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Study Guide for exams 1, 2, and 3

by: Hannah M

Study Guide for exams 1, 2, and 3 BIOL 122

Marketplace > Western Kentucky University > Biology > BIOL 122 > Study Guide for exams 1 2 and 3
Hannah M
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Steve Huskey

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Dr. Huskey's lecture notes from the Power Point as well as discussion points throughout class periods
Steve Huskey
Study Guide
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah M on Monday August 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 122 at Western Kentucky University taught by Steve Huskey in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see BIOL CONC EVOL DIV ECOL in Biology at Western Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 08/10/15
Hannah Mueller Biology 122 Dr Huskey Mueller 1 Exam 1 Early Development and Evolution of Life Biology the study of life how life began how it is changing and how it has changed relative to the environment Nothing can be considered signi cant without LIVING organisms to encounter interpret and adapt to their surroundings Earth formed about 46 billion years ago and life rst evolved as simple self replicating molecules about 385 billion years ago Chemicals required for life CHON Chemical evolution explains how complex carbon containing compounds and eventually life likely formed from simpler molecules Radiometric dating used to estimate the age of earth and when life rst appeared The radiometric isotopes have unstable nuclei that emit radiation energy to form new daughter isotopes radioactive decay 1st evidence of life specks of 12C are found in fossils 385 bya which organisms prefer to take in from their surroundings Where did life come from What does it take for life to form 0 O O Formaldehyde H2CO and Hydrogen cyanide HCN are the raw materials of chemical evolution High temperatures and high concentrations cause more reactant collisions and faster reaction rates Chemical Evolution Theory states that all evidence supports that the elements H2CO and HCN and high temperatures energy solar energy to chemical energy levels lead to life 4 steps of chemical evolution 1 Production of small molecules containing reduced carbon which are capable of and tend to bond 2 Creation of Prebiotic Soup of amino acids sugars and nitrogenous bases aka the critical stuff for life 3 Linkage of these organic subunits to make the large organic molecules important in cells today after which the SPARK OF LIFE occurs 4 Evolution of a selfreplicating molecule REPRODUCTION Heating up of C0 C02 H2 NH3 H20 and N2 in the oceans speeds up reactions forming complex molecules containing carboncarbon compounds 0 Stanley Miller created an experiment to test whether the rst stages of the chemical evolution would have occurred on ancient earth mimicking the conditions of earth at that time He combines water and heat and atmospheric gasses and introduces a spark of electricity and gets results He nds Formaldehyde hydrogen cyanide and complex carbon compounds including amino acids which are essential to life Life is based on water because water is a great solvent Mueller 2 0 Small size polar bent shape expands and loses density as it freezes crystal lattice structure large capacity for absorbing heat and light 0 Water is an excellent buffer against light heat and other harsh elements of the environment 0 Protein structure and function 0 All organisms have proteins built form a combination of only 20 different amino acids Cell Theory all organisms are made of cells and all cells come from preexisting cells 0 Robert Hooke rst to view cells under a microscope observes that cork cells look like jail cells and thus coins the term1665 0 Anton van Leeuwenhoek rst to view a single celled quotanimalculequot when looking at pond water under a microscope Louis Pasteur proved cells arise from cells and not spontaneous generation QUestio39n Defoequot arise spontaneously drytro tother cells Spontaneous lgenemtion Hypothesis Cellls arise spontaneously from nonliving materials Allicelllsfromcellls hypothesis Cells are produced enlly when preexisting cell39s grew and divide in Pasteur experiment with straightnecked Ir Pasteur experiment with Swannecked hilt 39 1 Plate nutrient brnth in 1 Place nutrient broth in v R straightnecked flask quotx I 3 swannecked ask in m Water traper I 2 Basil to sterilize the ESCE PES 2o 50 l0 Steiiiii the 39 flask killing any living quot29 35k 39kllillnlg a WINE J 5 Water vapor 39 cells that iwere in the cells that were In the escapes broth 39 I broth ll 7 I V 39 39I w 39 i Cain ulen satl on L settles in neck Cells 1 l3 Preexisting celllls Cells quotIquot 3 Preexisting celllls enter ask from air l j 239 from air are trapped 3 in swan neck 1 J Predictien of spontaneous generation Eradictiion ell spontaneous generation hypothesis Cells willl appear in broth hypothesis Cells wille ppear in hr39eth Predictieln at ullcells thmcells hypelhesis Eradictiuin at ullleellstmrncallls hypethesis Cells will appear in broth Cells will not appear in truth Results Broth fills with cells Broth remains sterile quot 1 7 A K 39 quot 39 39Spentane39utrs generation 3 39 he e t lip0 V hrpdtliem rejected Centllusiqn Cellsa rise 39only from preexisting cells not 39 j 39 j 39 quot Figure 39llZ Biological Science lie 3989 2005 Pearson Prentic Halli lll39lc Because cells come from preexisting cells all cells descend from a single ancestral cell and this allows us to look at the level of relatedness between organisms who share a common ancestor Tree of Life illustrates that all species are descended from a single common ancestor at the root of a family tree of all organisms o Parsimony hypothesis