions an display rules ARE taught but not the emotion itself a Example If you isolate a baby monkey and raise it an isolated monkey when frightened will show a frightened face but once monkey is put in social circle if one monkey is frightened its expression will be a signal to the other social monkeys that there is a reason to be scared isolated monkey will not know how to read the emotion of the frightened monkey therefore will nc be frightened B Stress wear and tear on the body due to the demands placed on it due to our growing population and competition for jobs 1 Sources of Stress a The Major Life Events Checklist Holmes and Rahe 1967 proved that when you re under stress you are more likely to get sick Had people check off major life events that happened in the past year each life event had a specific number of points the higher the amount of points equals the more stressed out the event was They recommended that you should not do 3 major life events at one time Add up the points and you would get a Stress Score Then you check off your illnesses and add that up They thought they would correlate but there was NO correlation between major life events and health People develop coping strategies i Everyday life events miss calculating this such as losing your keys or being stuck in traffic ii Coping strategies missed calculating this b Cognitive Factors Lazarus says it all depends on how you look at it cognitive functions which causes stress The way you look at a situation determines how stressful it is Whether you think of a situation as an opportunity or a problem i Cognitive Appraisal the way someone looks at a stressful situation c Conflict decisions and choice conflict is a source of stress Decisionmaking is making a choice between two or more alternatives choosing between going to a certain college is stressful Too many choices is stressful d Frustration blocking of goal directed behavior traffic is stressful because if there was no traffic I could get to work faster e Environmental Sources heat humidity noise crowding are particularly stressful when they are unexpected unpredictable and uncontrollable i Study on control students given basic addition problems half group in quiet room and half of the group is in noisy room the noisy room did worse The second part of the study in a noisy room you were allowed to push a button and the noise will go away so they had control of the noise Therefore uncontrollable noise is more of a problem 2 Physiological Reaction to Stress started with Selye s General Adaption Syndrome a That you adapt to stress in 3 stages the alarm resistance and exhaustion stages first the animal notices there is more stress then there is an all out effort to eliminate the stress and lastly the exhaustion stage is when the animal gives up and could lead to dying or have a mental breakdown b As a result of failed resistance you can get sick or you can become depressed c Unsuccessful resistance leads to exhaustion 3 Coping with Stress a Social Factors i Supportive relationships you can cope with stress better if you have someone to talk to that cares about you a therapist is a type of supportive relationship ii Sense of belonging to something greater than yourself belonging to a church or an association b Cognitive Factors Lazarus again i Problems vs Emotion focus problems focus try to fix things and find solutions to their problems emotion focus focuses on their emotions and says that these people just want someone else s support 1 Men are from mars women are from Venus this theory says that men are more likely to look for solutions to problems and women are more like to tell their partner that they had a bad day and then when offered with help they reject the help 2 John Grey said on average men are more problems focused and women are more emotionally focused 3 Lazarus says best way to focus on stress is the problem method the method way ii Sense of commitment having a sense of commitment greater than yourself to make the world a better place iii lnternal Locus of Control also called the lE scale believe you control your own fate the question is where does control lie with certain issues in your life do you find external excuses or look within oneself 1 Internal Control is better than external control when your in control its less stressful iv Having actual control study done at a nursing home in Texas by two people named Rooin and Langer and wanted to explore the health effects of having control in life did study in nursing home where they did a true experiment One group got a choice of what color towels they got to use what color sheets they got to use the position of their furniture choice of meal times and visiting hours After 18 months the regular group 30 had died The control group only 15 died There was a decrease in death rate v Learned Helplessness Seligman 1970 wrote a book Learned Helplessness inappropriate generalization of helplessness from one situation from another the dogs inappropriately didn t try to escape even though they easily could have KNOW SELIGMAN 1 Learned helplessness leads to depression abstract phobias 2 Experiment dog in a cage with a shocked floor Dog could not escape and the dog learned it was helpless Put in a different cage where the other side is safe but the dog gave up and no longer tried Learned helplessness inappropriate generalization of helplessness from one situation to another 4 Personality Factors a lE Scale Locus of Control a personality factor internal is better than external b Type A or B personality type A is coronary prone where they are always in a hurry and time efficiency often become angry and hostile which ultimately means a person is far more likely to have a hard attack type B is better for coping c Optimism vs