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AUSTIN COMMUNITY COLLEGE / OTHER / HAMG 1324 / austin community college hospitality

austin community college hospitality

austin community college hospitality


School: Austin Community College
Department: OTHER
Course: Hospitality Human Resource Management
Term: Summer 2017
Tags: Hospitality Management, Hospitality, Supervision, Hospitality and Business Management, human resources management, and Culinary Arts
Cost: Free
Name: CLASS NOTES CHAPTER 1-3, Hospitality Human Resource Management & Supervision
Description: Chapters 1-3 are included with end of each chapters review questions. Book: "Supervision in The Hospitality Industry 7th edition."
Uploaded: 07/24/2017
8 Pages 253 Views 2 Unlocks

What elements of each school of thought are appropriate in the hospitality industry?

Who should be the most important, and why?

What is the difference between the two categories?

CHAPTER 1: 1. In one paragraph, describe what a supervisor does. Is a supervisor a manager? Why or why not? A supervisor is anyone who manages people who make products and perform services. Their  responsibilities include: the quality and quantity of the products and services, encDon't forget about the age old question of What are the 5 goals of organizing and outlining?
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ouraging the employees  to have a better work performance and the output of the people supervised. I believe a supervisor could  be considered a manager that ultimately has many various levels of the title supervision. I believe this  because there are two types of supervisors: first-line supervisors lead and manage hourly employees  which can be seen as a manager. There is also working supervisors, which perform tasks of hourly  employees but also supervising their workers. 2. Are supervisors exempt or nonexempt employees? What is the difference between the  two categories? Supervisors are considered exempt employees, they are not covered by the federal state wage and hour  laws in which they don’t earn overtime pay when certain conditions are met; when they spend 50 percent  or more of their time managing and when they supervise two or more employees under federal law. The  difference between the two categories is that hourly employees are considered non exempt Employees because they are covered by the federal and state wage and hour laws. In which they  can earn overtime pay after working 40 hours in a work week. 3. Describe and explain the necessary change in point of view when an hourly employee becomes a  supervisor. When an hourly employee begins to supervise the work of other people, they cross a line that separates  them from the hourly workers-- bringing them over to the management side. Thus, begins two points of  view: the hourly workers and the management’s point of view. They must now maintain a manager’s point  of view that follows the responsibilities and obligations to their owners, guests and employees. They  should take part in setting the standards rather than seeking to attain per goals and keeping their team  motivated and productive.  4. Briefly describe a supervisor's responsibilities to owners, guests, and employees. Who should be  the most important, and why? A supervisor’s number one and important responsibility is to their owner; to make their enterprise  profitable. I believe this is the most important responsibility because the owner wants the supervisor to  run things their way and only their way. It is what they have hired you to do and what they are paying you  for, even though there might be situations that you don’t agree with or there are better ways to do  something. It is the supervisor’s obligation to follow their “rules,” in which is anything that is morally and  legally correct. A supervisor’s responsibility to the guests is to make them always feel like they want to  come back. A supervisor has an obligation to their guests, to see that their employees are delivering the  best and most friendly service and that allows the guests to get what they came for. A supervisor’s responsibility to their employees is to provide them with an environment of acceptance, approval, open  communication, fairness and belonging. A poor work climate can cause high turnover, low productivity,  inadequate quality control and can ultimately result in fewer customers.6. Compare & contrast the principles of scientific management, human relations theory, and  participative management. What elements of each school of thought are appropriate in the  hospitality industry? While all 3 theories seem to all fall under a category called theories of people management: that which  states that satisfying the needs of employees is the key to productivity. Each theory finds a new method of  trying to run a business and which theory results in the most productivity. One of the earliest  developments affecting the management of people was the scientific management movement that  emphasizes the increase of productivity in factories. Which involves 4 features: Standardization of work  procedures, tools, and conditions of work through design of work methods by specialists. Careful  selection of competent people, thorough training in the prescribed methods, and elimination of those  who could not or would not conform. Complete and constant overseeing of the work, with total  obedience from the employees and lastly, incentive pay for meeting the fair day’s work standard—the  employee’s share of the increased productivity. The essential elements of the method that can be used in  the hospitality industry are: standardized recipes, the standardized greeting, the standardized hotel  registration procedures, and