Bopp 1 PSY 121 Notes Chapter 1 ∙ Psychology – the scientific study of behavior and mental processes ∙ As a science, psychology uses systematic methods to observe human behavior and draw conclusions o To describe, predict, and explain behavior (and control/change behavior) We also discuss several other topics like What does doublespeak refer to?
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∙ Behavior is everything we do that can be directly observed ∙ Mental processes are the thoughts, feelings, and motives that each of us experiences privately but that cannot be observed directly ∙ Critical thinking is the process of thinking deeply and actively, asking questions, and evaluating the evidence o They question/test what some people think are facts o Critical thinking reduces the likelihood that conclusions will be based on unreliable personal beliefs, opinions, and emotions ∙ Empirical method involves gaining knowledge through observation of events, data collection, and logical reasoning ∙ Structuralism – Wilhelm Wundt’s approach to discovering the basic elements, or structures, of mental processes ∙ Functionalism – William James’s approach to mental processes, emphasizing the functions and purposes of the mind and behavior in the individual’s adaptation to the environment ∙ Natural selection – Darwin’s principle of an evolutionary process in which organisms that are best adapted to their environment will survive and produce more offspring ∙ Contemporary approaches to psychology: o Biological approach Focus on the body (especially the brain and nervous system) Neuroscience – the scientific study of the structure, function, development, genetics, and biochemistry of the nervous system ∙ Brain and nervous system are central to understanding behavior, thought, and emotion o Behavioral approach Scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants ∙ Visible interactions with the environment o Psychodynamic approach Unconscious thought, the conflict between biological drives and society’s demands, and early childhood family experiences Sigmund Freud ∙ Early relationships with parents shape an individual’s personality o Psychoanalysis – an analyst’s unlocking a person’s unconscious conflicts by talking with the individual about his/her childhood memories, dreams, thoughts, or feelings o Humanistic approach Emphasizes a person’s positive qualities, the capacity for positive growth, and the freedom to choose one’s destiny ∙ People can control their lives and are not simply controlled by the environment ∙ People can live by altruism—unselfish concern for other people’s wellbeing— and free willBopp 2 o Cognitive approach Emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing: how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problems View the mind as an active and problemsolving system o Evolutionary approach Uses evolutionary ideas such as adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection as the basis for explaining specific human behaviors o Sociocultural approach Examines the influences of social and cultural environments on behavior ∙ Understanding a person’s behavior requires knowing about the cultural context in which the behavior occurs o Summary: Looking at a puppy involves physical processes in the eyes, nervous system, and brain —the focus of the biological approach to psychology. The moment you spot that puppy, though, you might smile without thinking and reach down to pet the little guy. That reaction might be a learned response based on your past learning with your own dog (behavioral perspective), or unconscious memories of a childhood dog (psychodynamic perspective), or conscious memories that you especially like this breed of dogs (cognitive perspective), or even evolutionary processes that promoted cuteness to help offspring survive (evolutionary approach). You might find yourself striking up a conversation with the puppy’s owner, based on your shared love of dogs (humanistic perspective). Further, sociocultural factors might play a role in your decision about whether to ask the owner if holding the puppy would be okay, whether to share those warm feelings about the puppy with others, and even whether (as in some cultures) to view that puppy as food. ∙ Psychology’s scientific method o Observing some phenomenon Variable – anything that can change Theory – a broad idea or set of closely related ideas that attempts to explain observations; seek to explain why certain things are how they are ∙ Must be falsifiable o Formulating hypotheses and predictions Hypothesis – testable prediction that derives logically from a theory o Testing through empirical research (ongoing) Collecting and analyzing data Operational definition – provides an objective description of how a variable is going to be measured and observed in a particular study o Drawing conclusions (ongoing) Based on the results of the data analysis, scientists then draw conclusions from their research ∙ Before a theory is accepted or changed, the scientific community must establish that the research can be replicated, or repeated, by other scientists using different methods o Evaluating conclusions (ongoing) Never ends ∙ Types of psychological research o Descriptive – finding out about the basic dimensions of some variableBopp 3 Allows researchers to get a sense of something but cannot answer questions about how and why things are the way they are Observation Surveys and interviews ∙ Constructing them requires cares o If something is unconscious, we cannot use a survey Case studies ∙ Case study – an indepth look at a single individual o Correlational – discovering relationships between variables Whether and how two variables change together ∙ The degree of relationship between two variables is expressed as a numerical value called a correlational coefficient r o Values between 1 and 1. The closer the number is to +/ 1, the stronger the relationship + sign means that as one variable increases, the other also increases – means as one variable increases, the other decreases 0 means no systematic relationship Correlation does not equal causation Third variable problem (confounding variables) – a variable that has not been measured accounts for the relationship between other variables Longitudinal designs – involves obtaining measures of the variables of interest in multiple waves over time ∙ Observing and measuring the same variables periodically over time o Experimental research – establishing causal relationships between variables An experiment is a carefully regulated procedure in which the researcher manipulates one or more variables that are believed to influence some other variable ∙ Random assignment – researchers assign participants to groups by chance o Reduces the likelihood that the experiment’s results will be due to any preexisting differences between groups ∙ Independent variable – a manipulated experimental factor; what the experimenter changes to see what its effects are ∙ Dependent variable – the outcome—the factor that can change in an experiment in response to changes in the independent variable ∙ Experimental group – the participants in an experiment who receive the drug or other treatment under study ∙ Control group – the participants in an experiment who are as much like the experimental group as possible and who are treated in every way like the experimental group excepted for a manipulated factor, the independent variable ∙ Withinparticipant design – participants serve as their own control group ∙ External validity – the degree to which an experimental design actually reflects the realworld issues it is trying to address ∙ Internal validity – the degree to which changes in the dependent variable are due to the manipulation of the independent variable ∙ Experimenter bias – the influence of the experimenter’s expectations on the outcome of researchBopp 4 ∙ Research participant bias – the influence of participants’ expectations, and of their thoughts about how they should behave, on their behavior ∙ Placebo effect – occurs when the participants’ expectations, rather than the experimental treatment, produce an outcome o Placebo – a harmless substance that has no physiological effect ∙ Doubleblind experiment – neither the experimenter nor the participants are aware of which participants are in the experimental group and which are in the control group until the results are calculated ∙ Research samples and settings o Studies are focused on a sample, with hopes of representing and drawing conclusions on a population o Random sample – every member of the population has an equal chance of being selection o In selecting a sample, researchers must strive to minimize bias o Naturalistic observation – observing behavior in a realworld setting ∙ Ethics Informed consent: All participants must know what their participation will involve and what risks might develop. For example, participants in a study on dating should be told beforehand that a questionnaire might stimulate thoughts about issues in their relationships that they have not considered. Participants also should be informed that in some instances a discussion of the issues might improve their relationships but that in others it might worsen the relationships and possibly end them. Even after informed consent is given, participants must retain the right to withdraw from the study at any time and for any reason. Confidentiality: Researchers are responsible for keeping all of the data they gather on individuals completely confidential and, when possible, completely anonymous. Confidential data are not the same as anonymous. When data are confidential, it is possible to link a participant’s identity to his or her data. Debriefing: After the study has been completed, the researchers should inform the participants of its purpose and the methods they used. In most cases, the experimenters also can inform participants in a general manner beforehand about the purpose of the research without leading the participants to behave in a way that they think that the experimenters are expecting. When preliminary information about the study is likely to affect the results, participants can at least be debriefed after the study’s completion. Deception: This is an ethical issue that psychologists debate extensively. In some circumstances, telling the participants beforehand what the research study is about substantially alters the participants’ behavior and invalidates the researcher’s data. For example, suppose a psychologist wants to know whether bystanders will report a theft. A mock theft is staged, and the psychologist observes which bystanders report it. Had the psychologist informed the participants beforehand that the