Pessimism optimism copes best with stress i You become optimistic by following your mother ii Optimistic Children are less likely to become depressed less likely to get sick and get diseases and have higher achievement d Psychological Hardiness means equals resistant to stress The THREE things below are psychologically hardy people and cope well with stress TEST QUESTION i Commitment vs Alienation ii lnternal Locus of Control iii Problem Focused Style 5 Behavioral Factors best thing to do to cope with stress is aerobic exercise a Things you can do to relieve stress exercise lose weight quit smoking reduce salt and caffeine learn to relax meditation yoga self Hypnosis biofeedback C Health Psychology book published called Health Psychology in 1979 1 Psychoneuroimmunology PNI three branches together this field discovered the link between stress and health sickness and said the answer is the immune system when you are threatened with something psychical your immune system is suppressed temporarily and then that energy is put into other things looks at things like stress and coping and how it affects the brain chemistry and immune systems a Psychobiology psychologists and biologists working together to look at the connection 3 of these departments at UM b Biopsychology more focused on bio c Behavioral Medicine teach how to eat healthy and give up smoking Anything you can do to improve health behaviorally such as educating people about unprotected sex changes your behavior to improve health stop smoking weight lose program d Health Psychology focuses on the psychology of the health setting doctorpatient relationships e Behavioral Neuroscience connection between brain and behaviors know form someone s behavior what the problems with their brain is a stroke in the left hemisphere can affect the right side of the body 2 Health Studies today psychologists are involved in health care research today a Psychologists are working on cancer aids heart disease smoking control alcohol and drug addiction stress management and much more 3 Many great advances in the future of health will come from behavioral changes not just from new medicines a These include diet exercise safe sex practices stress management preventive medicine wellness approach ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Psychological disorders and psychopathology I Approaches to Understanding Abnormal Behavior behavior that is atypical Maladaptive socially unacceptable and produce emotional discomfort A Statistical Approach normal distribution what is the distribution for people and what is far from the center if a person is abnormal they are statistically far from the average a genius and intellectual disability would both be abnormal abnormally intelligent abnormally dysfunctional we tend to focus more on dysfunction a problem with statistical approach what is normal is not always good it would be unusual to have perfect teeth and or vision as an adult or people can live in a normal community and but be isolated B Sociological Approach what s normal in one culture may be abnormal in another culture odd to question government would be called mentally ill in some countries North Korea also Americans don t always know their neighbors would be weird in another country a Religion and culture C Psychoanalytical Approach says that any mental disorder is due to early childhood memories particularly those involving sexual development which might lead to excessive compulsive disorder a Early childhood experiences b looking for some psychological explanation for disorders D Behavioral Approachbelieves problem behavior is learned all abnormalities are learned and can be unlearned a learning b Learned Helplessness a diminished ability to learn an avoidance response following exposure to unavoidable aversive stimulation this may contribute to some forms of depression and nonresponsiveness in humans and other animals E Cognitive Approach looking for faulty though processes attributions and thinking a thinking b problems are a result of fault thinking F Biological Approach your problem is due to genetics brain chemistry drugs food allergies head injury a all problems result from a chemical imbalance b could be due to genetics or due to some other biological chemical reason c Finias Gauge Case person who was dripped on his head and was never the same again got a tumor G Interactionist Approach current approach that psychologists use in abnormal psychology today to take an interactive approach where mental illness is the result of all of the above mental problems are the interaction between nature and nurture and the interaction is perspective a results form the interaction between nature and nurture society and early ch dhood b mental illness is a result of al the factors environmental genetics internal and external components 11 Diagnosing Psychological Disorders the advantage of giving it a name allows for it to be defined for communication and treatment patients feel validated when diagnose is given insurance company may cover it DSM Diagnostic and Statistical manual of mental disorders DSMII Neurotic and Psychotic half the book is a list of neurotic disorders characterized by excessive anxiety other half psychotic disorders characterized by breaks with reality people don t see the same reality as those around them hallucinations and delusions All abnormal psychology divided into these two categories Neurotic disorder characterized by excessive anxiety Psychotic some break dissociation with reality DSMIV Five Axis System the current system the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fourth edition the five axes are a Axis 1 Disorder the main clinical disorders the principal disorders that need immediate attention anxiety or depression