the standardized making of a hospital bed. The theory increased productivity,  results, increased profit and made a manager’s life much easier. In relation to scientific management, a  theory appeared to test productivity of changes in working conditions: the human relations theory. A  theory that states that satisfying the needs of employees is the key to productivity. Expect rather than  focusing on work, the focus shifted to people and emphasized the importance of workers as individuals. This created new elements in the workplace such as rest periods and not the economic factor of a  paycheck, the scientific factors of working conditions or close supervision. The third and final theory was  the participative management theory; a system that includes employees in making decisions that  concerned them. It was not until the participative management theory that changed from human  resources to the people being managed. Elements that developed in the hospitality industry are:  Discussing the work with your people, getting their ideas, and exchanging information can establish a  work climate and group processes in which everybody shares responsibility to get results. That resulted in  more employees becoming more objective, sharing concerns and objectives of management. 7. What types of human skills does a supervisor need? Why does a supervisor need human skills? A supervisor must have 3 types of human skills: The first skill is the attitude toward the people who work  for them. They must be able to perceive and accept them as human beings. A supervisor will need this  skill because if a supervisor has the attitude of “being the boss” and doesn’t have the respect towards  their employees--they will not let them succeed. A second element of human skills is sensitivity; this is  important because the ability to perceive each per-son’s needs, perceptions, values, and personal quirks  so that you can work with each one in the most productive way. A third element of human skills is self awareness; a supervisor needs to be aware of their own behavior as it appears to others. This is important  because when a supervisor is aware of their own perceptions, needs, values and how they affect the  reactions with their employees, it allows them to handle a potentially tricky situation and balance it out  with positivity. When a supervisor maintains and continues all 3 of these human skills, the ultimate human  skill is put to test when bringing it all together by creating an atmosphere in which their employees feel  secure, safe and communication is open—employees will give their best work.8. Give three examples of personal skills and qualities that the supervisors need.  3 elements of personal skills that a supervisor must have are: The first skill is not only to manage their  employees but being able to manage themselves. Supervisors need the quality to have self-control to  keep “cool” no matter how challenging the situation endures & to have self-discipline to control their  emotions such as having a positive attitude and outlook on the job & maintain a strong and good self image & also having a positive approach in dealing and finding constructive ways to handle various  situations—an opportunity thinker. They must be able to manage themselves first properly so they can  direct others effectively. Supervisors have obligations to themselves but as well as others, which leads to a  second personal skill of: needing to believe that their employees will perform effectively when given a  chance. It is their job to develop their employees through coaching and counseling. Supervisors need to maintain qualities such as; maintaining flexibility and creativity such as the ability to respond effectively to  constantly changing situations and problems and to adapt theory to the reality of the moment and to be  creative in solutions. Lastly, being a supervisor requires high energy levels and ability to work under  pressure. A supervisor need to have some qualities such as: have stamina in nature and be prepared to  face any challenges that the job entails. Having the maturity to decide what you want and to accept the costs may be the most important quality of all.Chapter 2:  3. Define leader and leadership.  A leader can be defined as someone who guides or influences the actions of their employees to reach  certain goals. For example: A supervisor must direct the work of their employees in a way that causes  them to do it voluntarily. Leadership is defined as direction and control of the work of others through the  ability to elicit voluntary compliance. For example: A supervisor should develop suitable skills that  influence people to follow their ideas that ultimately gets them to work for you at the best of their  abilities. 5. Compare and contrast the concepts of formal and real authority. While formal authority and real authority share the same concept such as someone having authority over  people, it is generally because they have formal authority--or the right to command given to their  position by the organization. This can involve a formal leader--who is in charge based on the organization  as they essentially control the hiring, firing, raises, rewards, discipline, and punishment. The difference in  real authority between formal authority is that real authority is—“power” that is granted by your  employees. to make the necessary decisions and carry them out. This involves an informal leader—who  has support by their employees in which they have earned the right to lead them. 6. Why does a fear-and-punishment approach to supervision usually create a negative, non productive environment?  