the simplest answer makes the most sense when dealing with complex issues Occam s razor o the path that requires the least amount of complexity reinforcing nature s balance of energy 0 in terms of evolution It has neither direction nor purpose organisms are not designed in advance It is entirely contingent butter y effect It is continuous and continuing Extant organisms have made it through the tests of nature They are evolutionary experiments with functional properties that have resulted from past conditions Linnaean Taxonomy each organism is given a unique twopart Latin scienti c name consisting of genus and species binomial nomenclature Mueller 3 Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species o Kingdoms Monera prokaryotes Protista several unicellular eukaryotes Plantae Fungi Animalia quotCharacter of Commonalityquot o Prokaryotic lack of nuclear wall Eukaryotic true nucleus Unicellular made of one cell Multicellular made of 2 cells Autotrophic makes its own food Heterotrophic gets food elsewhere Saprophytic eats decaying matter Carl Woese studied small subunit rRNA in order to understand the evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms Closely related species should have rRNA sequences that are more similar than those from distantly related species because they share a more recent common ancestor A small subunit rRNA can be used to produce a phylogenetic tree showing probable evolutionary relationships 0 The tree of life indicates three major groups of organisms Eukaryotes Bacteria and Archaea Woese proposed a new taxonomic level domain o The tree of life is a work in progress Other tools for relatedness among groups 0 Vertebrates tools for the eld not always accurate Development do they undergo the same order and type of cellular division during development Embryology all have shlike larval stage with gills and tail Biochemistry all share certain segments of similar DNA enzymes and cellular processes Morphology homology between groups such as forelimbs in all mammals OOOOOO Phyogeny the evolutionary history of a group or organisms A Phylogenetic tree shows ancestordescendant relationships among evolutionary groups Fossils physical evidence left by organisms from the past Sister taxa species that are closely relates and have just recently diverged from a common ancestor Root the most ancestral organism Branch represents populations Nodes show where ancestral groups split into descendant groups Polytomy a node where more than two descendant groups branch off Divergence the causation of the split of species evolution The Phenetic Approach computes a statistic that summarizes the overall similarity among populations based on the data It compares the similarities among populations and builds a tree that clusters the most similar populations and places divergent populations on more distant branches The cluster analysis looks at the similarities between sister taxa Cladistic Approach focuses in Synapomorphies shared derived characteristics of the species under study Can run into dif culties in cases of Convergent Evolution Mueller 4 c When completely different species converge on the same ecologic niche An example would be the fact that insects birds pterodactyls and bats all have wings even though they are not closely related 0 Using the fossil record it is the only source of direct evidence about what prehistoric organisms looked like where they lived and when they existed to teach us about the past Intact fossil when substances are preserved intact because no decomposition occurred Compression Fossil a trapping of organic material in a carbonrich lm Cast Fossil when whole matter decomposes but leaves a hole that lled with dissolved minerals faithfully creating a cast of the original Premineralized fossil minerals replace the soft tissue of the tree and turn into rock Paleontologists scientists who study fossils but they are faced with limitations and bias They need evidence Protuberance on bones can help identify where muscles might be and using biomechanics we can gure out how they move 0 Cambrian Explosion of life a rapid explosion of diverse life about 540 Million years ago Doushantuo Microfossils researchers identi ed sponges cyanobacteria and multicellular algae in samples dated 570580 Mya They also found what they concluded were animal embryos in the early stages Ediacaran Faunas sponges jelly sh comb jellies and traces of other animals dated 544565 Ma are found in these Australian deposits This may be lst vertebrates Burgess Shale evidence of diverse large animals with hard parts There was evidence of predators and prey thus driving evolution and survival of the most well adapted o Speciation the formation of new species that occurs when populations of the same species become genetically isolated by lack of gene ow and then diverge from each other due to selection genetic drift or mutation especially in different environments Populations can be recognized as distinct species if they are reproductively isolated from each other if they have distinct morphological characteristics or if they form independent branches of the phylogenetic tree Species a distinct type of organism formally de ned as an evolutionarily independent population or group of populations Lack of gene ow leads to genetic divergence Biological Species Concept considers populations to be evolutionarily independent if they are reproductively isolated from each other no gene ow Prezygotic isolation occurs when individuals from different popul are unable to mate 0 Temporal breed at different times 0 Habitat they breed in different habitats o Behavioral their courtship displays differ Gametic Behavior egg and sperm are incompatible 0 Mechanical male and female genitalia are