disorder b Axis 2 Disorder consists of personality and developmental disorders Downsydrome or mental retardation or any paranoid personality disorder or any learning disorder disability i Personality disorder is antisocial personality disorder thought to be relatively mild compared to the main clinical disorders ii Developmental disorder ADHD or any learning disorder or academic skills disorder c Axis 3 Disorder general medicine or neurological problems Asthma If a person has no health problems and they suddenly have a psychotic break prognosis for them getting better will be better than someone on respirator in hospital Need to look at other health problems Patient gets score for general medical conditions if a person is healthy they will get a high score of their general medical conditions d Axis 4 Disorder psychosocial and environmental problems do they have housing are they illiterate do they have money or are they broke questions about their life e Axis 5 Disorder Global assessment of functioning Therapist gives them a score for how functional a person has been in past year If you ve been a persistent danger to yourself or others you get a 1 If fully functioning until psychotic break yesterday you get a 5 a score from 1100 of how functional someone has been fully functional is 100 DSMV current book 111 Some of the Categories A Anxiety Disorders any of a number of disorders that produce pervasive feelings of anxiety B Somatoform Disorders characterized by unusual bodily complaints complaining about a problem ache or pain that doesn t make sense all of a sudden can t see C Dissociative Disorders disorders where your personality dissociates or breaks apart into two or more distinct pieces personality dissociates through stress D Psychosexual Disorders E Personality Disorders F Mood Disorders G Schizophrenic Disorders H Substance Use Disorders A Anxiety Disorders 1 Generalized Anxiety Disorder nonspecific anxiety that persists six months or more not anxiety about any particular thing just always anxious Person may find it difficult to control work Symptoms include restlessness fatigue difficulty concentrating mind going blank irritability muscle tension sleep disturbance 2 Panic Disorder an individual experiences numerous panic attacks four or more in a fourweek period that are characterized by overwhelming terror and often a feeling of unreality or depersonalization lack of breath cold sweats person cannot get enough oxygen into the body and suffer heart palpitations fear of having an attack 2x as likely in women 3 Phobic Disorder any of a number of anxiety disorders that are characterized by a persistent fear and consequent avoidance of a specific object or situation irrational fear Social Phobia characterized by a persistent irrational fear of performing some specific behavior such as talking or eating in the presence of others Specific Phobia characterized by an irrational fear of specific situations or objects such as heights small closed places strangers or animals agoraphobia fear of public places specifically open crowded places on the rise today intense fear of being in places situations where an escape might be difficult or in which help might not be available stores theaters trains etc 0 people on average are less well rounded with religion religion allows people to cope with anxiety 0 people move for work distance between family or support system may contribute to anxiety 0 hear about tragedies rapidly because of news and media create illusion that the world is very dangerous irrational sensitization when a person becomes overly sensitive to a stimulus 4 ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder freud called t his anal retentive or anal fixation very obsessive to have things in the right place they often count anything sucha s steps ritualistic behavopr and doing things in certain orders take off all clothing in certain orders before they shower germaphobes wash their hands constantly etc do not confuse with obsessive compulsive personality disorder characterized by persistent unwanted and unshakable thoughts and or irresistible habitual repeated actions compulsion a belief that drives anxiety behavior designed to reduce anxiety obsession an anxiety producing thought that you can not stop thinking about prof nephew went through this as a kid he had to leave the house through the front door following a ritual that you made up yourself 5 PostTraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD formerly ShellShock and Battle Fatigue it is an anxiety disorder that typically follows a traumatic event known for thousands of years named changed after Vietnam always associated with war but eventually realized can be produced by any psychological trauma characterized by a reliving of that event over and over avoidance of stimuli associated with the event or numbing of general responsiveness and increased arousal best way to avoid talk about the event with experts B Somatoform Disorders physical symptoms causes by psychological stress factors BUT NO real tissue damage cause of symptoms conversion of emotional factors into physical factors imaginary made up no known psychological cause Not Psychosomatic psychological damage to the soma psychological factors such as stress have produced real tissue damage stress weakens immune system causes ulcer or other illnesses a disorder characterized by physical symptoms resulting from psychological causes 1 Hypochondriasis hypochondria no longer in the DSMV a hypochondriac always complains and obsessed about illness and disease a Go from doctor to doctor and each says they are fine b Constantly looking for attention wants someone to take them seriously and validate their anxieties and fears Easily confused with germ phobias