The fear-and-punishment approach to supervision is a method where a supervisor punishes and threatens  their employees if they do not perform well and deliver productive results. The supervisor would for  example: lay down the law by cursing, shouting and threatening to create fear in a worker only to  motivate them. However, this kind of autocratic method—behaving in an authoritarian or domineering  manner in which supervisors makes decisions without input from their employees & gives orders and  expects them to be obeyed resulted in a negative nonproductive climate within the workplace. This style  and direction caused an increase in problems such as: created bad impressions of their supervisors and  low morale & issues within the supervisor and their works relationship which creates difficulties for both  to work effectively together. resulting in an  7. In two sentences, describe the essence of each of the following leadership styles: autocratic,  Theory X, Theory Y, situational, transactional, and transformational leadership.  Autocratic is a leadership style and method that can be defined as, a supervisor or manager that directs  their employees to perform a job duty in which a supervisor or manager might make decisions without  the consent of their employees and instead command their employees without any explanation or  defense. Theory X is assumed through managers that workers dislike work and avoid it as much as they can, avoid  responsibility, lack ambition and want security. In which they prefer workers must be controlled, directed  and to threaten them through fear-and-punishment to get them to become more motivated in doing  their work. Theory Y is a hypothesis that states that work is natural as play or rest; employees will work towards  objectives within the organization to which they feel committed to. Employees are committed and  focused to meet the desired goals within their workforce that fulfills their personal needs and growth &  allows them to learn responsibility and to seek it.Situational leadership, stating that leadership behaviors are sorted into two categories: directive behavior  and supportive behavior. Directive behavior is a style where a supervisor directs their employees in telling  them exactly what you want done; when, where and how to do it. Supportive behavior can be seen when  a supervisor supports and motivates their employees through praise and rewards to build commitment. Transactional leaders are meant to motivate workers by listening to their self-interest, which means that  workers do their jobs and give their compliance in return for rewards such as pay and status. They express  communication of job assignments, work standards and goals to maintain their status.  Transformational leadership is the most effective and beneficial behavior to achieve long term success  and improved performance. It can be defined as—a leadership style where a supervisor insipires their  employees to reach far past their goals and do more than they thought was possible within the  organization. Such as: the leaders provide employees with interesting and challenging tasks to empower  employees and finally to lead by example.Chapter 3: 1.Compare and contrast strategic planning to day-by-day planning.  Compare: Strategic and day-by-day planning sets the goals, and formulates the strategy for the future  course of action to meet the company mission as they both seem to set the goals and formulate the  strategy for the future course of action to meet the company mission. Strategic planning moves through  various levels of channels such as day-to-day planning by supervisors at operating levels that plans to get  the work done in order to achieve those long-goals made by top management. Contrast: Strategic planning: is a long-range plan that takes place at the top of the management level who  formulates the organizations goals, strategies and policies to achieve those goals whereas day-by-day  planning: is a short-range plan that directs toward the supervisors the day of, based on conditions and the  details that need to be done which are carried out on a daily basis.  2.Briefly describe the steps in planning. Why do they resemble the steps used in making a good  decision?  Planning is a special form of decision making: It makes decisions about future courses of action.  Therefore, the steps in making a good plan resemble those in making a good decision: Defining the goal,  purpose or problem is accomplished by formulating the objectives to be achieved in a set time frame.  These goals can very between stragetic and day-by-day planning. Collecting and evaluating revelant data  is the second step in which involves gathering neccassary data in order to predict the outcome of a plan.  The third step is to devlop alternate course of actions in order to still achieve the set goal. The fourth step  is to decide on best course of action within the various courses with the help of relevant data, in which the  best alternative and developed if chosen by the management. After choosing the plan, the fifth step is to  implement part that is the most crucial in the planning process. Once you carried out the various activities  that the plan composed of follows the last step in controlling and evaluating the plan, which consists of  the organization through various controlling and meauuring techinques in order to measure its  effectiviness towards the main goal. 3. How can you reduce your risk when planning repetitive work?  