incompatible Postzygotic isolation occurs when individuals from different populations can breed but the offspring produced have low biological tness 0 Hybrid viability offspring do not develop normally and die as embryo 0 Hybrid sterility offspring mature but are sterile as adults Mueller 5 The concept of reproductive isolation can only be applies to populs that overlap geographically Morphospecies Concept when evolutionary independence is estimated by looking at population morphology because different appearances evolve when populations experience different natural selection and gene ow is restricted Phylogenetic Species Concept here s where the money is It looks at the DNA of species to precisely and accurately determine the relatedness of populations 0 Phylogenetics shows exactly how species are related by looking at mutations so it is the most accurate but it is time consuming costly and relatively new Subspecies can be seen in the overhang between variations on a species They all belong to the same species but they have distinct traits It is natural selection in action Vicariance the physical separation of a population which keeps the two groups from mating o Allopatric speciation a result of vicariance when populations live in different areas and are exposed to different environments and are subject to different ecological pressures thus changing the genetics of both populations NATURAL SELECTION WORKS ON THE INDIVIDUAL evolution works on the population 0 Biogeography the study of how species and populations are organized geographically Continental Drift movement of continental plates explained by the theory of plate techtonics o Sympatric speciation occurs when separate populationsspecies live in the same geographical regions Prezygotic barrier if a population diverges and the divergence affected the details of mating they will no longer mate when reintroduced Postzygotic barrier sometimes individuals who are from diverged populations do successfully mate but the offspring are aborted die young or survive but are sterile Reinforcement The Process of Evolution 0 MicroEvolution when selective pressures are placed on an organism and they either adapt or perish This happens on a time scale that we can appreciate Ex microbial resistance to drugs insect resistance to pesticides cancer in humans 0 MacroEvolution as evident in Evolution by Natural selection Jointly proposed by Hcarles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in 1858 Darwin described evolution as descent with modi cation meaning that change over time produced modern species from ancestral species Evidence Fossils traces of organisms that lived in the past The fossils that have been found and described in scienti c literature make up the fossil record We gather as much information as we can to ll in the gaps of information 0 Darwin interpreted extinction as evidence that species are dynamic and can change 0 Law of Succession means that extinct fossils are typically succeeded by similar species in the same region Darwin interpreted this pattern as Mueller 6 evidence that extinct forms are the ancestors of modern forms and that species change over time What is the reason for change Earth s conditions shift drastically over time Populations must adapt to all existing environmental stressors competitions predation and climate or perish The individuals who don t survive can t mate so they don t pass of the bad traits to offspring Homologies similarities due to common descent DIVERGENT 0 Structural Homology similarity of morphological traits Darwin interpreted it as a product of descent from a common ancestor with modi cation 0 Developmental Homology similarity in embryo morphology tissue differentiation 0 Genetic Homolgy similarity in DNA sequences of genes from different species which leads to structural and developmental homologies genotype determines phenotype o Vestigial Traits are functionless structures that are similar to functioning structures in related species They are evidence that trait structure and function change over time 0 Human coccyx used to be our tail 0 Goosebumps Vestigial or not 0 Homoplasy similar traits not inherited from common ancestor CONVERGENT o Darwinism and the Pattern components of Evolution 0 Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection states that species are related and change through time A population experiences Natural Selection whenever the following conditions apply 1 Individuals vary in their traits 2 Some of these variations are heritable 3 Some individuals survive and reproduce better than other individuals 4 Differential survival and reproduction Darwinian Fitness or Biological Fitness is in uenced by the heritable traits of the individuals Although Natural selection seems simple research shows that it is often misunderstood 1 Selection acts on Individuals but Evolutionary change occurs in populations 2 Evolution is not progressive there is no end goal in mind Lamarckian 3 Not all traits are Adaptive Evolutionary Process 0 Population a group of individuals from the same species that live and breed together 0 The four mechanisms that cause evolution are 1 Natural Selection occurs when individuals with certain heritable phenotypes survive and reproduce better than others The alleles responsible for the increased reproduction then increase in frequency 0 Heterozygote advantage a pattern of natural selection in which heterozygous individuals have higher tness than homozygous inidiv 0 Genetic Variation maintained by natural selection Mueller 7 4 Directional Selection occurs when natural selection increases the frequency of one allele reducing genetic diversity over time o Stabilizing Selection occurs when individuals with intermediate traits reproduce