study intended to discover the percentage of bystanders who will report a theft, the whole study would have been ruined. Thus, the researcher deceives participants about the purpose of the study, perhaps leading them to believe that it has some other purpose. In all cases of deception, however, the psychologist must ensure that the deception will not harm the participants and that the participants will be told the true nature of the study (will be debriefed) as soon as possible after the study is completed. Chapter 2Bopp 5 ∙ The nervous system is the body’s electrochemical communication circuitry o It has the following characteristics: Complexity Integration Adaptability ∙ Plasticity – the brain’s special capacity for change Electrochemical transmission o Afferent nerves (sensory nerves) – carry information about the external environment and the brain and spinal cord via sensory receptors o Efferent nerves (motor nerves) – carry information out of the brain and spinal cord to other areas of the body o Central nervous system – brain and spinal cord o Peripheral nervous system – network of nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body Somatic nervous system – consists of sensory nerves, whose function is to convey information from the skin and muscles to the CAN about conditions such as pain and temperature, and motor nerves, whose function is to tell muscles what to do Autonomic nervous system – the body system that takes messages to and from the body’s internal organs, monitoring such processes as breathing, heart rate, and digestion ∙ Sympathetic – arouses the body to mobilize it for action (i.e. stress) o Fightorflight ∙ Parasympathetic – calms the body o Stress is the body’s response to stressors, which are the circumstances and events that threaten individual and tax their coping abilities When we undergo stress, we also experience the release of corticosteroids, which are powerful stress hormones ∙ Allow us to focus our attention on what needs to be done now Acute stress is momentary, occurs in response to life experiences and goes away Chronic stress (stress that goes on continually) can lead to persistent autonomic nervous system arousal ∙ Sympathetic nervous system is working to meet the demands of whatever is stressing us out, the parasympathetic nervous system is not getting a chance to do its job of maintenance and repair, of digesting food, or of keeping our organs in good working order o Immune system declinesBopp 6 ∙ Neurons – nerve cells that handle the informationprocessing function o Mirror neurons – imitation (monkeysee monkeydo) ∙ Glial cells – provide support, nutritional benefits, and other functions in the nervous system ∙ Cell body – contains the nucleus, which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance ∙ Dendrites – receive information and orient it toward the neuron’s cell body ∙ Axon – carries information away from the cell body toward other cells ∙ Myelin sheath – a layer of fat cells that encases and insulates most axons, speeding up transmission of nerve impulses ∙ Resting potential – ion channels are closed, and inside of axon is slightly negativeBopp 7 ∙ Action potential – a brief wave of positive electrical charge that sweeps down the axon o Allornothing principle – once the electrical impulse reaches a certain level of intensity (threshold), it fires and moves all the way down the axon without losing any intensity ∙ Synapses – tiny spaces between neurons (synaptic gap) ∙ Stored in very tiny synaptic vesicles within the terminal buttons are neurotransmitters o Chemical substances that are involved in transmitting information across a synaptic gap to the next neuron After delivering its message, some of the neurotransmitter is used up in the production of energy, and some of it is reabsorbed by the axon that released it to await the next neuronal impulse (reuptake) o Acetylcholine (ACh) – stimulates the firing of neurons and is involved in the action of muscles, learning, and memoryBopp 8 Found throughout the CNS and PNS o GABA – found in CNS, believed to be the neurotransmitter in as many as onethird of the brain’s synapse It keeps many neurons from firing, so it helps to control the precision of the signal being carried from one neuron to the next ∙ Low levels are linked with anxiety; antianxiety drugs increase inhibiting effects of GABA o Norepinephrine – inhibits the firing of neurons in the CNS, but it excites the heart muscle, intestines, and urogenital tract Triggered by stress Controls alertness ∙ Too little is associated with depression, but too much triggers agitated, manic states o Dopamine – helps to control voluntary movement and affects sleep, mood, attention, learning, and the ability to recognize rewards in the environment Related to extraversion Low levels – Parkinson disease High levels – schizophrenia o Serotonin – regulation of sleep, mood, attention, and learning. It teams with norepinephrine and acetylcholine Low levels – depression o Endorphins – natural opiates that mainly stimulate the firing of neurons Shield the body from pain and elevate feelings of pleasure o Oxytocin – hormone and neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the experience of love and social bonding Released heavily in mothers who have just given birth, and its release is related to the onset of lactation and breast feeding Released as part of sexual orgasm o Most drugs that influence behavior do so by interfering with the work of neurotransmitters Agonist – a drug that mimics or increases a neurotransmitter’s effects Antagonist – a drug that blocks a neurotransmitter’s effects ∙ Brain lesioning—abnormal disrupiton in the tissue of the brain resulting from injury or disease ∙ Electrical recording—electroencephalograph (EEG) records the brain’s electrical activity ∙ Brain imaging—xrays to reveal damage in the brain and in other locations o CAT scans – 3D image o PET scan – based on metabolic changes in the brain related to activity Measures the amount of glucose in various areas of the brain ∙ Neurons use glucose for energy o MRI – creating a magnetic field around a person’s body and using radio waves to construct images of the person’s tissues and biochemical activities o fMRI – allows scientists to see what is happening in the brain while it is working exploits changes in blood oxygen that occur in association with brain activity o TMS – combined with brainimaging techniques to establish causal links between brain activity and behavior Uses a rapidly changing magnetic field to induce brief electric current pulses in the brain, which trigger action potentials in neuronsBopp 9 ∙ Then activity in the targeted brain area is inhibited (virtual lesion) ∙ At 3 weeks after conception, cells making up the long, hollow tube on the embryo’s back differentiate into a mass of neurons, which develop into three major regions of the brain: o Hindbrain – adjacent to the top part of the spinal cord Made up of medulla, cerebellum, and pons ∙ Cerebellum o Motor coordination ∙ Pons o Connects the cerebellum and the brain stem o Contains several clusters of fibers involved in sleep and arousal ∙ Brain stem o Includes much of the hindbrain (minus the cerebellum) and the midbrain o Clumps of cells in the brain stem determine alertness and regulate basic survival functions o Midbrain – above hindbrain Relays information between the brain and the ears and eyes Reticular formation – a diffuse collection of neurons involved in sterotyped patterns of behavior such as walking, sleeping, and turning to attend to a sudden noise Small group of neurons that use the neurotransmitters serotonin, dpamine, and norepinephrine o Forebrain – uppermost region of the brain Brain’s largest division and its most forward part The limbic system, a loosely connected network of structures under the cerebral cortex, is important in both memory and emotion ∙ Amygdala o Involved in the discrimination of objects that are necessary for the organism’s survival, such as appropriate food, mates, and social rivals ∙ Hippocampus o Storage of memories Thalamus ∙ Essential relay station; sort information and sent it to the appropriate places in the forebrain for further integration and interpretation Basal ganglia ∙ Control and coordinate voluntary movements Hypothalamus ∙ Monitors eating drinking, sex, emotion, stress, and reward ∙ Regulator of body’s internal stateBopp 10 ∙ Cerebral cortex o Part of the forebrain, outer layer of the brain o Neocortex (“new bark”) is the outermost part of the cerebral cortex o The wrinkled surface of the cerebral cortex is divided into two halves called hemispheres, and each hemisphere is subdivided into four regions, or lobes— occipital, temporal, frontal, and parietal o Occipital lobes Located at the back of the head Respond to visual stimuli o Temporal lobes Just above the ears Involved in hearing, language processing, and memory Lots of connections to the limbic system (memory) o Frontal lobes Behind the forehead Involved in personality, intelligence, and the control of voluntary muscles ∙ Prefrontal cortex o Involved in higher cognitive functions (planning, reasoning, self control) o Parietal lobesBopp 11 Top and toward the rear of the head Registering spatial location, attention, and motor control o Somatosensory cortex Processes information about body sensations o Motor cortex Processes information about voluntary movement o Association cortex – site of the highest intellectual functions (thinking and problem solving) ∙ Cerebral hemispheres and splitbrain research o Broca’s area – plays a role in production of speech o Wernicke’s area – if damaged, there are problems in comprehending language o Corpus callosum – large bundle of axons connecting the brain’s two hemispheres, relays information between the two sides o The right hemisphere receives information only from the left side of the body and vice versa o Lateralization – specialization of function o Left hemisphere – most speech and grammar Left brained—logical and rational o Right hemisphere – processing nonverbal information such as spatial perception, visual recognition, and emotion Right brained—creative or artistic ∙ Endocrine system – consists of a set of glands that regulate the activities of certain organs by releasing their chemical products into the bloodstreamBopp 12 o Glands – organs or tissues in the body that create chemicals that control many of our bodily functions o Hypothalamus connects nervous system and endocrine system o Hormones – the chemical messengers produced by endocrine glands, carried by blood o Pituitary gland – peasized gland just beneath the hypothalamus that controls growth and regulates other glands Front (anterior) part is called