cleanliness phobias 2 convert psychological problem into a physical complaint a b Anxiety guilt about something convert to a physical complaint Ex sex gives you anxiety say you have a headache and can t have sex Weakness paralysis sensory loss pain unusual complaint caused by anxiety in your head Freud s theory Wandering Uterus Theory says uterus would wander into someone s head more common among women than men i Thought guilt was converted into physical complaint Once you recognize the cause of anxiety and deal with it pain leaves Different than psychosomatic psychological factors affect the soma stress causes ulcer real tissue damage to the soma as opposed to imaginary Glove anesthesia numbness of the wrist and hand but no nerve injuries or anything that would cause this i Completely in the mind Hysterical deafness people go deaf following a trauma Hysterical blindness following a severe trauma people can go blind conscious vision isn t in tact reptilian system is in tact quick re ex 3 Somatization Disorder characterized by multiple and recurrent physical symptoms that have no physical cause C Dissociative Disorders personality breaks into pieces the thoughts and feelings that generate anxiety are separated or dissociated from the conscious awareness unconscious disassociates from conscious mind Freud called it repression 1 Psychogenic Dissociative Amnesia a b Caused by psychological trauma stress not physical trauma Unconsciously decides to forget who they are where they live memory and ees don t care that they can t remember calm Fugue state unconsciously disassociate from life leave town abruptly start new life etc doesn t seem bothered or seem to care that they don t know who they are Ex John Doe case murdered his wife and her friend and then dissociated from life didn t remember anything from the murder although all evidence points to him 0 Simpson Casey Anthony 2 Dissociative Identity Disorder used to be multiple personality disorder a Person has two or more distinct personalities b Isn t conscious of disorder experience it as blackouts c Altered personality will take charge of life without any conscious knowledge change personality clothing actions etc d Often different ages genders careers e Changed name because multiple suggests two or more distinct new name suggests one personality broken into multiple pieces f Some people don t believe its real improperly diagnosed g Suffered more by woman than men sexual child abuse h Caused by early childhood trauma i Drunk dad children could dissociate from sober daddy drunk daddy j Goal of therapy make the core person aware of the other personalities and integrate them 3 The Corruption of Reality A unified Theory of Religion Hypnosis and Psychpathology by Schumaker 1995 a Schumaker s thesis an American psychologist who lived in Austria and said all people need to separate and dissociate themselves from reality b Says that all religions help us to navigate the anxieties of life i Death afterlife rituals when people are born married die who is god fear of unknown ii Religious belief systems give means of answering unanswered questions why are we here where did we come from what happens after death iii Religions commonly talk about a miracle something that can t be explained happened that could not have happened iv As religion becomes less prevalent mental illness becomes more prevalent c Says all mental illnesses are dissociative i Fear of germs wash hands obsessively dissociates from fear of death ii God created the world in 6 days and now that we are separated from reality we can spiritually get in touch with our inner peace d Selfhypnosis possible to relieve your D Psychosexual Disorder own pain by dissociating from it 1 Sexual Dysfunction where people are unable to have satisfying relationships 2 Paraphilias paraphilic disorders now called a list of abnormal dysfunctional sexual disorders not real love psychologists believe the purpose of sexual relations are to draw people together into meaningful longterm relationships and to raise children and build communities a Fetishism obsession with physical features or objects to an extent that is dysfunctional b Transvestite wears clothing of the opposite sex sex bias more bothered by men dressing as woman than woman dressing as man i Not a sexual identity disorder bc only has to do with clothing c Exhibitionismshow Voyeurism watch someone who wants to show off their body becomes dysfunctional and addictive ashing for example d Sadism wants to hurt or humiliate Masochism wants to be hurt or humiliated childhood pain or trauma masked as love e Pedophilia sexual attractions to or relations with children internet has exacerbated this issue illegal in most societies f Zoophilia Bestiality sex with animals interferes relationship with people 3 Gender Identity Disorders Transexual transgender a many people born neither male nor female born with both organs b all babies begin as female fetus if testosterone does not do its job baby will have a vagina and sexual organs but genetically a boy c cannot chose a person s gender E Personality Disorders diverse class of disorders that is collectively characterized by in exible and maladaptive personality traits that cause either functional impairment or subjective distress 1 Odd or eccentric a Paranoid Personality Disorder to be frightened pervasive suspiciousness and distrust of others often seem aloof humorless and lacking in tender warm feelings tend to avoid intimacy hypersensitivity and vigilance Schizoid Personality Disorder loaners hermits withdrawn do not want meaningful social relationships they may seem self absorbed and detached even absent minded Schizotypal Personality Disorder people who manifest oddities of thought perception speech and behavior