more than other thereby maintaining intermediate phenotypes in a population 0 Disruptive Selection opposite of stabilizing selection maintains genetic variation but does not change the mean value of a trait i Causes Speciation the formation of new species 0 Sexual Selection selection for the enhanced ability to attract mates and is a form of natural selection i Fundamental Asymmetry of Sex females usually invest more in their offspring than males do ii Sexual Dimorphism when males have distinguishable differences from the females in a species 2 Genetic Drift a change in allele frequencies due to chance causing allele frequencies to drift up and down randomly over time and it can lead to the random loss or xation of alleles o Founder effect when a group leaves a population emigrates to a new area and starts a new population there is only a small sample of alleles thus affecting gene pool Isolation is key 0 Population Bottleneck a sudden decrease in population size casuses limited variation and a sudden reduction in the number of alleles in a population Genetic Bottleneck 3 Gene Flow the movement of alleles from one population to another which occurs whenever individuals leave one population join another and reproduce It reduces genetic differences between the source and recipient populations Gene ow can increase or decrease average tness of individuals 4 Mutation restores genetic diversity and creates new alleles Because error is inevitable mutation is always adding new alleles into populations TABLE 244 A Summary of Evolutionary Mechanisms Process Definition and Notes Effect on Genetic Variation Effect on Average Fitness Selection Certain alleles are favored Can lead to maintenance increase Can produce adaptation or reduction Genetic drift Random changes in allele frequencies Tends to reduce via loss or fixation Usually reduces most important in small populations of alleles Gene flow Movement of alleles between May increase by introducing new May increase by introducing high populations reduces differences alleles may decrease by removing alleles or decrease by introducin between populations alleles lowfitness alleles Mutation Production of new alleles Increases by introducing new Random with respect to fitness n alleles mutations lower fitness Table 2441 Biological Science Zia 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc 4 Organelles divide a Large cell into compartments divide a large cell into compartments which allows for organization and compartmentalization Mueller 8 o Endosymbiosis Theory proposes that mitochondria originated when a bacterial cell took up residence inside a eukaryote about 2 billion years ago The theory also contends that chloroplasts originated this way Mitochondria amp chloroplasts are about the size of an average bacterium Both organelles replicate by ssion as do bacteria and have their own ribosomes to manufacture their own proteins Both organelles have a double membrane which allows for engul ng Mitochondria and chloroplasts have genes that code for the enzymes needed to replicate and transcribe their own genomes Mitochondrial gene sequences are undeniably similar to the sequences for bacteria indicating that the mitochondrial genome came from a bacterium rather than a eukaryote Mueller 1 Hannah Mueller Biology 122H Dr Huskey Unit 2 Study Guide Bacteria and Archaea Most of the microbes microscopic organisms are bacteria or archaea and virtually all are unnamed and undescribed o Biologists estimate the total number of bacteria and archaea alive today at 5 x 1030 o Bacteria prokaryotic cell walls are made of peptidoglycan have plasma membranes similar to eukaryotes distinct ribosomes and RNA polymerase Some can be pathogenic 0 Were the rst to diverge from the common ancestor of all living organisms o Archaea prokaryotic and unicellular They have cell walls made of polysaccharides unique plasma membranes and ribosomes and RNA polymerase similar to those of eukaryotes No known pathogens 0 Infectious Disease one spread by being passed from an infected individual to an uninfected individual Koch39s Postulates are used to con rm a causative link between a speci c infectious disease and an infectious microbe o Became the basis for the Germ Theory for Disease says infectious diseases are caused by bacteria and viruses 1 Microbe must be present in diseased individuals and absent from healthy individuals 2 Organism must be isolated and grown in a pure culture away from host organism 3 Injection of organisms from the pure culture into a healthy experimental animal should result in disease 4 Organism should be isolated from diseased experimental animal again grown in pure culture and demonstrated by size shape and color to be same as original organism o Antibiotics molecules that kill bacteria Their widespread use has led to resistance 0 Extremophiles bacteria or archaea that live in high salt high temp low temps or high pressure habitats Water temps favorable to extremophiles range from 300 C to 5 C o Crenarchaeota are the only lifeforms present in certain extreme environments such as high pressure very hot very cold or very acidic environments 0 Euryarcharota live in every conceivable habitat including high salt acidic environments 0 Astrobiologists are using extremophiles as model organisms in search for ET life Mueller 2 The Oxygen Revolution 0 Cyanobacteria photosynthetic bacteria the rst organisms to perform oxygen producing photosynthesis oxygenic photosynthesis were responsible for a change in Earth39s atmosphere which was now dominated by nitrogen gas and oxygen 0 Once oxygen was common in the oceans aerobic respiration became possible All bacteria and archaea are haploid and reproduce by ssion the splitting of a cell into two daughter