master gland because almost all of its hormones direct the activity of target glands o Adrenal glands – regulate mood, energy level, and the ability to cope with stress Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine o Pancreas – performs both digestive and endocrine functions Produces insulin to control glucose (blood sugar) levels in the body o Ovaries – produces hormones involved in women’s sexual development and reproduction o Testes – in scrotum; produce hormones involved in sexual development and reproduction ∙ Repair of the damaged brain might take place in the following three ways: o Collateral sprouting – axons of some healthy neurons adjacent to damaged cells grow new branches o Substitution of function – damaged region’s function is taken over by another area(s) of the brain o Neurogenesis – new neurons are generated ∙ Brain grafts—implants of healthy tissue into damaged brains o Stem cells – unique primitive cells that have the capacity to develop into most types of human cells ∙ Nucleus of each human cell contains 46 chromosomes, threadlike structures that come in 23 pairs, one member of each pair originating from each parent o Chromosomes contain deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a complex molecule that carries genetic informationBopp 13 ∙ Genes, the units of hereditary information, are short segments of chromosomes composed of DNA o Enable cells to reproduce and manufacture the proteins that are necessary for maintaining life ∙ Dominantrecessive genes principle – if one gene of a pair is dominant and one is recessive, the dominant gene overrides the recessive gene ∙ Genotype – a person’s genetic material ∙ Phenotype – an individual’s observable characteristics ∙ Gene expression is affected by the environment ∙ Gene x environment (g x e) interaction – the interaction of a specific measured aspect of the environment Chapter 3 ∙ Sensation – the process of receiving stimulus energies from the external environment and transforming those energies into neural energy ∙ Perception – the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information so that it makes sense ∙ Bottomup processing – sensory receptors register information about the external environment and send it up to the brain for interpretation o Taking in information and trying to make sense of it ∙ Topdown processing – starts with cognitive processing at the higher levels of the brain; we begin with some sense of what is happening and apply that framework to information from the world ∙ All sensation begins with sensory receptors o Specialized cells that detect stimulus information and transmit it to sensory (afferent) nerves and the brain Sensory receptors take in information from the environment, creating local electrical currents. These currents are graded (sensitive to the intensity of stimulation). Also allornothing. The receptor varies the frequency of action potentials ∙ Sensation involves detecting and transmitting information about different kinds of energy o Photoreception: detection of light, perceived as sight o Mechanoreception: detection of pressure, vibration, and movement, perceived as touch, hearing, and equilibrium o Chemoreception: detection of chemical stimuli, perceived as smell and taste ∙ Extrasensory perception (ESP): a person can detect information from the world without receiving concrete sensory input (i.e. telepathy and precognition) ∙ Absolute threshold – the minimum amount of stimulus energy that a person can detect ∙ Noise – irrelevant and competing stimuli—not only sounds but also any distracting stimuli for the senses ∙ Difference threshold – the degree of difference that must exist between two stimuli before the difference is detected o Increase as stimulus becomes stronger o Weber’s Law – states that two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage to be perceived as different ∙ Subliminal perception – the detection of information below the level of conscious awareness ∙ Signal detection theory – an approach to perception that focuses on decision making about stimuli under conditions of uncertainty ∙ Attention is selective and shiftable ∙ Perceptual set – predisposition or readiness to perceive something in a particular wayBopp 14 ∙ Sensory adaptation – a change in the responsiveness of the sensory system based on the average level of surrounding stimulation ∙ Sclera – helps to maintain the shape of the eye and protect it from injury ∙ Iris – colored part of the eye. Contains muscles that control the size of the pupil (and how much light enters the eye) ∙ Pupil – the aperture of a camera, opening to let in more light when it is needed and vice versa ∙ To focus images: o Cornea – clear membrane in front of the eye o Lens – transparent and flexible, disklike structure filled with a gelatinlike material ∙ Retina – records electromagnetic energy and converts it to neural impulses for processing in the brain o Fovea – tiny area in the center of the retina at which vision is at its best, only cones ∙ Two types of visual receptor cells: rods and cones o Rods – in retina that are sensitive to light but not useful for color vision o Cones – in retina that allow for color perception ∙ Optic nerve – made up of axons of the ganglion cells, that carries visual information to the brain for further processing ∙ One place on the retina contains neither rods nor cones: blind spotBopp 15 ∙ Visual cortex – located in the occipital lobe at the back of the brain. Visual information travels here, and it is processed and moved along ∙ Sensory information travels quickly through the brain because of parallel processing, the simultaneous distribution of information across different neural pathways ∙ Trichromatic theory – color perception is produced by three types of cone receptors in the retina that are particularly sensitive to different but overlapping ranges of wavelengths ∙ Monocular cues – powerful depth cues available from the image in one eye o Familiar size: the cue to the depth and distance of objects is based on what we have learned from experience o Height in the field of view: objects positioned higher in a picture are seen as farther away o Linear perspective and relative size: Objects that are farther away take up less space in retina o Overlap: We perceive an object that partially conceals or overlaps another object as closer o Shading o Texture gradient: Texture becomes denser and finer the farther away it is from the viewer ∙ Perceptual constancy – the recognition that objects are constant and unchanging even though sensory input about them is changing o Size constancy – recognition that an object remains the same size even though the retinal image of the object changes o Shape constancy – recognition that an object retains the same shape even though its orientation to you changes o Color constancy – recognition that an object retains the same color even though different amounts of light fall on it ∙ Outer ear consists of the pinna and the external auditory canal o Pinna – outer, visible part of the ear. It collects sounds and channels them into the interior of the ear ∙ Middle ear channels sound through the eardrum, hammer, anvil, and stirrup to the inner ear o The eardrum separates the outer ear from the middle ear and vibrates in response to sound o Hammer, anvil, and stirrup – chain of small bones. When they vibrate, they transmit sound waves to the fluidfilled inner ear ∙ Inner ear converts sound waves into neural impulses and send them to the brain Oval window – transmits sound waves to the cochleaBopp 16 ∙ Thermoreceptors – sensory nerve endings under the skin that respond to changes in temperature at or near the skin and provide input to keep the body’s temperature at 98.6o F ∙ Pain – the sensation that warns us of damage to our bodies ∙ Papillae – rounded bumps above the tongue’s surface that contain the taste buds, the receptors for taste ∙ Olfactory epithelium – the lining of the roof of the nasal cavity, containing a sheet of receptor cells for smell ∙ Kinesthetic senses – senses that provide information about movement, posture, and orientation ∙ Vestibular sense – sense that provides information about balance and movement ∙ Semicircular canals – three fluidfilled circular tubes in the inner ear containing the sensory receptors that detect head motion caused when an individual tilts or moves the head and/or body Chapter 4 ∙ Stream of consciousness – the mind is a continuous flow of changing sensations, images, thoughts, and feelings ∙ Consciousness – an individual’s awareness of external events and internal sensations under a condition of arousal, including awareness of the self and thoughts about one’s experiences o Awareness – awareness of the self and thoughts about one’s experiences o Arousal – physiological state of being engaged with the environment ∙ Theory of mind – individual’s understanding that they and others think, feel, perceive, and have private experiences ∙ Controlled processes – the most alert states of human consciousness, during which individuals actively focus their efforts toward a goalBopp 17 ∙ Lowerlevel consciousness o Automatic processes – states of consciousness that require little attention and do not interfere with other ongoing activities o Daydreaming – mind wandering; like dreaming while we are awake ∙ Altered states of consciousness – mental states that are noticeably different from normal awareness o Range from losing one’s sense of selfconsciousness to hallucinating (i.e. from drugs, trauma, fever, fatigue, sensory deprivation, meditation, and possibly hypnosis) ∙ Subconscious awareness o Waking subconscious awareness o Subconscious awareness during sleep and dreams When people are asleep, they remain aware of external stimuli to some degree ∙ No awareness o Unconscious thought – according to Freud, a reservoir of unacceptable wishes, feelings, and thoughts that are beyond conscious awareness ∙ Sleep – a natural state of rest for the body and mind that involves the reversible loss of consciousness ∙ Biological rhythms are periodic physiological fluctuations in the body ∙ Circadian rhythms – daily behavioral or physiological cycles that involve the sleep/wake cycle, body temperature, blood pressure, and blood sugar level ∙ Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) – a small brain structure that uses input from the retina to synchronize its own rhythm with the daily cycle of light and dark; the body’s way of monitoring the change from day to night ∙ Why do we need sleep? Some possible explanations: o Animals needed to protect themselves at night. Nocturnal inactivity helps them avoid both becoming other animals’ prey and injuring themselves due to poor visibility