including magical thinking may believe that they have a 6th sense telepathy or extreme superstitions ideas of reference that random events around them are meaningful astrology tarot cards chicken bones etc 2 Dramatic or Emotional a Histrionic Personality Disorder overly dramatic amboyant given to exaggeration while charming and entertaining on first acquaintance they often drive people away with selfcentered demand for attention b Narcissistic self absorbed need constant attention and admiration little regard for the feelings of others relationships alter between involvement and abandonment unable to empathize or appreciate other people s feelings often destroy people around them c Antisocial sociopath psychopath morally insane listed under disruptive impulse control often gets a large section of textbook chronic antisocial behavior which violates the rights of others doesn t feel remorse or care about hurting others this includes many mass murderers and conmen d Borderline Personality disorder instability in behavior mood and selfimage quoton the borderquot of schizophrenia old theory relations with others start out intensely but burn out quickly recurring pattern wherein their best friend ever quickly becomes their worst enemy rapid shifts in mood temper sexual orientation etc 3 Anxious or Fearful a Avoidant Personality Disorder desperately want close intimate relationships but find ways to avoid them they repeatedly withdraw from relationships to avoid rejection shame or humiliation they set impossible conditions on a relationship such as total uncritical acceptance of them by the other party not to be confused with schizoid person who does not want close relationships b Dependent Personality Disorder overly dependent on others give up responsibility and other important aspects of life to others lack self confidence unable to function individually and independently subordinate their needs to ensure presence of another person who will take care of them feel helpless stupid incompetent c ObsessiveCompulsive OCPD excessively preoccupied with order rules details and trivia Excessive devotion to work only one way to do things and its their way functional to some extent but can interfere with relationships i Milder than OCD enduring personality style that has a more enduring style whereas 0CD is more sudden and dramatic F Mood Affective Disorders class of disorders including major depression and bipolar disorder that are characterized by persistent depression new book depressive and manic in different categories 1 Major Depression only have depression episodes deep and persistent depression common cold of mental illness one manic episode becomes manic depression a Prozac SSRI Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor 2 Bipolar Disorder Formerly ManicDepression one or more manic episode major mood swing or both depression and mania a Lithium found in the water in Texas used to cure bipolar disorder levels people out and makes them neutral 3 Seasonal Affective Disorder caused by lack of light and change in the seasons short days and inactivity depressions follows a seasonal pattern a Treatment light therapy 4 Suicide result of untreated depression permanent solution to a temporary problem G Schizophrenic Disorders Psychotic only severe and disabling mental disorders that used to be truly psychotic disorders victims suffer breaks with reality 1 Hallucinations perceiving something not there a auditory hearing b tactile feelings sensations c visual seeing d olfactory smelling 2 Delusions of a Grandeur think they are more important than they are b Persecution think people are after them or trying to harm them stop them from reaching goals obsessed with CIA organizations etc c Reference think meaningless things or events mean something to them birds ying south symbols etc d Control think someone or thing is controlling them or their thought 3 Four types of Schizophrenia a Catatonic subtype of schiz characterized by extreme psychomotor disturbances in an unconscious coma like state where they cannot communicate i Waxy Flexible muscles are bendable ii Rigid where the muscles are really tense can hold a really straight position b Paranoid often quite dangerous and most common suffers from delusions and hallucinations c Disorganized mostly dangerous to themselves more than others marked by disorganization and regression in thinking and behavioral patterns often accompanied by mood swings and hallucinations 1 shopping cart peoplequot thinking is really disorganized ii word salad have a thought believe they are delivering this thought and the words make no sense iii thoughts and actions disorganized often homeless iv large number of Florida mentally ill are in jail one of the worst states for mental health patients d Undifferentiatedunclear which category they are in may have occasionally fit into any of the above 3 H Substance Use Disorders alcoholism drug addiction 1 Warning signs a Daily use b Using to cope c Using when alone or secret use d Impaired Social or Occupational Functions interfering with life s responsibilities occupational or relationships social e Blackouts f Physical Dependence including fear of withdrawal 2 Genetic component parents are addicts it may involve the ability to get pleasure from ordinary events like a sunset 3 Is the Problem the Drug or the Person a People are often in denial and don t want to admit they have a problem b Heroin created to cure morphine addiction people abuse heroin 4 AA and the 12 step programs a first step admitting there is a problem b 11 other steps biggest part of cure is gaining social support Lecture 15 Psychotherapy 1 Psychotherapy any process of working with an individual to reduce problems and improve functioning 2 Techniques a First