cells Bacterial cells can transfer copies of plasmids or extracellular loops of DNA 0 Conjugation a copy of a plasmid and potentially one or more genes from the main bacterial chromosome moves from one cell to a recipient cell 0 Conjugation tube forms between the cells that are transferring and receiving a plasmid a morphological trait unique to bacteria and archaea Metabolic Diversity bacteria and archaea produce ATP in three ways 1 Phototrophs can use light energy to produce ATP by CR 2 Organotrophs oxidize organic molecules ATP is produced by CR or fermentation 3 Lithotrophs oxidize inorganic molecules ATP is produced by CR with the inorganic compound serving as the Electron donor 4 Autotrophs manufacture their own carboncontaining compounds and 39 5 Heterotrophs live by consuming them Fermentation a strategy for making ATP without using ETCs Through Photosynthesis phototrophs can use the energy in light to synthesize ATP 0 Methanotrophs use methane as their primary electron donor and carbon source Protista A diverse group of organisms that includes a hodgepodge of eukaryotic organisms Why do we study them They pause a human health risk Malaria is caused by Plasmodium o Harmful Algal blooms occur when toxinproducing protists reach high densities in a particular area The algae take up all of the nutrients oxygen and supply of light necessary for photosynthesis Algal blooms of dino agellates are known as Red Tides they live at the surface so they can only re ect red wave length Primary Producers species that produce chemical energy by photosynthesis 0 Ex diatoms are photosynthetic protists abundant produce organic molecules 0 The foundation of energy of food webs a representation of how energy is passed through systems usually no more than 7 steps Mueller 3 Plankton small organisms that live near the surface of oceans or lakes and drift along or swim only short distances Phytoplankton are a photosynthetic species of plankton are the basis of food webs in freshwater and marine environments Protists in the ocean play a key role in the Global Carbon Cycle and act as a carbon sink a long lived carbon reservoir that could help reduce global warming 0 The current phylogenetic tree con rms that the lineages grouped under the name Protist are Paraphyletic they do not constitute all the descendants of a single common ancestor Morphological Diversi cation let to compartmentalization 0 As organisms grew in size and volume out paces surface areas and the system becomes inef cient Solution organelles divide a large cell into compartments 0 Some protists are large enough to surround and ingest other protists through engulfment phagocytosis by pseudopodia long ngerlike projections 0 Some species Suspension Feeders use ciliary currents sweep food into their mouths o Other species directly take up nutrients directly from the environment Absorptive feeders Decomposers feed on dead organic matter from which they extract nutrients Parasites live inside other organisms and absorb their nutrition directly from the environment inside of their host 0 Secondary endosymbiosis occurs when photosynthetic protists obtain their chloroplasts by eating other photosynthetic protists Photosynthesis is a great and useful commodity Movement 0 Cell crawling sliding movement accomplished by streaming of pseudopodia false feet 0 Flagella and cilia are the other major modes of locomotion Reproduction Sexual reproduction causes to the mixing of gene material leading to variation Plantae Green algae have traditionally been considered protists but we study them because 0 They are the closest living relatives to land plants and The green algal group called Charales is the sister group to land plants 0 The transition from water to land occurred when plants evolved from green algae Bene ts more wavelengths of light available limited competition in the new niche and no predators Effect on the Ecosystem plants produce oxygen via photosynthesis build soil by providing food for decomposers hold and prevent nutrients from being lost by wind and water erosion hold water and moderate the local climate Mueller 4 0 Plants had to adapt to conditions in which only a portion of their tissues were bathed in uid Firstly they had to prevent water loss from the cells and also transport water from tissues with access to water to tissues without access The solutions 0 the Cuticle is a waxy hydrophobic water tight sealant that gives plants the ability to survive in dry environments by keeping the water in the plant tissue 0 the Stomata which has a pore that opens and closes allows for gas exchange quotwater balloonsquot can in ate or de ate when needed 0 Vascular Tissue allows for structural support and the movement of water through plants 0 The evolution of pollen of the seed eliminated the plant39s need for water for fertilization o The embryo is encased in nutritive tissue containing glucose and a protective coat 0 The success of the angiosperm resolves around the evolution of the ower 0 This led to an adaptive radiation or when a single lineage produces a large number of descendant species that are adapted to a wide variety of habitats The diversi cation is associated with three key adaptations all are about the seed Vessels root system and shoot system Flowers Fruits Plant Cells and Tissues o Plasmodesmata the structures that connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells 0 Dermal tissue a single layer of cells that covers the plant body protects the leaves and reduces water loss It also forms the rst line of defense against pathogens 0 Ground tissue makes up the bulk of the plant body and is the primary location of photosynthesis and carbohydrate storage 0 Vascular Tissue specialized for water and nutrient support