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Exam 3

by: Kenzie Kleinhenz

Exam 3 PSYC 3030

Kenzie Kleinhenz
GPA 3.3
Childhood development
Marie Tisak

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Childhood development
Marie Tisak
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kenzie Kleinhenz on Monday August 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3030 at Bowling Green State University taught by Marie Tisak in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.


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Date Created: 08/17/15
Exam 3 Intelligence those qualities that help us adapt successfully so that we achieve our goals in life Fluid intelligence intelligence that allows us to quickly and effectively solve novel problems for which we have little training Crystallized intelligence what we already know and can draw on to solve problems WISC Wechsler intelligence scale for children arithmetic vocabulary comprehension block design similarities digit span Standardized test a test that is administered in a standard or consistent way to all examines Dynamic assessment a testing procedure that uses a testintervenetest procedure to assess the examinee s potential to change Authentic assessment a testing procedure that focuses on the process used in solving complex real life problems rather than the product that results from the process Flynn effect the increase in intelligence test scores that has occurred over time necessitating the renorming of the tests Triarchic theory Sternberg s idea that intelligence represents a balance of analytical creative and practical abilities three intelligences practical analytical creative Intellectually disabled mentally retarded a type of intellectual impairment that begins before age 18 and includes a low score on a standardized test of intelligence usually 7075 or lower and impaired adaptive functioning Adaptive functioning a person s ability to function independently Learning disability a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language spoken or written that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen think speak read write spell or do mathematical calculations Gifted talented children children and youth who exhibit high performance capability in intellectual creative and or artistic areas possesses an unusual leadership capacity or excel in specific academic fields Enrichment approach an educational approach for gifted children in which the curriculum is covered but in greater depth breadth or complexity than is done in a typical classroom Accelerated program a type of program that allows gifted students to move through the standard curriculum more quickly than is typical Creativity thinking that is novel and that produces ideas that are of value Convergent thinking finding one correct solution for a problem Expectancy effects the effect that the expectations of others can have on one s selfperception and behavior Selffulfilling prophecy the process by which expectations or beliefs lead to behaviors that help ensure that you fulfill the initial prophecy or expectation Language a system of symbols that is used to communicate with others in our thinking Phonology the study of the sounds of a language Syntax the grammar of a language Semantics the study of the meanings of words Pragmatics the rules that guide how we use language in social situations Morpheme the smallest unit in a language that has meaning Phoneme the smallest distinct sound in a particular language Nativisim a theory of language development that hypothesizes that human brains are innately wired to learn language and that hearing spoken language triggers the activation of a universal grammar Universal grammar a hypothesized set of grammatical rules and constraints proposed by Chomsky that is thought to underlie all languages and that is hardwired in the human brain Overregularization a type of grammatical error in which children apply a language rule to words that do not follow that rule or pattern for example adding an s to make the plural of an irregular noun such as foot Interactionism a theory of language development that proposes that the child s biological readiness to learn language interacts with the child s experiences with language in the environment to bring about the child s language development Recast repeating what children say but in a more advanced grammar to facilitate language learning Cognitive processing theory the theory that learning language is a process of quotdata crunching in which the actual process of learning words and their meanings relies on the computational ability of the human brain Transitional probability the likelihood that one particular sound will follow another one to form a word Broca s area the part of the brain that is inv09lved in the physical production of speech Wernicke s area the part of the brain that has to do with understanding the meaning in speech Receptive language the ability to understand words or sentences Expressive language the written or spoken language that we use to convey our thoughts emotions or needs Crying birth Cooing 24 months Babbling 46 months First wordTwo word sentences 1 yr 15 yr Childdirected speech speech that is tailored to fit the sensory and cognitive capabilities of infants and children so that it holds their attention includes speaking in a higher pitch with exaggerated intonation and a singsong rhythm and using a simplified vocabulary chidren with professional pa rents develop more vocabulary since their parents are speaking more words than poor etc Vocabulary burst the rapid growth of a child s vocabulary that often occurs in the second year Constraints assumptions that language learners make that limit the alternative meanings that they attribute to new words Whole object bias an assumption made by language learners that a word describes an entire object rather than just some portion of it Mutual exclusivity constraint an assumption made by language learners that there is one and only one name for an object Taxonomic constraint an assumption language learners make that two objects that have features in common can have a name in common but that each object also can have its own individual name Fast mapping a process by which children apply constraints and their knowledge of grammar to learn n new words very quickly often after a single exposure Syntactic bootstrapping the use of syntax to learn the meaning of new words semantics Semantic bootstrapping the use of conceptual categories to create grammatical categories Telegraphic speech a stage in language development in which children only use the words necessary to get their point across and omit small words that are not necessary for example go byebye Expressive language disorder a disorder involving a limited vocabulary and difficulty using