technique is talking therapy Freud said talking about your problems might be helpful Freud mentioned this b Second technique listening therapy Freud mentioned this 0 Third technique interpretingsuggesting therapy d Fourth technique reinforce your effective behavior 9 Fifth technique demonstrate effective behavior f Sixth technique roll playing g Seventh technique drug therapy h Eighth technique journal therapy writing in a journal regularly A Psychoanalytic Therapy Freud also called Psychodynamic there are three parts of your personality the iceberg the id is completely unconscious the ego and superego are conscious but mainly unconscious don t confuse with generic psychotherapy a Psychodynamic because dynamic interaction between three parts id ego superego One has a thought then another one suppresses it and so on Dynamic System Tracks patterns and interprets what we see 1 A Hydraulic Model was the latest technology when Freud came up with this idea saying the mind is like a hydraulic system if you push down on that system you can lift a lot more because it is a closed system you push something down something else will go up if you hit a kid and tell him not suck his thumb then he will start wetting his bed to remove pressure from the system goal of therapy is to reduce pressures a When asked what human brain is like people will say like a computer even though inaccurate b Point is that people try to describe human activity with the latest technology c In Freud s day hydraulics was the new technology d But not dealing with the problem just suppressing a symptom e Goal is to remove pressure from the system 2 Focus on the unconscious mind and early experience talk about early childhood memories and use dream analysis or free association to get at the unconscious mind Freud believed that anxiety disorders were caused by sexual trauma 3 Highly directive and extensive interpretation 4 Unresolved conflicts between the ID EGO and SUPEREGO from early childhood memories a Freud believed that all neurotic disorders were caused by SEXUAL traumas 5 Free association and dream analysis 6 Important concepts a Transference the patient relates to the therapist in a way that reproduces an important past relationship may see therapist like a mentor or a father figure i Psychoanalysis say there can be no therapy if there is no transference ii People say they are in love with their therapist this is not real this is why it is completely inappropriate for a therapist to date a patient b Resistance an effort by the patient to prevent the therapist from recovering the true source of the problem Unconsciously motivated c Catharsis a sudden release of tension pressure caused by reliving a painful experience or by revealing a traumatic experience i This is the goal of therapy if you are crying while you tell the story you are furiousangry a sudden release of tension The patient is reliving earlier difficult experiences d Free Association psychoanalytic technique developed by Sigmund Freud in which patients relax and say whatever comes to their minds e Dream Analysis psychoanalytic technique involving interpretation of dreams to learn about hidden aspects of personality B Humanistic Therapies saying all people are motivated to reach their full potential all you have to do is provide the right conditions Focus on the conscious thought of the present and the future Focus on reaching selfactualization 1 Humanistic Therapies encourages selfexamination and growth It focuses on conscious thought and present and future They are encouraging people to grow by focusing on the current and future and not the past Freud focused on the past a ClientCentered Therapy Carl Rogers was the first psychologist that was in charge of psychiatrists Rasherian Therapy Originally called person centered therapy Only the patient can discover their problem the therapist can only apply the right condition Unconditional positive regard unconditionally love therapist should treat with unconditional positive regard too i Unconditional Positive Regard Rogers main concept called it personal listening in the previous chapter said if you use unconditional positive regard in therapy that it will help the patient find themselves a parent should raise their children with this 1Saying parent should take issue and get mad with your behavior not the child 2 Saying patient can only solve their problems and the therapist can only set the conditions ii Real Self vs Ideal Self describes your ideal self You have your real and ideal self Ideal self is who you hope to be Goals and ambitions Real self differs from ideals iii Nondirective iv Necessary Conditions empathy acceptance and genuineness 1 Empathy sharing emotions with the patient experience their emotions with them 2 Acceptance no judging 3 Genuineness genuinely caring TEST QUESTION the three conditions of Humanistic Therapy necessary for self actualization therapist must treat with necessary conditions empathy acceptance and genuineness v Active listening listening and repeating and making the person understand that you are on the same page as him b Gestalt Therapy Fritz Perls more directive and confrontational but still places responsibility for change on the clienttherapist don t feel like therapist knows best Think know better A young woman was in therapy with a male gestalt therapist They were discussing concerns about men whistling at her Said she was seductive woman to shock her out of denial Maybe you are doing something to provoke Saying takes a hard look at your self Not blaming but forcing realization i More directive and confrontational type of therapy where the therapist tries to make the patient see the truth herself saying the client must be the center of patients own recovery different than Freud