Xylem conducts water and dissolved ions from the root system to the shoot system The Phloem conducts sugar water amino acids chemical agents and other substances throughout the plant body It contains sievetube members long thin cells that have perforated ends call sieve plates and companion cells which contain organelles and provide materials to maintain the cytoplasm of the sievetube members Tracheids spindle shaped have pits or interruptions in the secondary cell wall Vessel elements are short and wide and have perforations or openings through both primary and secondary cell walls 0 Plant growth 0 Intermediate Growth occurs in meristematic tissues and is the result of cell enlargement and the production of new cells by mitosis and cytokinesis Plants never reach maximum height Mueller 5 o Apical Meristems at the tips of roots and shoots are involved in primary growth growth in length Lateral Meristems increase the width of the stem or trunk during secondary growth growth in width Primary growth in root system there are three zones behind root cap a group of protective cells that covers the young vulnerable growing region of root 0 Root cap cells synthesize and secrete a slimy substance called mucigel which helps lubricate the root tip Water Potential and CelltoCell movement 0 Evapotranspiration water loss via evaporation occurs when Stomata are open and The air surrounding leaves is drier than the air outside 0 Water potential gradient when water moves upward between the roots and shoots to replace the water lost to transpiration Water can also travel by Capillarity movement of water up a narrow tube 0 In response to surface tension pull that exists at an air water interface Adhesion attraction of unlike molecules water sticks to hydrophilic Cohesion a mutual attraction among like molecules 0 Translocation the movement of sugars through a plant from sources to sink Source a tissue where sugar enters the phloem green Sink a tissue where sugar exits the phloem not green 0 Limiting nutrients macronutrients that commonly act as limits on plant growth N P K o Epiphytes plants that are adapted to grow in the absence of soil 0 Phototropism any directed movement by an organism toward light Statolith Hypothesis says that a molecule located in root cap cells acts as a pressure receptor It holds that amyloplasts dense starchstoring organelles are primary gravity sensors in plants Plant hormones o Auxin phototropism caused by elongation of cells leads to bending toward light 0 Cytokinin a group of plant hormones that promote cell division 0 Gibberellic acid promotes cell elongation rates of cell division in roots and shoots 0 ABA closes guard cells causes plant dormancy in fall 0 Ethylene strong association with fading and falling off Plant Reproduction o Angiosperms owering plants reproduce by sexual reproduction most 0 Perfect owers owers containing both male and female parts Monoecious male and female come from same source 0 Imperfect owers owers that contain either male or female parts Mueller 6 Dioecious an adaptation that eliminates selffertilization o Outcrossing when male and female gametes are exchanged between individuals 0 Pollination the transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma Land plants K 5quot own 9 g 2 65 J 9 1c go 9 e 06 to e 46 50 s 25 9 so 6 029 9 is all 69 0quotquot 392 o q 6 90 639quot 6 9 dab g9 33 0 5 0 3 09 st W 390 go A o v l vessels 1 39 Vessels Vessels evolved 13quot Tracheids more than once en Roots Vascular tissue tomth Pores Cuticle eg I 39 Sporopollenin encased spares or 1ygotes Basic parts of a flower quot Most key innovations for living on land evolved only once l Anther Stamen Filament Carpeli1 Style lt s l 51 quotI ll 39 Petal 39Sepal Receptacle Figure 40 Biological Sciencej Zfe 2005 Pearson Prentice lHalll Inc Animalia Mueller 1 Hannah Mueller Biology 122H Dr Huskey Unit 3 SG Fungi The master traders and recyclers in terrestrial ecosystems that have ecological commercial and hallucinogenic impacts Fungi that absorb nutrients from dead organisms are the world39s most important decomposers o Mutualists vast majority of fungi live with other organisms bene t their host Mycorrhizal associates between fungi and roots of land plants allow faster plant growth by helping the plant in the uptake of nitrogen Fungi speed the Carbon Cycle on land 0 Saprophytes make their living by digesting dead plant material heterotrophic 0 decrease in saprophytic fungi was responsible for buildup of dead plant material 0 Carbon Cycle Fixation of carbon by land plants Release of carbon dioxide from plants animals and fungi as a result of CR About 8000 species of fungi have been described and named Morphological traits 0 Single celled yeasts o Multicellular lamentous forms with web like bodies mycelia The laments that make up the mycelium are the hyphae and most are haploid Each lament is separated into celllike compartments called septa Hyphae allows for body to have a high surface area to volume ratio which makes absorption extremely ef cient but also makes fungi prone to drying out Fungi are categorized by their reproductive structures 0 Chytridiomycota live primarily in water and have spores and gametes with ageHa have enzymes that digest cellulose o zygomycota have haloid hyphae of different mating types hyphae of different mating types are yoked together and form a spore producing structure zygosporangium this yoking leads to a lot of variety 0 Basidiomycota club fungi have basidia that form at the ends of hyphae and produce spores Examples include mushrooms bracket fungi and puffballs Mueller 2 o Ascomycota sac fungi produce complex reproductive structures tips of the hyphae inside these structures produce distinctive saclike cells that generate