tense correctly recalling words or producing sentences of the length and complexity that would be expected of a child of that age Phonological disorder a language disorder in which the child has difficulty with producing sounds or using sounds correctly Receptiveexpressive language disorder a disorder in which a child has difficulty with both expressive language using words and language and receptive language understanding words and sentences Asperger s disorder a disorder at the mild end of the autism spectrum marked by a relatively high level of functioning but repetitive routines inappropriate social and emotional behavior and uncoordinated motor movements Echolalia a condition seen in autistic children in which they repeat what has been said to them instead of responding appropriately Dyslexia a learning disability in which individuals have difficulty distinguishing or separating the sounds in spoken words creating problems with spelling and reading Dysgraphia a learning disability characterized by difficulties with writing including trouble with spelling handwriting or expressing thoughts on paper Emotion the body s physiological reaction to a situation the cognitive interpretation ofthe situation communication to another person and actions Emotion schemas all the associations and interpretations that an individual connects to a certain emotion Temperament the general emotional style an individual displays in responding to events Easy temperament a child s general responsiveness marked by positive mood easy adaptation to change and regularity and predictability in patterns of eating sleeping and elimination Difficult temperament a child s general responsiveness marked by a more negative mood intense responses slow adaptation to change and irregular patterns of eating sleeping and elimination Slowtowarm up a general responsiveness marked by a slow adaptation to new experiences and moderate irregularity in eating sleeping and elimination Goodness of fit how well a child s temperamental characteristics match the demands of the child s environment Selfconscious emotions emotions that depend on awareness of oneself such as pride guilt and shame Guilt feelings children have when they think about the negative aspects of something they have done particularly moral failures Shame a feeling that occurs as a result of personal failure or when children attribute their bad behavior to an aspect of themselves that they believe they cannot change Empathy sharing the feelings of other people Sympathy concern for others welfare that often leads to helping or comforting them Social referencing using the reaction of others to determine how to react in ambiguous situations 912 months Effortful control the ability to consciously control one s behavior Delay of gratification the ability to wait until later to get something desirable Emotional intelligence the ability to understand and control one s emotions to understand the emotions of others and to use this understanding in human interactions Externalizing behaviors behaviors such as aggressive or destructive behavior in which the child or adolescent quotacts out on the environment Internalizing behaviors behaviors in which a child s emotions are turned inward and become hurtful to themselves Anxiety a vague fear about events that may or may not occur Anxiety disorder a level of anxiety that is sever lasts a long time and interferes with normal functioning Phobia an irrational fear of something specific that is so severe that in interferes with daytoday functioning Clinical depression a condition marked by feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness a lock of pleasure sleep and appetite disturbances and possibly suicidal thoughts Child develop selfcontrol and regulation be sensitive predictable routines help them calm down when they cannot themselves Oppositional defiant disorder a persisting pattern of behavior marked by defiant disobedient and hostile behavior toward authority figures Conduct disorder a persistent pattern of behavior marked by violation of the basic rights of others or major ageappropriate social norms or rules Coercive family environment a pattern of family interaction in which parents and children mutually train each other so that the child becomes increasingly aggressive and the parents become less effective in controlling the child s behavior Attachment an emotional bond to a particular person Secure attachment a strong positive emotional bond with a person who provides comfort and a sense ofsecurhy Secure bas for exploration the use of a parent to provide the security that an infant can rely on as she explores the environment Preattachment the stage of development of attachment from birth to 66 weeks in which infant sensory preferences bring infants into close connection with parents Attachment in the making the stage from 6 weeks to 68 months in which infants develop stranger anxiety differentiating those they know from those they don t Clearcut attachment the stage from 68 months to 18 months2 years when an infant develops separation anxiety when a person he is attached to leaves him Goalcorrected partnership the stage of development of attachment from 18 months on when toddlers create reciprocal relationships with their mothers Stranger anxiety fearfulness that infants develop at about 6 months of age toward people they do not know Separation anxiety distress felt when separated from pa rent Internal working model mental representations of the particular relationships that a child has experienced that become the model for expectations of future relationships Strange situation Mary Ainsworth s experimental procedure designed to assess security of attachment in infants Anxious avoidant attachment an attachment classification in which the infant is not distressed when his mother leaves is just as comfortable with the stranger as with his mother and when his mother returns does not rush to greet her Anxious ambivalentresistant attachment an attachment classification in which the infant is reluctant to move away from his mother to explore and is very distressed when his mother leaves but when his mother returns he wants to approach her but also angrily resists her attempt to pick him up Disorganizeddisoriented attachment an attachment classification in which behavior is unpredictable and odd and shows no coherent way of dealing with attachment issues often linked with parental abuse or neglect General conclusion about cultural difference Secure base script I can trust and rely on others I am lovable capable significant and worth while my world is safe internal working model Attachment to parents and non parental care givers Reactive attachment disorder RAD a disorder marked by inability to form attachment to caregivers


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