o Sleep is a way to conserve energy. Allows animals to conserve their calories, especially when food is scarce o Sleep is restorative. It restores, replenishes, and rebuilds the brain and body o Sleep has a role in brain plasticity. Sleep enhances synaptic connections between neurons. Important role for sleep in the consolidation of memories ∙ Why do Americans get too little sleep? o Pressures at work and school, family responsibilities, and social obligationsBopp 18 Not having enough hours to do all that we want or need to do in a day ∙ Wakefulness stages o When people are awake, their EEG patterns exhibit two types of waves: beta and alpha Beta waves reflect concentration and alertness ∙ Highest in frequency and lowest in amplitude ∙ Desynchronous Alpha waves are associated with relaxation and drowsiness ∙ When we are relaxed but still awake, our brain waves slow down, increase in amplitude, and become more synchronous ∙ Stage 1 sleep – drowsy sleep o Person may experience sudden muscle movements (myoclonic jerks) o Characterized by theta waves (slower in frequency and greater in amplitude than alpha waves) ∙ Stage 2 sleep o Muscle activity decreases, and the person is no longer consciously aware of the environment o Sleep spindles (involve a sudden increase in wave frequency) o If people are awakened during stage 1 or 2, they often report not having been asleep at all ∙ Stage 3 sleep and stage 4 sleep – characterized by delta waves, the slowest and highestamplitude brain waves during sleep o Stage 3 – delta waves occurring less than 50% of the time o Stage 4 – delta waves occurring more than 50% of the time o Delta sleep is our deepest sleep, and it is most difficult to wake sleepers When bedwetting, sleepwalking, and sleep talking occur ∙ Stage 5 sleep – REM sleep – rapid eye movement sleep; an active stage during which dreaming occurs o Stages 14 = nonREM sleep ∙ The amount of deep sleep (stages 3 and 4) is much greater in the first half of a night’s sleep ∙ Most REM occurs toward the end of a night’s sleep ∙ Important neurotransmitters involved in sleep: serotonin, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine ∙ REM is initiated by a rise in acetylcholine ∙ Sleep may benefit physical growth and brain development in infants and childrenBopp 19 ∙ Sleep disorders o Insomnia – the inability to sleep Can involve a problem in falling asleep, waking up during the night, or waking up too early o Sleepwalking and sleep talking Somnambulism – sleepwalking during the deepest stages of sleep Somniloquy – sleep talking o Nightmares and night terrors Nightmare – frightening dream that awakens a dreamer from REM sleep Night terror – sudden arousal from sleep and intense fear ∙ Rapid heart rate and breathing, loud screams, heavy perspiration, and movement o Narcolepsy Sudden, overpowering urge to sleep A person may fall asleep while talking or standing up. They immediately enter REM sleep ∙ People are often very tired during the day ∙ Can be triggered by emotional reactions o Sleep apnea Individuals stop breathing because the windpipe fails to open or because brain processes involved in respiration fail to work properly ∙ Loud snoring, punctuated by silence (the apnea) ∙ Treated by weightloss programs, side sleeping, propping the head on a pillow, or wearing a CPAP that sends pressurized air through a mask that prevents the airway from collapsing May be a factor in SIDS ∙ Dreams o Manifest content – according to Freud, the surface content of a dream, containing dream symbols that disguise the dream’s true meaning o Latent content – according to Freud, a dream’s hidden content; its unconscious and true meaningBopp 20 o Cognitive theory of dreaming – we can understand dreaming by applying the same cognitive concepts we use in studying the waking mind o Activationsynthesis theory dreaming occurs when the cerebral cortex synthesizes neural signals generated from activity in the lower brain and that dreams result from the brain’s attempts to find logic in random brain activity that occurs during sleep ∙ Psychoactive drugs – drugs that act on the nervous system to alter consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods o Taken to cope with problems or just for fun, come with consequences: Losing track of one’s responsibilities, problems in the workplace and in relationships, drug dependence, and increased risk for serious, sometimes fatal diseases ∙ Continued use of psychoactive drugs leads to tolerance, the need to take increasing amounts of a drug to get the same effect ∙ Continuing drug use can also result in physical dependence, the physiological need for a drug that causes unpleasant withdrawal symptoms such as physical pain and a craving for the drug when it is discontinued ∙ Psychological dependence is the strong desire to repeat the use of a drug for emotional reasons, such as a feeling of wellbeing and reduction of stress ∙ Addiction – describes either physical or psychological dependence, or both, on the drug ∙ How does the brain become addicted? o Psychoactive drugs increase dopamine levels in the brain’s reward pathways ∙ Types of psychoactive drugs o Depressants – slow down mental and physical activity Alcohol ∙ Slows down the brain’s activities ∙ Worsens judgement and coordination ∙ Alcoholism – involves longterm, repeated, uncontrolled, compulsive, and excessive use of alcoholic beverages that impairs the drinker’s health and social relationships Barbiturates – decrease CNS activity ∙ Most often used in suicide attempts ∙ Have been replaced by tranquilizers in the treatment of insomnia Tranquilizers – reduce anxiety and induce relaxation ∙ Small doses – can induced a feeling of calm ∙ Higher doses can lead to drowsiness and confusion Opiates – consist of opium and its derivatives and depress the CNS activity ∙ Used as powerful painkillers o Stimulants – increase the CNS’s activity Caffeine ∙ World’s most widely used drug ∙ Caffeinism – overindulgence in caffeine (>500 mg or >5 cups of coffee a day) Nicotine ∙ Smoking and smokeless tobacco Amphetamines ∙ Boost energy, keep people awake, or lose weight ∙ Crystal methBopp 21 Cocaine ∙ The rush depletes the brain’s supply of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, an agitated, depressed mood usually follows as the drug’s effects decline ∙ Crack is a potent form of cocaine MDMA (ecstasy) ∙ Depletes the brain of serotonin, producing lingering feelings of listlessness that often continue for days after use ∙ Impairs memory and cognitive processing ∙ Destroys axons that release serotonin o Hallucinogens – modify a person’s perceptual experiences and produce visual images that are not real Marijuana – dried leaves and flowers of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa ∙ Main ingredient is THC ∙ Disrupts the membranes of neurons and affects the functioning of a variety of neurotransmitters and hormones ∙ Increased pulse rate and blood pressure, reddening of the eyes, coughing, and dry mouth ∙ Can trigger spontaneous unrelated ideas; distorted perceptions of time and place; increased sensitivity to sounds, tastes, smells, and colors; and erratic verbal behavior ∙ Can impair attention and memory ∙ Can alter sperm count and change hormonal cycles ∙ Could be a gateway to the use of other more serious illicit substances LSD ∙ Can trigger extreme anxiety, paranoia, and suicidal or homicidal impulses ∙ Dizziness, nausea, and tremorsBopp 22 ∙ Hypnosis – an altered state of consciousness or a psychological state of altered attention and expectation in which the individual is unusually receptive to suggestions o The hypnotist: 1. Minimizes distractions and makes the person to be hypnotized comfortable 2. Tells the person to concentrate on something specific 3. Informs the person what to expect in the hypnotic state, such as relaxation or a pleasant floating sensation 4. Suggests certain events or feelings he or she knows will occur or observes occurring a. When these do occur, the person interprets them as being caused by the hypnotist’s suggestions and accepts them as an indication that something is happening ∙ Divided consciousness view of hypnosis – hypnosis involves a splitting of consciousness into two separate components, one of which follows the hypnotist’s commands and the other of which acts as a “hidden observer” ∙ Social cognitive behavior view of hypnosis – hypnosis is a normal state in which the hypnotized person behaves the way he or she believes that a hypnotized person should behaveBopp 23 ∙ Hypnosis can be used to treat alcoholism, somnambulism, depression, suicidal tendencies, PTSD, migraines, overeating, diabetes, and smoking ∙ Meditation – the attainment of a peaceful state of mind in which thoughts are not occupied by worry; the meditator is mindfully present to his or her thoughts and feelings but is not consumed by them o Find a quiet place and a comfortable chair. o Sit upright in the chair, rest your chin comfortably on your chest, and place your arms in your lap. Close your eyes. o Now focus on your breathing. Every time you inhale and every time you exhale, pay attention to the sensations of air flowing through your body, the feeling of your lungs filling and emptying. o After you have focused on several breaths, begin to repeat silently to yourself a single word every time you breathe out. You can make a word up, use the word one, or try a word associated with an emotion you want to produce, such as trust, love, patience, or happy. Experiment with several different words to see which one works for you. o If you find that thoughts are intruding and you are no longer attending to your breathing, refocus on your breathing and say your chosen word each time you exhale. After you have practiced this exercise for 10 to 15 minutes, twice a day, every day for two weeks, you will be ready for a shortened version. If you notice that you are experiencing stressful thoughts or circumstances, simply meditate, on the spot, for several minutes. If you are in public, you do not have to close your eyes; just fix your gaze on a nearby object, attend to your breathing, and say your word silently every time you exhale. Chapter 5 ∙ Learning – a systematic, relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience ∙ Behaviorism – theory of learning that focuses solely on observable behaviors, discounting the importance of such mental activity as thinking, wishing, and hoping ∙ Associative learning – learning that occurs when an organism makes a connection, or an association, between two events o Conditioning is the process of learning these associations Classical conditioning organisms learn the association between two stimuli ∙ Organisms learn to anticipate events Operant