spores asci Penicillium Aspergillus Truf es and morels lichens Nonlichen forming ascomycetes have cupped reproductive structure ascocarp some ascomycetes grow with cyanobacteria photosynthetic to form Hchens Fungi are more closely related to animals than to land plants Most animals and fungi synthesize chitin a tough structural material that composes the cell wall They both store food by synthesizing glycogen a polysaccharide that plants use to store food as amyose Fungi secrete enzymes for extracellular digestion such as Lignin peroxidase an enzyme that catalyzes the removal of an electron from an atom in the lignin molecule leading to the splitting of polymers into smaller units 0 They also secrete cellulases cleaving long strands of cellulose into a disaccharide Animals 0 Form function and adaptation O O Morphology attempts to nd the link between design and utility Adaptive Evolution occurs when the frequency of alleles subject to natural selection increases and the resulting changes lead to a higher average tness Trade off an inescapable compromise between traits which may involve expenditures of time or energy Adaptation a genetic change that occurs over many generations in response to natural selection in a population Acclimation a phenotypic change that occurs in an individual in response to a short term change in environmental conditions lsometric qualities that change at the same rate Allometry describes disproportionate changes in anatomical structures or physiological processes with changes in body size Homeostasis the maintenance of relativity constant chemical and physical conditions in an animal39s cells tissues and organs 0 O Conformational homeostasis occurs by conformation to the external environment why organisms live in environment to which they are best suited Regulatory Homeostasis requires a physiological mechanism that adjusts the internal state to keep it near a speci c value or within limits Homeostasis of heat An endotherm produces heat in its own tissue an ectotherm relies on heat gained from the environment Homeotherms keep their body temp constant mammals and birds and heterotherms experience changes in body temp O Mueller 3 To survive when temperatures are cold some organisms reduce their metabolic rate and allow their body temperature to drop torpor but If this persists for weeks or months then it39s called hibernation Electrolyte a compound that dissociates into ions when dissolved in water Jellies and sponges maintain electrolyte balance v easily osmoconformers Osmoregulators marine sh they regulate osmolarity inside their bodies Fish39s chlorite cells lter out salt allowing only water to enter the body Sharks39 rectal glands secrete a concentrated salt solution The kidney is the organ responsible for regulating water and electrolyte balance Animal Nutrition 0 0 Nutrient substance an organism needs to live Food any material containing nutrients Animals are heterotrophs obtain energy from other organisms Chichlids a single ancestral population diversi es into many species endemic Ruminants have a complex stomach that specialized for digesting cellulose because of a combo of specialized enzymes and symbiotic relationships with bacteria and unicellular protists cows Gas exchange involves ventilation movement of airwater through the lungsgills circulation transportation of dissolved gases throughout circulatory system and respiration the exchange of 02 and C02 between cells and the blood as mitochondria use 02 and C02 0 O Gills the outgrowth of the body surface used for gas exchange in aquatic animals External gills are in direct contact with the water 0 Movement of water over the gills is unidirectional Long thin structures gill laments extend from each gill arch Gill laments are composed of thousands of gill lamellae through which a bed of capillaries run 0 This ow of blood is called the countercurrent exchange for which the goal is to extract as much 02 as possible The lungs are infoldings of throat or body surface that are used for gas exchange Mammalian lungs are divided into tiny sacs alveoli increase surface area The downward muscle of the diaphragm lowers the negative pressure in the chest cavity by increasing the cavity39s volume allowing humans to breathe A bird39s trachea bypasses the lungs and branch into tiny airways parabronchi The Avian ventilatory system is extremely ef cient at updating 02 with high metabolism because birds exchange gases during both inhalation and exhalation Mueller 4 0 Blood circulates through the bird lung in capillaries that cross the parabronchi perpendicularly which is extremely ef cient The Circulatory System 0 The most sophisticated systems consists of pumps heart The atrium receives the blood returning from circulation and the ventricle generates force to propel the blood through the system Right ventricle pushes blood to lungs and back to heart in pulmonary circulation the left ventricle pumps blood to the entire body and back in systemic circulation Cardiac Cycle SystoleThe contraction phase of the atria and ventricles Diastole relaxation of the atria and ventricles o Tough thick walled arteries vessels that take blood away from the heart under high pressure Small capillaries are vessels whose walls are just one cell thick allowing the exchange of gases and other molecules with tissues in networks capillary beds Veins are vessels that return blood to the heart under low pressure Open Circulatory System hemolymph a blood like tissue that transports wastes and nutrients in most invertebrates is actively pumped throughout the body but is not con ned exclusively to blood vessels so the overall pressure in the system is low Closed Circulatory System blood is completely contained within blood vessels