where therapist would be behind a wall while patient lays on the couch c Transactional Analysis l m Ok You re OK by Thomas Harris MD 1967 an analysis of communications or transactions saying good people can disagree on important issues and still be good people regardless i I m OK You re OK is a social categorization where the world is separated into two groups us and them ii Transactional Analysis has 3 further subdivisions of the EGO 1 Child the inner child is the whining selfcentered spoiled brat part of us 2 Parent the inner parent is made up of taperecorded messages little short expressions A saying that you spout out when needed Embedded in you and comes out as long as you live under my roof you will do what I say OR if everyone jumped off a bridge you would too 3 Adult teach people to recognize their inner adult and elevate the level of conversation the grown up side that you strive for as grownups goal is to raise to adultadult TEST QUESTION memorize the 3 Humanistic Therapies on test going to ask which one is not a humanistic therapy C Behavioral Therapies Behavior Modification use learning theory to improve behavior based on the assumption that maladaptive behavior has been learned and therefore can be unlearned 1 Classical Conditioning associative a Systematic Desensitization behavior therapy using a classical conditioning technique that pairs the slow systematic exposure to anxietyinducing situations with relaxation training i Exposure Therapy ii Behavior Therapy iii Virtual Reality Therapy utilization of virtual reality simulations to generate a variety of stimuli for systematic desensitization b Aversive Conditioning try to stop bad habits by relating something negative with that habit saying overeating leads to fatness or make a person smoke until they get sick 2 Operant Conditioning provides rewards for good behavior and punishment for bad behavior modification techniques that attempt to influence behavior by manipulating reinforcers a Token Economy set up a point system and give a kid points for good behavior positive reinforcement b Extinction and Punishment c Time Out 3 Modeling Cognitive Behavior Therapy 4 Social Learning and Albert Bandura encourages constructive SelfTalk and Self Efficacy used these ideas to create Cognitive Behavior Therapy one of the most powerful therapies for treating depression anxiety and OCD a Vicarious punishment belief in your ability to do something this was described when they were told not to beat up BoBo b SelfTalk Bandura said a lot of problems come from nonverbal negative selftalk where you may not say you are going to the store but your thought can be helpful or harmful c Encourage constructive SelfTalk a lot of times people who cannot do something like dating may think that no one likes them They go to a party and think everyone hates me and people actually hate you because you project this negativity Replace negativity with more positive thinking d Encourage constructive SelfEfficacy your impression of your abilities in an area Some of us have high some low Math selfefficacy would be your impression of your abilities in those areas You believe you ll do well in math Negative could be a problem 5 Donald Meichenbaum is a distinguished visiting Professor at the UM School of Education on November 6th 2006 D Cognitive Therapies thoughts are the main source of abnormal behavior based on the premise that most behavioral disorders result from distortions in cognition or thought 1 RationalEmotive Therapy Albert Ellis based on the premise that psychological problems result when people interpret their experiences based on selfdefeating irrational beliefs a Irrational and SelfDefeating Beliefs 2 Cognitive Therapy Aaron Beck aimed at restructuring irrational thinking patterns such as the tendency to use negative selflabels a Identity distorted selflabels TEST QUESTION know that two cognitive therapies and names Ellis and Beck Change way of thinking as way of therapy E Biomedical Therapies 1 AntiAnxiety Drugs Anxiolytics Librium Miltown Valium Xanax there are a number of anxiolytics and the most famous is valiumXanax used to reduce symptoms of anxiety and tension in disorders that are not severe enough to warrant hospitalization 2 AntiPsychotic Drugs when people go nuts and go to the hospital they are often given Thorazine Drugs used to control psychotic episodes a Thorazine Chlorpromazine in 1950 s and 1960 s also Haldol 3 Antidepressant Drugs Prozac Zoloft Paxil all SSRl s also Elavil Effexor Wellbutrin Celexa and Lithium Carbonate drugs used to treat major depressive disorder These include the tricyclics MAOls and SSRls 4 Electro Convulsive Treatment ECT used to be called Shock Therapy was invented in 1938 by an Italian doctor is a biomedical intervention in which electrical current applied to the brain induces a convulsive seizure Used to treat depression originally called Last Resort Therapy and damages brain electricity may destroy some neuron and patient may suffer from memory loss a Come about to treat behavioral disorders b In the early 1930 s Lazlo Von Meduna noticed that hospitalized psychiatric patients often experienced a remission or lessening of their psychotic symptoms after undergoing a spontaneous seizure of the type that occurs in epilepsy i Started to experiment with different techniques for artificially inducing convulsions ii First experimented with intramuscular injections of camphor oil to elicit seizures iii The use of pharmacoconvulsive therapy druginduced seizures quickly gained a foothold as they tried to combat severe behavioral disorders 1 The side effects were painful preseizure spasms and uncontrollable convulsions c In the late 1930 s Ugo Cerletti and Lucino Bini 1938 used electric shock d By 1940 electroconvulsive