conditioning – organisms learn the association between a behavior and a consequence, such as a reward ∙ Organisms learnt to increase behaviors that are followed by rewards and to decrease behaviors that are followed by punishment ∙ Observational learning – learning that occurs through observing and imitating another’s behavior ∙ Classical conditioning – learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with an innately meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response o Unconditioned stimulus (US) – stimulus that produces a response without prior learning o Unconditioned response (UR) – an unlearned reaction that is automatically elicited by the US Involuntary; happen in response to a stimulus without conscious effort o Conditioned stimulus (CS) – a previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits a conditioned response after being paired with the US o Conditioned response (CR) – learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after conditioned stimulusunconditioned stimulus pairingBopp 24 ∙ Acquisition – the initial learning of the connection between the US and the CS when these two stimuli are paired o Contiguity – CS and US are presented very close together in time o Contingency – CS must not only precede the US closely in time, it must also serve as a reliable indicator that the US is on its way ∙ Generalization in classical conditioning is the tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response ∙ Discrimination in classical conditioning is the process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not others ∙ Extinction – the weakening of the conditioned response when the US is absent ∙ Spontaneous recovery – the process in classical conditioning by which a conditioned response can recur after a time delay, without further conditioning ∙ Counterconditioning – a classical conditioning procedure for changing the relationship between a conditioned stimulus and its conditioned response ∙ Aversive conditioning – a form of treatment that consists of repeated pairings of a stimulus with a very unpleasant stimulus ∙ Habituation – decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations ∙ Operant conditioning – a form of associative learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behavior’s occurrence ∙ Law of effect – Thorndike’s law stating that behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthened and that behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened o Consequences of a behavior influence the likelihood of that behavior’s recurrence ∙ Shaping – rewarding successive approximations of a desired behavior ∙ Reinforcement – the process by which a stimulus or an event following a particular behavior increases the probability that the behavior will happen again o Positive reinforcement – the presentation of a stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior o Negative reinforcement – the removal of a stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior ∙ Avoidance learning – an organism’s learning that it can altogether avoid a negative stimulus by making a particular response ∙ Learned helplessness – through experience with unavoidable aversive stimuli, an organism learns that it has no control over the negative outcomes ∙ Primary reinforcer – a reinforcer that is innately satisfying; one that does not take any learning on the organism’s part to make it pleasurable ∙ Secondary reinforcer – a reinforcer that acquires its positive value through an organism’s experience; a learned or conditioned reinforcer ∙ In operant conditioning, o Generalization means performing a reinforced behavior in a different situation o Discrimination means responding appropriately to stimuli that signal that a behavior will or will not be reinforced o Extinction decreases in the frequency of a behavior when the behavior is no longer reinforcedBopp 25 ∙ Schedules of reinforcement – specific patterns that determine when a behavior will be reinforced o Ratio schedules involve the number of behaviors that must be performed prior to reward o Interval schedules refer to the amount of time that must pass before a behavior is rewarded o Fixed schedule – the number of behaviors or the amount of a behavior is always the same o Variable schedule – the required number of behaviors or the amount of time that must pass changes and is unpredictable from the perspective of the learner o Fixedratio schedule reinforces a behavior after a set number of behaviors o Fixedinterval schedule reinforces the first behavior after a fixed amount of time has passed o Variableinterval schedule is a timetable in which a behavior is reinforced after a variable amount of time has elapsed ∙ Punishment is a consequence that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur ∙ ∙ Positive punishment – a behavior decreases when it is followed by the presentation of a stimulus ∙ Negative punishment – a behavior decreases when a stimulus is removed ∙ Immediate reinforcement is more efficient than delayed reinforcement ∙ Immediate punishment is more effective than delayed punishment ∙ Applied behavior analysis (behavior modification) – the use of operant conditioning principles to change human behavior ∙ Purposiveness of behavior—the idea that much of behavior is goaldirected ∙ Latent learning (implicit learning) – unreinforced learning that is not immediately reflected in behavior ∙ Insight learning – a form of problem solving in which the organism develops a sudden insight into or understanding of a problem’s solution ∙ Instinctive drift – the tendency of animals to revert to instinctive behavior that interferes with learning ∙ Preparedness – the speciesspecific biological predisposition to learn in certain ways but not others ∙ How to develop a growth mindset: o Understand that your intelligence and thinking skills are not fixed but can change o Become passionate about learning and stretch your mind in challenging situations o Think about the growth mindsets of people you admire o Begin now Chapter 6 ∙ Memory – the retention of information or experience over time. Occurs through o Encoding (taking in information) The process by which information gets into memory storage o Storage (retaining it in some mental storehouse) o Retrieval (recalling it)Bopp 26 ∙ Divided attention – concentrating on more than one activity at the same time ∙ Sustained attention is the ability to maintain attention to a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time ∙ Levels of processing – a continuum of memory processing from shallow to intermediate to deep, with deeper processing producing better memory ∙ Elaboration – the formation of a number of different connections around a stimulus at any given level of memory encoding ∙ One of the most powerful ways to make memories distinctive is to use mental imagery ∙ Storage – the retention of information over time and how this information is represented in memory ∙ AtkinsonShiffrin theory – memory storage involves three separate systems: o Sensory memory: time frames of a fraction of a second to several seconds Holds information from the world in its original sensory form for only an instant Very rich and detailed, but we lose the information in it quickly unless we use certain strategies to transfer it into short or longterm memory Echoic memory – auditory sensory memory Iconic memory – visual sensory memory (retained for only about ¼ of a second) o Shortterm memory: time frames up to 30 seconds unless strategies are used to retain it longer Limitedcapacity memory system Working memory – a combination of components, including shortterm memory and attention, that allow us to hold information temporarily as they perform cognitive tasks o Longterm memory: time frames up to a lifetime Explicit memory – remembering who, what, where, when, and why ∙ Episodic memory – the retention of information about the where, when, and what of life’s happenings – autobiographical ∙ Semantic memory – a person’s knowledge about the world. It includes one’s areas of expertise, general knowledge of the sort learned in school, and everyday knowledge about the meanings of words, famous individuals, important places, and common things Implicit memory – remembering how ∙ Memory in which behavior is affected by prior experience without a conscious recollection of that experience ∙ Procedural memory – involves memory for skills ∙ Priming – the activation of information that people already have in storage to help them remember new information better and fasterBopp 27 ∙ Schema – a preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people to organize and interpret information. Schemas from prior encounters with the environment influence the way individuals encode, make inferences about, and retrieve information o Script a schema for an event, often containing information about physical features, people, and typical occurrences ∙ Connectionism (parallel distributed processing (PDP)) – the theory that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections among neurons ∙ Retrieval takes place when information that was retained in memory comes out of storage ∙ Serial position effect – tendency to recall the items at the beginning (primacy effect) and end (recency effect) of a list more readily than those in the middle ∙ Encoding specificity principle – information present at the time of encoding or learning tends to be effective as a retrieval cue ∙ Autobiographical memory – a special form of episodic memory, consisting of a person’s recollections of his or her life experiences ∙ Flashbulb memory – the memory of emotionally significant events that people often recall with more accuracy and vivid imagery than everyday events o For example, where you were when you heard about the attacks on 9/11 ∙ Repression is a defense mechanism by which a person is so traumatized by an event that he or she forgets it and then forgets the act of forgetting (childhood sexual abuse may not be remembered) ∙ Motivated forgetting – occurs when individuals forget something because it is so painful or anxiety laden that remembering is intolerable ∙ Interference theory – the theory that people forget not because memories are lost from storage but because other information gets in the way of what they want to remember ∙ Proactive interference occurs when material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material learned later ∙ Retroactive interference occurs when material learned later disrupts the retrieval of information learned earlierBopp 28 ∙ Decay theory – theory stating that when an individual learns something new, a neurochemical memory trace forms, but over time this trace disintegrates; suggests that the