Risk factor is involved with any type of repetitive work that create uncertainties but 4 ways the risks when  planning repetitive work are: repetivtive work typically involves looking back on revelant data from  various different time periods, in which this data could be analyzed in order to predict future demand and  the risks that occurred in the past within the work. The second thing would be to maintain a list of  activtivies and strategies that the work consisted of, which can reduce any uncertainity about the work  and therefore reduce risks. The last thing that could reduce risks would be by forecasting about the  various processes within the organization. Having that data on file would make people more prepared  and reduce uncertainty. Another way of reducing risk is controlling staffing, purchasing and production  decisions such as consult people who have more experience or expertise. 4. Discuss five qualities of a good plan, and explain why each is important. The first quality of a good plan provides a workable solution to the original problem and meets the  objectives: this is important because  -- Comprehensive; its important because it raises all relevant questions & answers them. The third quality  of a good plan minimizes the degree of risk necessary to meet the objectives: this is important because it  can take various things into consideration, which might reduce the risks of any uncertainty. The fourth  quality of a good plan is being very detailed and specific; its important because it includes the time, place, supplies, tools and workers duties/responsibilities which allows the implementation part of the plan to run  smoother and makes it easy to analyze data once youre finished. The last quality a good plan is the  flexibility; It is most important part of having a good plan in which it can provide adjustable changes into  the plan when needed or as they arise.  5.Give five examples of a standing plan.  The first example of a standing plan could be used in a fire evacuation procedure within an organization,  in which this process could be used again and again whenever it develops. The second example would be  an organizations hiring process, such as developing a standing plan for training new employees,  recruiting, hiring and evaluating process. The third example would be having a standing plan dealing with  health and safety, such as sanitation procedures and accidents. The fourth example would be to develop  standing plans for special occasions such as weddings, mothers day and birthdays within the operation.  The last example of a standing plan would be to develop a plan for all kinds of repeating situtations,  especially they recur throughout the operation. 6.What is management by exception?  Management by exception is a process of sorting out both tasks and assignments by the managers on  important focus areas. This can become important when the managements attention is needed to take  action on certain areas. Delegation of authority and successful planning also fall under management by  exception, that allows the advantage of the top management to focus on the problem and pay attention  towards solving in the best way possible. 7.A budget is an example of what type of plan?  A budget is an example of a single-use plan that is developed for a single occasion or purpose. A  supervisor is required to make a departmental budget, which is considered to be another single-use plan:  A budget is an operational plan for the income & expenditure of money by the department for a given  period. Upper level management sets the goal such as the departments portion of the organizational  budget, sometimes the supervisor is included. Preparing the budget requires forecasting costs of labor,  food products, supplies, & so on. Budgeting is done on the basis of historical data, plus change in needs  and costs. The final budget is used for standard measuring the financial department 8. Why do employees resist change?  Most employees resist change because any change upsets the environment, routines, habits and  relationships & it creates anxiety in those affected. Employees know what to expect, life on the job is  stable and predictable and they have the comfort of belonging. People worry and feel threatened that  they have to adjust to new circumstances, learn new ways of doing things, work will different people and  readjust relationships with their fellow coworkers. They also resist change if it is a loss for them; less  status, less hours, fewer tips, more work. 10. List the five steps in planning for change.  1. Define your problem and set your goal 2.Gather data from the past, present and future in order to forecast  3. Generate alternatives, evaluate the pros and cons of each and asses their risks and benefits 4. Make necessary decisions after considering the critical decision making questions 5.Implement the plan11. What can you do to make more effective use of your time?  • Planning, organizing, and communicating the day’s work.  • Responding to the immediate needs, demands and inquiries of others.  • Managing your people: hiring, training, coaching, etc.  • Dealing with crises, solving problems.  • Making reports, keeping records, enforcing rules  • Doing some of the work yourself if you are a supervisor. 12. What areas of the operation might you investigate if poor organization is causing problems? The areas of operation that might cause poor organization is the check-in and checkout times at the front  desk, early mornings in housekeeping, food preparation for mealtimes in the kitchen, serving periods in  the restaurant. 13. Give five examples of controls commonly found in hospitality operation •Too much socializing  •Accepting drop-in visitors  •Allowing interruptions and distractions  •Not saying no often enough  •Poor organization of papers •Procrastination and indecision  •Reading junk mail or checking e-mail  •Spending too much time online

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