therapy had become a major component e Early ECT sessions resembled a scene from a horror movie i Several modifications have been made to make it safer and more humane 1 Patients are first put to sleep and administered a powerful muscle relaxer 2 General anesthesia circumvents the terror many patients experienced in the early years of shock therapy f ECT today is for severely depressed patients who have not responded to antidepressant drugs or who cannot tolerate waiting for a slower drug to take effect i Antidepressant effects of ECT can be explained by operant conditioning a decrease in glucose metabolism in 2008 g Most recent alternative to ECT is to implant electrodes deep into brain structures and apply constant weak electrical stimulation to specific regions deep in the brain 5 Psychosurgery any surgery used to remove psychological problems a Takes tumor away to remove mental issues and may improve functioning a man in Texas had a tumor on the aggression side of the brain that made him insanely aggressive b Frontal Lobotomy if you have an impulse you can stop and control that impulse surgical procedure that severs the nerve tracts connecting the prefrontal cortex to lower brain areas that mediate emotional responses i Used primarily to control against dangerous aggression 6 Psychotherapeutic supposed to help us with psychological issues F Group Therapies 1 Group Therapies like alcohol anonymous works better than individual 1on1 therapies and is less expensive a It is sometimes more effective because 1 good ideas 2 good role models 3 less pressure on you to succeed 4 you re not alone G Miscellaneous Points 1 Deinstitutionalization we deinstitutionalize a patient when we let them go When psychotherapeutic drug therapies were invented they were improving and more hospitals were being built for this Why are we spending money institutionalizing them when we have drugs for them Closed major institutions called deinstitutionalized Let mental patients go and stabilize them Problem is that psychotics stopped taking medicine and went psycho again Now they are in jail a political and social issue since the drug therapies were invented in the 1950 s why do you need to put people in state paid institutions that were very expensive a Saying you no longer need to put people in mental hospitals and put them on drugs b In the 1960 s in every state they shut down the big state mental hospitals saying they didn t need them anymore i This proved to be wrong and most people that should be in mental hospitals are now in JAIL 1 This is called Lie of Deinstitutionalization TEST QUESTION on deinstitutionalization 2 Which approach is best every patient is different different types of therapy work differently depending on the issue 3 False Memory Syndrome 4 Other newspaper clippings H From the Book 1Psychotherapy any method of working with an individual to help reduce problems and improve functioning Freud made Talking Therapy Talking and listening Role playing switch roles may be psychotherapy lnterpret your dreams or what happened last night Let therapist interpret Medication Suggesting Positive Reinforcement Journal therapy can be very therapeutic 2 Psychoactive Drugs drugs that have the effect of altering perceptions and behavior by changing conscious awareness 3 Antipsychotic Drugs drugs used to treat psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia 4 Antimanic Drug drugs used to control the manic symptoms of bipolar disorder 20 questions about abnormal psych 20 questions about therapy Random division of subjects vs random selection of subjects sample to represent population need representative sample true experiment doesn t require this Same test twice consistency Two different tests criterion validity Interference retroactive vs proactive Normal curve line in middle is mean 34 14 2 Final Exam Review Sheet 0 Almost every question is from Lecture 2 from brook Hint one has something to do with Freud section not discussed in class could be on page 493 after each section better to read page 527 outline of chapter 3 The lnteractionist Approach to understanding mental disorders 3 Fritz Peris Gestalt Therapy 3 Deinstitutionalization of mentally ill patients 3 Characteristics of a normal distribution 3 The purpose of random division and random selection 2 different things 3 Independent and dependent variables in a true experiment 3 The Visual Association Cortex VAC and the Primary Visual Cortex PVC 3 Visual Agnosia is a general term Prosopagnosia is a very specific deficit mentioned in the text 3 Proactive vs Retroactive Interference 3 Validity vs Reliability in Psychometrics accurately measuring what intends to measure Reliable consistent 3 The various theories of intelligence and the names associated with them Thrustonen Gardner Spearman etc 3 Cognitive Dissonance Theory Festinger 12O study 3 Axis 12345 and which is which 3 Know which are anxiety disorders 3 Generalized anxiety disorder non specific anxiety that lasts 6 months 3 Behavioral therapies think about which are classical conditioning therapies and which are operant 3 Token economy is reward 3 Systematic desensitization need to read that section True vs Correlation Experiment advantages independent and dependent variable Random Sampling vs Random Division In a true experiment you must begin by using random sample to relate to population Randomly divide two or more groups manipulate independent and measure dependent When randomly dividing into two groups start with two equal groups By randomly dividing you can control extraneous variables We randomly sample in order to generalize results Piaget s accommodation and assimilation Know Intelligence Tests Arthur Jensen Binet Wexler and one more
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'