passage of time always increases forgetting ∙ Tipofthetongue (TOT) phenomenon – a type of “effortful retrieval” that occurs when we are confident that we know something but cannot quite pull it out of memory ∙ Retrospective memory – remembering information from the past ∙ Prospective memory – remembering information about doing something in the future; includes memory for intentions ∙ Amnesia – the loss of memory o Anterograde amnesia – a memory disorder that effects the retention of new information and events o Retrograde amnesia – memory loss for a segment of the past but not for new events More common Electrical shock or physical blow Chapter 7 ∙ Cognition – the way in which information is processed and manipulated in remembering, thinking, and knowing ∙ Thinking – the process of manipulating information mentally by forming concepts, solving problems, making decisions, and reflecting critically or creatively ∙ Concepts are mental categories that are used to group objects, events, and characteristics o Allow us to generalize, associate experiences and objects, aid memory by making it more efficient so that we do not have to reinvent the wheel each time we come across a piece of information, and provide clues about how to react to a particular object or experience ∙ Prototype model – a model emphasizing that when people evaluate whether a given item reflects a certain concept, they compare the item with the most typical item(s) in that category and look for a “family resemblance” with that item’s properties ∙ Problem solving – the mental process of finding an appropriate way to attain a goal when the goal is not readily available 1. Find and frame problems 2. Develop good problemsolving strategies a. Subgoaling – setting intermediate goals or defining intermediate problems in order to be in a better position for reaching a final goal or solution i. WORK BACKWARD in establishing subgoals b. Algorithms – strategies—including formulas, instructions, and the testing of all possible solutions—that guarantees the solution to a problem c. Heuristics – shortcut strategies or guidelines that suggest a solution to a problem but do not guarantee an answer 3. Evaluate solutions 4. Rethink and redefine problems and solutions over time ∙ Fixation – using a prior strategy and failing to look at a problem from a fresh, new perspective ∙ Functional fixedness occurs when individuals fail to solve a problem because they are fixated on a thing’s usual functions ∙ Reasoning – the mental activity of transforming information to reach conclusions ∙ Inductive reasoning – reasoning from specific observations to make generalizationsBopp 29 ∙ Deductive reasoning – reasoning from a general case that we know to be true of a specific instance ∙ Decision making – involves evaluating alternatives and choosing among them ∙ Confirmation bias – the tendency to search for and use information that supports our ideas rather than refutes them ∙ Hindsight bias – the tendency to report falsely, after the fact, that we accurately predicted an outcome ∙ Availability heuristic – prediction about the probability of an event based on the ease of recalling or imagining similar events ∙ Representativeness heuristic is the tendency to make judgements about group membership based on physical appearances or the match between a person and one’s stereotype of a group rather than on available base rate information ∙ Critical thinking means thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating the evidence ∙ Mindfulness means being alert and mentally present for one’s everyday activities ∙ Openmindedness means being receptive to other ways of looking at things ∙ Creativity – the ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and to devise unconventional solutions to problems ∙ Divergent thinking produces many solutions to the same problem ∙ Convergent thinking produces the single best solution to a problem ∙ Individuals who think creatively show the following characteristics: o Flexibility and playful thinking o Inner motivation o Willingness to face risk o Objective evaluation of work ∙ Intelligence quotient (IQ) measures intelligence ∙ Validity – the extent to which a test measures what it is intended to measure ∙ Reliability – the extent to which a test yields a consistent, reproducible measure of performance ∙ Standardization involves developing uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test, as well as creating norms, or performance standards, for the test ∙ Heritability is the proportion of observable differences in a group that can be explained by differences in the genes of the group’s members ∙ Gifted – possessing high intelligence (>130 IQ) and/or superior talent in a particular area ∙ Intellectual disability (mental retardation) – a condition of limited mental ability in which an individual has a low IQ, usually below 70 on a traditional intelligence test, and has difficulty adapting to everyday life; he or she would have exhibited these characteristics by age 18 o Organic intellectual disability – caused by a genetic disorder or brain damage o Culturalfamilial intellectual disability – mental deficit with no evidence of organic brain damage (IQ between 55 and 70) ∙ Robert J. Sternberg developed the triarchic theory of intelligence, which says that intelligence comes in 3 forms: o Analytical intelligence: the ability to analyze, judge, evaluate, compare, and contrast o Creative intelligence: the ability to create, design, invent, originate, and imagine o Practical intelligence: the ability to use, apply, implement, and put ideas into practice ∙ Howard Gardner suggests that there are 9 types of intelligence: ∙ Verbal: The ability to think in words and use language to express meaning. Occupations: author, journalist, speaker.Bopp 30 ∙ Mathematical: The ability to carry out mathematical operations. Occupations: scientist, engineer, accountant. ∙ Spatial: The ability to think threedimensionally. Occupations: architect, artist, sailor. ∙ Bodilykinesthetic: The ability to manipulate objects and to be physically adept. Occupations: surgeon, craftsperson, dancer, athlete. ∙ Musical: The ability to be sensitive to pitch, melody, rhythm, and tone. Occupations: composer, musician. ∙ Interpersonal: The ability to understand and interact effectively with others. Occupations: teacher, mental health professional. ∙ Intrapersonal: The ability to understand oneself. Occupations: theologian, psychologist. ∙ Naturalist: The ability to observe patterns in nature and understand natural and humanmade systems. Occupations: farmer, botanist, ecologist, landscaper. ∙ Existentialist: The ability to grapple with the big questions of human existence, such as the meaning of life and death, with special sensitivity to issues of spirituality. Gardner has not identified an occupation for existential intelligence, but one career path would likely be philosopher. ∙ Language is a form of communication, whether spoken, written, or signed, that is based on a system of symbols ∙ All human languages have infinite generativity, the ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences. This superb flexibility comes from five basic rule systems: o Phonology: a language’s sound system o Morphology: a language’s rules for word formation o Syntax: a language’s rules or combining words to form acceptable phrases and sentences o Semantics: the meaning of words and sentences in a particular language o Pragmatics: the useful characters of a language and the ability of language to communicate even more meaning than is said o Chapter 9 ∙ Motivation is the force that moves people to behave, think, and feel the way they do o Energized, directed, and sustained ∙ Evolutionary approach o An instinct is an innate biological pattern of behavior that is assumed to be universal throughout a species Set in motion by a “sign stimulus”—something in the environment that turns on a fixed pattern of behavior o In general, most human behavior is far too complex to be explained by instinct ∙ Drive reduction theory o A drive is an aroused state that occurs because of a physiological need A need is a deprivation that energizes the drive to eliminate or reduce the deprivation o Drive reduction theory explains that as a drive becomes stronger, we are motivated to reduce it o The goal of drive reduction is homeostasis, the body’s tendency to maintain an equilibrium, or steady state ∙ Optimum arousal theoryBopp 31 o YerkesDodson law – performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal rather than low or high arousal At the low end of arousal too lethargic to perform tasks well At the high end too nervous to concentrate ∙ Hunger o Three key chemical substances play a role in hunger, eating, and satiety: glucose, insulin, and leptin Glucose (blood sugar) because the brain depends on sugar for energy Insulin – when we eat complex carbohydrates, insulin levels go up and fall off gradually Leptin – released by fat cells, decreases food intake and increases energy expenditure or metabolism o Hypothalamus regulates hunger Lateral hypothalamus – stimulating eating Ventromedial hypothalamus – reducing hunger and restricting eating ∙ Obesity o Has a genetic component o Set point – the weight maintained when the individual makes no effort to gain or lose weight Determined by the amount of stored fat in the body Fat is stored in adipose cells. When these cells are filled, you do not get hungry ∙ Sex o Motivation for sexual behavior is in hypothalamus o The temporal lobes of the neocortex play an important role in moderating sexual arousal and directing it to an appropriate goal object o Estrogens – predominate in female – sex hormone produced mainly by the ovaries o Androgens, such as testosterone, predominate in male – are produced in the testes in males and by the adrenal glands in both males and females Higher androgens in males higher sexual motivation and orgasm frequency Higher androgens in females higher sex drive and frequency of satisfying sexual experiences but higher risk for breast cancer o Human sexual response pattern: four phases: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution Excitement – begins the process of erotic responsiveness ∙ Engorgement of blood vessels and increased blood flow in genital areas and muscle tension ∙ Lubrication of the vagina and partial erection of the penis Plateau – continuation and heightening f the arousal begun in the excitement phase ∙ Increases in breathing, pulse rate, and blood pressure become more intense ∙ Penile erection and vaginal lubrication are more complete, orgasm is closer Orgasm – explosive discharge of neuromuscular tension and an intensely pleasurable feeling ∙ 315 seconds