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TTU / History / HIST 2301 / derrick gholston

derrick gholston

derrick gholston

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School: Texas Tech University
Department: History
Course: History of the United States since 1877
Professor: Richard verrone
Term: Spring 2017
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Cost: 25
Name: HIST 2301 Week 7 notes
Description: These notes cover Exam 2
Uploaded: 07/16/2017
11 Pages 117 Views 0 Unlocks
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-Why did they enter recession?




-Why is mass culture important?




-Why is it called roaring 20s?



3/27 THE ROARING 20s (1919-1929) -Era of social and political change -Relationships change (gender, sex, race, etc.) -For most, the 1920s is full of conflict and tension -Why is it called roaring 20s? 1. Economy  -War throws economy into massive boom (jobs, production, factories,  etc) -The way they set of the treaty  -All of Europe is in trouble and borrow money from UDon't forget about the age old question of modify the normal style to have a font size of 10
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S -Reparations from war -Germany, France and England are all borrowing money from us -Nations total wealth doubles in the 20s -Second industrial revolution -First industrialization was geared towards steel (“hard  industry”). This one is geared towards consumer durables  (smaller items: phones, automobiles, etc) -Rise of chain grocery stores and department stores -Use assembly line to produce consumer goods more quickly and affordably  -Automobiles  -Increase in vehicle sales -1 car for every 5 people by end of 20s -Became a necessity instead of a luxury -Cost $264 in 1924 ($3700 in todays money) -Credit -Those who couldn’t afford cars start using credit -Think installment plans -Many couldn’t afford all these new things at once -Put some money down and paid off over ~year’s time -By end of decade consumer used credit (65% of car bought on  credit) -Stock market -Buying stock was modern and an easy way to get rich -Credit extended to stock market -Bought stock with money that didn’t actually exist -Stock market rose and everybody was confident in the stock  market 2. Mass culture -Most important decade for the formation of modern mass culture -Definition: Set of ideas and values that develop from exposure to  shared media, news, music, and art -Developed shared value system -Radio -Most popular consumer item-Their “TV” -$60 million in radio sales in 1920 -$426 million in 1929 -Importance: creates national culture -They all listen to the same music, national news, and  comedy shows  -Over 10 million radios  -Jazz age -Jazz is the only true American music (created here) -Movies -Become popular -Cheap  -Movie houses popular in poor communities -3/4 of US population went to movies every week -Movie house was called Nickelodeon -Importance: develops mass culture through the use of  celebrities  -Men and women imitate style and what they saw on the  movies -Helps with speech/slang -Why is mass culture important? -Mass culture develops a shared national identity -Can relate to people all over US -Feel like you have an American culture -Down side  -Radio programs/movies reiterate stereotype racial issues -Only given stereotypical accounts so if you don’t know/can’t  interact with the people of those “stereotypes” are your only  impression and knowledge of what these people are like  -Advertising -20s invents modern advertising  -Before 20s, basically announcing that a product exists -Magazine shift into persuading customers -Brand loyalty -Example: when Listerine is invented in 1880s, it was a general  antiseptic, in 1920s they come up with advertising  campaign. Advertisers invented Halitosis to use Listerine  as a cure. Went from $100,000 in sales in 1920 to over 4  million by mid 20s 3. Social changes -Shift in what people did for fun and how they understood each other -Before 20s, in “leisure” time they did homosocial leisure -Spend time with same sex -Men gambled and drank-Women drank tea and stayed in home  -20s see rise in heterosocial leisure -Also rise in youth culture/ adolescents -Gap b/w childhood and adulthood -More children are staying in school longer  -Commercial leisure -Dance halls, amusement parks, movies etc. -Dating changes -Youth culture begins “dating” -Before it was called “calling” -Men would go to house and sit in house with girl’s family -Many rules (appropriate timing, girl couldn’t “call” guy,  chaperoned etc) -As commercial amusement becomes popular chaperoning  still happens -Commercial amusement/leisure changes dating -Entertainment costs $ -Boy picks up girl and takes her places -Less family oriented -Rise of flappers -Dancing -Huge impact on culture -Before it was very structured and little touching (line dancing) -Waltz came about in the late 1900s, very scandalous  -In 20s, it changes influenced by AA and Jazz -Dances named after animals  -Lots of touching, hip movement, etc. -Seen as scandalous  -Charity girls and treating -New leisure cost money -Charity girls exchange “treating” for commercial amusement -Treating = sexual favors -These are women embracing their own sexuality, etc.  -Push for commercial amusement  -Amusement parks would push for heterosocial interaction -Hired people to tamper with couples  -Sex changes -Before 20s, Victorian era dominates our thoughts towards sex -Very conservative, self controlled, repression, etc.  -Control was important to success -Victorian’s argued that women lacked passion -Women are moral and spiritual beings-Always blame women for sexual encounters anyway  (tempturess) -Sigmund Freud -Argues that repression is bad -With the embrace of consumption, people should repress  their desire to shop or have sex -Early 1920s is women’s suffrage -Women can view themselves differently3/29 THE ROARING 20s  THE FLAPPER/ THE NEW WOMAN -After women’s suffrage -Rise of women going to speak easy’s -They smoke and drank (Usually only men could do this) -Even though it was the prohibition -Cut hair short -Dresses shorter and sleeveless  -Seeing any skin before was extremely scandalous  -Loose and flowing (no corsets) -Rebel against all things Victorian style -Makeup  -Before makeup meant harlot  -Slim/athletic build body type became popular -Less hesitant to experiment sexually -Dates, kiss several men, etc. -Importance: this is the physical embodiment of the changes in society -Not all women were doing this -Represents new found independence for women  -Less repressed culture -NOT A WHORE/HARLOT -“Petting” becomes a thing -Kids that are kissing -Scandalous that kids would express their sexuality like this in public -Women born after 1910, 68% admitted to having premarital sex -Acceptability of admitting to having sex **1920s is first sexual revolution HARLEM RENAISSANCE -Creating of thriving black culture -Successful black communities -Rise of black middle class (doctors/lawyers) -Jazz is majority black music -Changes is white superiority -“The New Negro” -Challenged that blacks should be confined to lowest class of society -Try to move north and mid west for work and job opportunities -Great migration (100 of thousands) creates racial tensions mostly over labor -If Negros tried to move in majority white neighborhood, they would be  denied -Demanded civil and political rights -Marcus Garvey -Jamaican immigrant -Argues that blacks shouldn’t integrate -Don’t want to be part of white culture-AA should create their own separate society -Spoke out against interracial couple -Similar to Malcolm X -Whites and youth culture embrace the new black culture -Slumming: whites go to black neighborhoods (upper middle class white kids) and go to bars/speak easies there to drink and dance -Beneficial because it encourages interracial mingling  -Somewhat patronizing because they go to see what being “poor” is  like -Does nothing to break down Jim Crow laws THE NOT-SO-ROARING 20s -1920s didn’t not “roar” for everyone -Always backlash against change -KKK -Moves out of south and becomes national organization -Rebirths in Georgia in 1915 -New KKK was equal opportunity hatter -Not just blacks -Catholics  -Supports traditional small town values -Supported prohibition -Go after kids who were “parking” (Park somewhere and make out) -Target dance halls and movie theatres -Tried to curve excessive behavior -Appealed to people because they weren’t being super violent -Violent when it comes to race -Increase in lynching **Direct response to changes in the society  -Backlash against crazy change in the 20s -Farm Crisis -Farming during WWI became HUGE -US was feeding most of Europe to keep countries from starving -While also feeding US -Many people left urban areas to start farms -By 1920s, demand had decreased (European economy had recovered) -Not as much demand for crops, but still producing same amount -Farmers lose money and can’t pay back loans -Local banks repossess property -Banks start to fail because farmers fail-Too many farms can’t pay back loans -1920s Red Scare -Red Scare: fear of communism in the US -Hear about it more in Cold war era (1950s) -Communism flag is red -In 1920 only ~150,000 communists/anarchist (.1% of total pop.) -Other things in the world making them scared of communism -Bolshevik Revolution (1917) -Communist group trying to overthrow Russian Czar -Brutally murder entire royal family -Communists are largely involved in labor movement/strikes -Almost always blamed fro anything that goes wrong at strikes -Passage of prohibition and women’s suffrage -In 1919, Anarchist begin bombing campaign  -A. Mitchel Palmer -Attorney Gen.  -Bomb his house  -Wrong guy to mess with -Take deeply personal -Institutes Palmer Raids: w/o warrant/warning he raids any  suspected leftist organization (communist/anarchist, etc) -Total of 6000 suspected leftist are incarcerated for no apparent  reason  -A lot of times incarcerated had no ties to anything other than  the fact that they had a foreign accent4/3 THE GREAT DEPRESSION -Impacts entire western world, especially those attached to the US  economically -Unemployment rose to 12-15 million workers (25-30% of working class) -Causes of depression -Not just stock market crash 1. Dust Bowl/Farm crisis (talked about Farm crisis previously) -Farmers produce too much because of WWI -European countries placed protective tariffs on US goods -Promote domestic buying to help their economy -Synthetic fibers (polyester) become more popular -Replace need for massive amounts of cotton -Dust bowl -Economic and culturally  -In Great Plains (Nebraska, Kansas, etc) -Partially because of nature (dusty but used to be grassy) -Partially because of humans (how we let cows graze and farming techniques) -Huge drought comes and temps sore -Air was so dry, static electricity so bad that if you shook  someone’s hand it would make them jump back -W/o rain, no way to water crop  -Dust storms (haboobs) were so bad that they destroyed  everything -Ranged from Midwest to DC  -Farmers couldn’t afford to harvest crop (afford labor to keep it  up) -Fields full of rotting crops -Debt kept rising, many evicted from land (couldn’t pay back  loans) -Land and tractors evicted -Can’t trade with European countries because of protective tariffs 2. Stock Market Crash -Symbolic thing of depression (not the only thing that caused it) -Summer of 1929, US enter routine recession (not big deal, part of  capitalistic cycle) -Why did they enter recession?  -Money from 1920s came from many places (consumer  spending)-Can only own so much (only need 1 vacuum, 1 Radio, etc) -Products begin to pile up, production slows, which causes no  product demand, which causes lay offs in factory -Before crash in Oct. many had already been laid off -Stock prices had tripled (more people borrow money to invest in  stock market) (most money invested in stock is borrowed) -Investors realize price of stock in over inflated (more than actual value) -Investors start to drop/sell stocks and get as much money as  they can because they realize how dangerous it could be -Oct 24, about 12 million stocks were being traded, selling at  whatever price they could get -Brokers asked those who bought stocks to put up the money  they borrowed  -If you invest in the market, you don’t actually have money on  hand (imaginary money)  -NO money to cover loans -Money in stock market was failing -Bankers meet and try and buy bulk stock to try to stabilize  market -Oct 29, Black Tuesday, Market crashes again, 16 million stocks  traded -By June 1932, stock loses $179 billion in value -This bankrupts millions and they lose everything they have -Most farmer on verge of losing or have lost farms -Investors loose everything -Upper middle class become -Crash exhasterbates already failing economy -Starts economic down fall  3. Banking -Little regulations on banking or stock markets during this time -Banks were invested in stocks too -They invested customers’ money in stocks to try and to make money -Didn’t tell customers money -Lose all money when market falls -Had huge loans to collect from customers who borrowed to invest in  market, farming, customer goods (cars, washing machine), etc.  -No body can pay off loans  -People panic when they realize banks invested and lost all their  money  -Banks don’t carry that much cash, so when people try and get money,  they don’t have enough to give customers when they come to collect their  money -Try and get people to pay off loans to pay the customers that come to  collect their money  -1 out of 2 banks close (11,000 out of 25,000)-By 1933 People who had money in banks lost ~$140 billion -How to deal with depression 1. Herbert Hoover (president during beginning of depression) -Came into office in 1929 (presidency basically starts with stock market crash) -Gets blames for how he dealt with depression -No one knew this would be completely different from all the other  depressions they’d had before -Hoover doesn’t believe in using Fed. Govt. to intervene in economic  issues -Tries to help economy in ways presidents before him had -Many believed that the economy was most successful when fed. Govt.  intervenes the least -This is the Laisezz faire attitude (little regulation/oversight) -All of his efforts are focused on indirect relief -Believed it was the responsibility of the States and private sector  (churches, charities, etc.) to relieve the effects of the depression  -Worked on projects to emphasize this -No welfare system -Welfare system (direct relief) would make hurt public moral -No one would want to work -Embarrassed by taking “hand outs” -Moral lowers -Hoovervilles -Shantytowns (tents, very poor, camps for homeless) -Blamed Hoover for not fixing economy fast enough -Hoover gets bad reputation because all of his techniques aren’t  working -Hoover-blankets (news papers used as blankets by homeless) -Western migration because people are traveling across country to try  and find jobs -Hoover flags: empty pockets pulled out to show no money -Hoover also does bad stuff for reputation too -Bonus Army incident -1932 -Group of veterans  -$1.25 for everyday you served over seas -$1 for everyday you served in US -Stipulation: the bonus would not be paid until 1945  -At least congress offered a bonus, right? -Then Depression happened  -Many victims of depression are veterans  -Veterans decide to march on DC and set up Hooverville down  the street to get money from this bonus promised -Waiting to hear is congress could pass Bill that would move up  date-Senate doesn’t pass bill (62-18) -Attorney Gen. orders evacuation from all govt. property -Veterans resist police -Shots are fired, kill 2 marchers  -Hoover orders army to clear out army (took it too far) -6 tanks come out (gen. Macarthur)  -Veterans think it’s a parade for their service until they pull out  fixed bayonets and guns  -Hoover realizes this will not go well and command Macarthur to  seize -10,000 inhabitants are kicked out of camps and camps are in  flames by the time the army is done with them -Hospitals overwhelmed with injured/dead -Hoover tries to blame Macarthur but everyone still blames  Hoover -Hoover pretty much hated by everyone at this point -Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act -High tariff on foreign goods to keep them from competing with  US made products on the domestic market  -Other countries get mad and raise their tariffs too -Hampers international trade (almost stand still) -B/w ’29 and ’32, trade decreases by half

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