and ows in a continuous circuit through the body under pressure generated by heart They are usually found in large and active organisms ElectrochemicalSystem O Neuronselectrical signals conducted by nerve cells based on the flow of ions across plasma membranes Sensory Neurons receives information from the environment Nerves are long tough strands of nervous tissue containing thousands of neurons Central Nervous Systemmade up of the brain and spinal cord integrates information from many sensory neurons in the Peripheral nervous system lnterneurons in the CNS make connections between sensory neurons and motor neurons A Dendrite receives electrical signals from the axons of adjacent cells The cell body integrates the incoming signals and generates an outgoing signal in the axon Neurotransmitters convey electrical signals from neuron to neuron or from neuron to target cell The synapse is the gap between the neurons Just inside the synapse the axon contains the synaptic vesicles that serve as storage sites for neurotransmitters The Anatomic Nervous system is composed of the Parasympathetic rest and digest and Sympathetic ght or ight systems Chemical signals Mueller 5 Hormone a chemical signal that circulates through he blood or other body uids Endocrine system responsible for the production and secretion of hormones Pheromone a small molecule that acts as a signal between individuals and causes a change in physiology or behavior Sensory Systems 0 Nociceptors sense pain Thermoreceptors detect changes in temp mechanoreceptors respond to distortion caused by touch or pressure Chemoreceptors perceive speci c molecules or classes of molecules photoreceptors respond to particular wavelengths of light within the visible spectrum electroreceptors detect electrical elds proprioceptors detect orientation of skeletal elements body position 0 Hearing the ability to sense sound consists of waves of pressure in air or water Hair cells are located on sensing organs at one end of cell They have stiff outgrowths called stereocilia microvilli reinforced by actin and kinocilium true cilium that contains a 92 arrangement of microtubules are moved by vibrations Elephants use infrasounds sound frequencies too low for humans to hear to communicate over far distances Bats use ultrasonic too high for us to hear to echolocate navigate by sound 0 Primary Vision lnsects have a compound eye composed of hundreds of light sensing columns ommatidia and vertebrates have a camera eye a structure that focuses incoming light onto a layer of receptor cells Vertebrate eyes Sclera the outermost layer of the eye tough white tissue 0 Cornea front of the sclera o lris colored round muscle inside the cornea Pupil hole in the center of the iris Retina a thin layer of photoreceptors and several layers of neurons Optic nerve converts the image into chemical and nervous signals Rods are very sensitive to dim light but not to colors Cones are much less sensitive to faint light but are stimulated by different colors wavelengths of light 0 UV light has wavelengths shorter than humans can see 0 Infrared light wavelengths longer than humans can see 0 Gustation sense of taste and Olfaction is the sense of smell Both detect the presence of particular molecules and originate in chemoreceptors Taste budstaste sensing chemoreceptors scattered around the mouth and throat Mueller 6 Smell allows animals to monitor airborne molecules Olfactory bulb part of the brain where olfactory signals are processed Movement sets animals apart 0 O Locomotion the movement of an entire animal Skeleton provide attachment sites for muscles a support system for soft tissues Exoskeleton hard hollow structures that envelop the body Hydrostatic skeletons use the pressure of internal body uids to support the body Endoskeleton hard structures inside the body Cartilage made up of cells scattered in a gelatinous matrix of polysaccharides and protein bers Bone is composed of cells in a hard extracellular matrix of CaPo4 with small amounts of CaCo4 and protein bers Joints are when two bones meet Tendons connect muscles to bones Antagonists muscle group exors and extensors makes movement in multiple direction possible Sarcomere functional unit of skeletal muscle made of light and dark bands or thin actin and thick myosin laments How do action potentials trigger muscle contraction ACh is released and triggers the depolarization that leads to an action potential proteins in the T tubules open Calcium channels in the SR and the actin binding sights are exposed Asexual Reproduction O O O Budding part of the parent s body wall bulges outward and eventually forms a new individual which becomes detached from the parent Fission an individual simply splits into 2 descendants Parthenogenesis female offspring develop from unfertilized eggs no limited variation Fertilization the joining of a sperm and egg to form a diploid zygote O 0 external large of eggs produced pheromones might be involved in synchronizing gamete release internal terrestrial and some aquatic Copulation males deposit sperm directly into female reproductive tract Spermatophore package of sperm then placed in the female39s reproductive tract allowing a female to breed with multiple mates Sperm competition competition between sperm from different males to fertilize the eggs of the same females Oviparous animals in which the egg is laid outside the mother39s body Viviparity egg remains within mother39s body where the development takes place Mueller 7 Ovovivparous egg remains within the mother39s body and development takes place there but egg hatches inside the mother before birth Intrauterine siblicide siblings often consume each other in transitional steps


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