Resolution phase – blood vessels return to their normal state ∙ Females may be stimulated to orgasm again without delay ∙ Males enter a refractory period during which they cannot have another orgasm o Sexual orientation – the direction of an individual’s erotic interestsBopp 32 ∙ Hierarchy of needs – Maslow’s theory that human needs must be satisfied in the following sequence: physiological needs, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and selfactualization o Strongest are at the base (physiological) ∙ Selfactualization – the motivation to develop one’s full potential as a human being ∙ Selfdetermination theory asserts that there are three basic organismic needs: competence, relatedness, and autonomy ∙ Intrinsic motivation is based on internal factors such as organismic needs, as well as curiosity, challenge, and fun ∙ Extrinsic motivation involves external incentives such as rewards and punishments o We engage in a behavior for some external payoff or to avoid an external punishment ∙ Selfregulation – the process by which an organism effortfully controls behavior in order to pursue important objectives ∙ Emotion – feeling, or affect, that can involve physiological arousal (such as a fast heartbeat), conscious experience (thinking about being in love with someone), and behavioral expression (a smile or grimace) ∙ Polygraph or lie detector – a machine that monitors changes in the body, used to determine whether someone is lying ∙ JamesLange theory – the theory that emotion results from physiological states triggered by stimuli in the environment ∙ CannonBard theory – the theory that motion and physiological reactions occur simultaneously ∙ Twofactor theory of emotion – emotion is determined by: physiological arousal and cognitive labeling ∙ Facial feedback hypothesis – the idea that facial expressions can influence emotions as well as reflect them ∙ The valence of an emotion refers to whether it feels pleasant or unpleasant ∙ Negative affect refers to emotions such as anger, guilt, and sadness ∙ Positive affect refers to emotions such as joy, happiness, and interestBopp 33 ∙ Broadenandbuild model – the function of positive emotions lies in their effects on an individual’s attention and ability to build resources Chapter 10 ∙ Personality – a pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the way an individual adapts to the world ∙ Psychodynamic perspectives on personality emphasize that personality is primarily unconscious (that is, beyond awareness ∙ Hysteria – physical symptoms that have no physical cause ∙ Freud structures of personality: o Id – consists of unconscious drives and is the individual’s reservoir of sexual energy Has no contact with reality Always seeks pleasure o Ego – deals with the demands of reality Tries to bring the individual pleasure within the norms of society Helps us to test reality, to see how far we can go without getting into trouble and hurting ourselves Partly conscious o Superego – the harsh internal judge of our behavior Evaluates the morality of our behavior Does not consider reality; it considers only when the id’s impulses can be satisfied in acceptable moral terms ∙ Defense mechanisms are tactics the ego uses to reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality ∙ Defense mechanisms are unconscious; and when used in moderation or on a temporary basis, defense mechanisms are not necessarily unhealthy o Denial – the ego simply refuses to acknowledge anxietyproducing realities o Sublimation – the person expresses an unconscious wish in a socially valid way o Projection – we see in others those impulses that we most fear or despise in ourselves o Repression – the most powerful and pervasive defense mechanism Pushes unacceptable id impulses back into the unconscious mind ∙ Erogenous zones are parts of the body that have especially strong pleasuregiving qualities at particular stages of development o Oral stage (first 18 months): the infant’s pleasure centers on the mouth Chewing, sucking, and biting are the chief sources of pleasure that reduce tension in the infant o Anal stage (1836 months): during a time when most children are experiencing toilet training, the child’s greatest pleasure involves the anus and urethra and their functions There is pleasure in “going” and “holding it” o Phallic stage (36 years): Phallus means “penis” Pleasure focuses on the genitals as the child discovers that selfstimulation is enjoyable Triggers the Oedipus complex o Latency period (6 years to puberty): psychic timeout After the drama of the phallic stage, the child sets aside all interest in sexuality No psychosexual development occurs o Genital stage (adolescence and adulthood): sexual reawakening The source of sexual pleasure shifts to someone outside the familyBopp 34 ∙ Oedipus complex – according to Freud, a boy’s intense desire to replace his father and enjoy the affections of his mother o Castration anxiety – the boy’s intense fear of being mutilated by his father To reduce this conflict, the boy identifies with his father, adopting the male gender role ∙ Psychodynamic critiques and revisions: o Sexuality is not the pervasive force behind personality that Freud believed it to be The Oedipus complex is not as universal as Freud maintained o The first five years of life are not as powerful in shaping adult personality as Freud thought o The ego and conscious thought processes play a more dominant role in our personality than Freud believed o Sociocultural factors are much more important than Freud believed ∙ Alfred Adler was one of Freud’s earlies followers o Adler’s individual psychology – people are motivated by purposes and goals—thus, perfection, not pleasure, is their key motivator Every strives for superiority by seeking to adapt, improve, and master the environment ∙ Psychodynamic perspectives o Personality is determined by current experiences and by early life experiences o Personality can be better understood by examining it developmentally o We mentally transform our experiences, giving them meaning that shapes our personality o The mind is not all consciousness; unconscious motives lie behind some of our puzzling behavior o The individual’s inner world often conflicts with the out demands of reality, creating anxiety that is not easy to resolve o Personality and adjustment are rightful and important topics of psychological inquiry ∙ Humanistic perspectives stress a person’s capacity for personal growth and positive human qualities o We all have the ability to control our lives and to achieve what we desire ∙ Abraham Maslow believed that we can learn the most about human personality by focusing on the very best examples of human beings—selfactualizers o Selfactualization is the motivation to develop one’s full potential as a human being Spontaneous, creative Tolerant of others, have a gentle sense of humor, and be likely to pursue the greater good ∙ Carl Rogers believed that we are all born with the raw ingredients of a fulfilling life. We simply need the right conditions to thrive ∙ Unconditional positive regard – Rogers’s term for being accepted, valued, and treated positively regardless of one’s behavior ∙ Conditions of worth are the standards we must live up to in order to receive positive regard from others ∙ For a person to reconnect with his or her feelings and desires, he/she must experience a relationship that includes three qualities: unconditional positive regard, empathy, and genuinenessBopp 35 ∙ Trait theories – theoretical views stressing that personality consists of broad, enduring dispositions (traits) that tend to lead to characteristic responses ∙ The big five factors of personality—the broad traits that are thought to describe the main dimensions of personality—are neuroticism (which refers to the tendency to worry and experience negative emotions), extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness o Neuroticism – related to feeling negative emotion more often than positive emotion in one’s daily life and t experiencing more lingering negative states o Individuals high in extraversion are more likely than others to engage in social activities, experience gratitude, and show a strong sense of meaning in life Extraverts are more forgiving o Openness to experience is related to liberal values, openmindedness, tolerance, and creativity Also related to superior cognitive functioning and IQ across the life span o Agreeableness is related to generosity and altruism, to reports of religious faith, and to more satisfying romantic relationships Also related to viewing other people positively o Conscientiousness is a key factor in a variety of life domains. It is positively related to GPAs, better quality friendships, higher levels of religious faith, and a forgiving attitude ∙ Subjective wellbeing is a person’s assessment of his or her own level of positive affect relative to negative affect, and the individual’s evaluation of his or her life in general ∙ Personological and life story perspectives – theoretical views stressing that the way to understand the person is to focus on his or her life history and life story ∙ Henry Murray’s Personological approach o “the history of the organism is the organism” meaning that in order to understand a person, we have to understand that person’s history, including all aspects of the person’s life ∙ The life story approach to identity o Dan McAdams’s approach centers on the idea that each of us has a unique life story, full of ups and downs o McAdams suggests that our life stories are our identities Intimacy motive – an enduring concern for warm interpersonal encounters for their own sake ∙ Social cognitive perspectives on personality emphasize conscious awareness, beliefs, expectations, and goals o Explore the person’s ability to reason, to think about the past, present, and future; and to reflect on the self ∙ B. F. Skinner believed that there is no such thing as “personality”; rather, he emphasized behavior and felt that internal mental states were irrelevant to psychology ∙ Albert Bandura found Skinner’s approach to be far too simplistic for understanding human functioning o Bandura took the basic tenets of behaviorism and added recognition of the role of mental processes in determining behaviorBopp 36 o Bandura’s social cognitive theory states that behavior, environment, and the person/cognitive factors are all important in understanding personality ∙ Selfefficacy is the belief that one has the competence to accomplish a given goal or task ∙ Cognitive affective processing systems (CAPS) – Mischel’s theoretical model for describing that individuals’ thoughts and emotions about themselves and the world affect their behavior and become linked in ways that matter to that behavior ∙ Hans Eysenck developed an approach to extraversion/introversion based on the reticular activation system (RAS) ∙ Jeffrey Gray proposed a neuropsychology of personality, called reinforcement sensitivity theory o Two neurological systems—the behavioral activation system (BAS) and the behavioral inhibition system (BIS)—could be viewed as underlying personality ∙ Behavioral genetics – the study of the inherited underpinnings of behavioral characteristics ∙ Selfreport test – a method of measuring personality characteristics that directly asks people whether specific items describe their personality traits ∙ Empirically keyed test – a type of selfreport test that presents many questionnaire items to two groups that are known to be different in some central way ∙ The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most widely used and researched empirically keyed selfreport personality test ∙ Face validity – the extent to which a test item appears to fit the particular trait it is measuring ∙ A projective test presents individuals with an ambiguous stimulus and asks them to describe it or to tell a story about it—to project their own meaning onto the stimulus ∙ Rorschach inkblot test – projective test that uses an individual’s perception of inkblots to determine his or her personality ∙ The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a projective test that is designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individual’s personalityBopp 37 Chapter 12 ∙ Abnormal behavior – deviant, maladaptive, or personally distressful over a relatively long period of time o Three criteria: Deviant – atypical or statistically unusual; deviation from what is acceptable in a culture Maladaptive – interferes with one’s ability to function effectively in the world Personally distressful – the person engaging in this behavior finds it troubling ∙ Biological approach o Attributes psychological disorders to organic, internal causes Primarily focusing on the brain, genetic factors, and neurotransmitter functioning as the sources of abnormality o Evident in the medical model—the view that psychological disorders are medical diseases with a biological origin ∙ Psychological approach o Emphasizes the contributions of experiences, thoughts, emotions, and personality characteristics in explaining psychological disorders ∙ Sociocultural approach o Emphasizes the social contexts in which a person lives, including gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, family relationships, and culture ∙ Biopsychosocial model o Abnormal behavior can be influenced by biological factors, psychological factors, and sociocultural factors ∙ The DSMIV classification system – the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition; the major classification of psychological disorders in the US o Classifies individuals on the basis of five dimensions, or axes, that take into account the individual’s history and highest level of functioning in the previous year Axis 1: all diagnostic categories except personality disorders and mental retardation Axis 2: personality disorders and mental retardationBopp 38 Axis 3: general medical conditions Axis 4: Psychosocial and environmental problems Axis 5: current level of functioning ∙ Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – individuals, prior to the age of 7, show one or more of the following symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity ∙ Anxiety disorders – disabling (uncontrollable and disruptive) psychological disorders that feature motor tension, hyperactivity, and apprehensive expectations and thoughts o Generalized anxiety disorder – psychological disorder marked by persistent anxiety for at least 6 months, and in which the individual is unable to specify the reason for the anxiety o Panic disorder – anxiety disorder in which the individual experiences recurrent, sudden onsets of intense terror, often without warning and with no specific cause Panic attacks produce severe palpitations, extreme shortness of breath, chest pains, trembling, sweating, dizziness, and a feeling of helplessness ∙ During a panic attack, the brain registers fear as areas of the fear network of the limbic system, including the amygdala and hippocampus, are activatedBopp 39 o Phobic disorder (phobia) – anxiety disorder characterized by an irrational, overwhelming, persistent fear of a particular object or situation o ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder – anxiety disorder in which the individual has anxiety provoking thoughts that will not go away and/or urges to perform repetitive, ritualistic behaviors to prevent or produce some future situation Obsessions – recurrent thoughts Compulsions – recurrent behaviors o PostTraumatic Stress Disorder – anxiety disorder that develops through exposure to a traumatic event, a severely oppressive situation, cruel abuse, or a natural or an unnatural disaster. Symptoms may vary but include: Flashbacks in which the individual relives the event Avoiding emotional experiences and avoiding talking about emotions with others Reduced ability to feel emotions, often reported as feeling numb, resulting in an inability to experience happiness, sexual desire, or enjoyable interpersonal relationships Excessive arousal (inability to sleep) Difficulties with memory and concentration Feelings of apprehension, including nervous tremors Impulsive outbursts of behavior, such as aggressiveness, or sudden changes in lifestyle ∙ Mood disorders – psychological disorders in which there is a primary disturbance of mod o Depressive disorders – mood disorders in which the individual suffers from depression—an unrelenting lack of pleasure in life Major depressive disorder (MDD) involves a significant depressive episode and depressed characteristics, such as lethargy and hopelessness, for at least two weeks ∙ Impairs daily functioning ∙ Major depressive episode is evident by: o Depressed mood most of day o Reduced interest or pleasure in all or most activities o Significant weight loss or gain or significant decrease or increase in appetite o Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much o Psychomotor agitation or retardation o Fatigue or loss of energy o Feeling worthless or guilty in an excessive or inappropriate manner o Problems in thinking, concentrating, or making decisions o Recurrent thoughts of death and suicide o No history of manic episodes Dysthymic disorder – mood disorder that is generally more chronic and has fewer symptoms than MDD ∙ The individual is in a depressed mood for most days for at least two years as an adult ∙ 2+ of these symptoms must be present o Poor appetite or overeating o Sleep problems o Low energy or fatigue o Low selfesteem o Poor concentration or difficulty making decisionsBopp 40 o Feelings of hopelessness o Causes of depressive disorders: Biological factors ∙ Genetic influences ∙ Specific brain structures (i.e. lower brain activity in a section of the prefrontal cortex) ∙ Problems in neurotransmitter regulation Psychological factors ∙ Learned helplessness – involves an individual’s feelings of powerlessness after exposure to aversive circumstances over which the person has no control Sociocultural factors ∙ Individuals with a low socioeconomic states (SES), especially people living in poverty, are more likely to develop depression than their higherSES counterparts o Bipolar disorder – mood disorder characterized by extreme mood swings that include one or more episodes of mania, an overexcited, unrealistically optimistic state o Suicide Biological factors: genetic factors appear to play a role in suicide Psychological factors: mental disorders and traumas like sexual abuse Sociocultural factors: chronic economic hardship can be a factor ∙ Eating disorders o Anorexia nervosa – eating disorder that involves the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation; more common in girls. Characteristic include: Weight less than 85% of what is considered normal for age and height, and refusal to maintain weight at a healthy level An intense fear of gaining weight that does not decrease with weight loss A distorted body image Amenorrhea (lack of menstruation) o Bulimia nervosa – eating disorder in which an individual (typically female) consistently follows a bingeandpurge eating pattern o Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent episodes of consuming large amounts of food during which the person feels a lack of control over eating ∙ Dissociative disorders – psychological disorders that involve a sudden loss of memory or change in identity due to the dissociation of the individual’s conscious awareness from previous memories and thoughts o Dissociative amnesia – characterized by extreme memory loss that is caused by extensive psychological stress o Dissociative fugue – the individual not only develops amnesia but also unexpectedly travels away from home and assumes a new identity o Dissociative identity disorder (DID) – formerly called multiple personality disorder, a dissociative disorder in which the individual has two or more distinct personalities or selves, each with its own memories, behaviors, and relationships ∙ Schizophrenia – a severe psychological disorder that is characterized by highly disordered thought processes o Positive symptoms – marked by a distortion or an excess of normal function Hallucinations – sensory experiences that occur in the absence of real stimuliBopp 41 Delusions – false, unusual, and sometimes magical beliefs that are not part of an individual’s culture Referential thinking – ascribing personal meaning to completely random events Catatonia – a state of immobility and unresponsiveness lasting for long periods of time o Negative symptoms – reflect social withdrawal, behavioral deficits, and the loss or decrease of normal functions Flat affect – display of little or no emotion Difficulty sustaining attention Problems holding information in memory Inability to interpret information and make decisions o Diathesisstress model – view of schizophrenia emphasizing that a combination of biogenetic disposition and stress causes the disorder ∙ Personality disorders – chronic, maladaptive cognitivebehavioral patterns that are thoroughly integrated into an individual’s personality o Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) – psychological disorder characterized by guiltlessness, lawbreaking, exploitation of others, irresponsibility, and deceit ∙ Borderline personality disorder (BPD) – pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, selfimage, and emotions, and of marked impulsivity beginning in early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts Chapter 13 ∙