final (exam 4)
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kenzie Kleinhenz on Monday August 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3030 at Bowling Green State University taught by Marie Tisak in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 29 views.
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Date Created: 08/17/15
PSYCH 3030 exam 4 Chapter 11 Identity The Self Gender and Moral Development Visual perspective taking the understanding that other people can see an object from a point of view that is different from one s own Autobiographical memory a coherent set of memories about one s life Negative identity an identity that is a direct opposition to an identity that parents or other adults would support Social comparison the process of comparing oneself to others Psychoanalytic theory Nancy Chodorow at birth boys move away from their mothers and be masculine girls stay close to their mothers for relationship and closeness Behavioral and social learning theories boys are discouraged more when doing feminist behaviors than when girls do masculine activities Boys are expected to keep these ways and girls are expected to grow out Children learn these roles by the parents and their surroundings Male super heroes are more aggressive and more of them while girls are more concerned about their appearance Cognitive developmental theory the gradual understanding of a child s gender Kohlberg Piaget lst stage Gender identity stage when children can identify gender but their concept of gender relies on external appearance 2 l stage Gender stability stage when children understand that their gender is constant over time but do not understand that gender does not change if they do activities usually performed by the other gender 3rel stage Gender constancy the understanding that one s gender remains constant even with external changes Gender schema theory gender expected behaviors abilities and occupations learned from the society Ethnic identity a person s attitudes toward the ethnic group to which they feel they belong The role of cognitive development Piaget before age four they are unable to make moral decisions Mora knowledge understanding of right and wrong Mora judgment the way people reason about moral issues Heteronomous morality moral judgments based on the dictates of authority age 47 mmanent justice the belief that unrelated events are automatic punishment for misdeeds Autonomous morality stage when children are aware of the rules and realize that they must adhere to them to maintain their interaction with others rather than because an adult has told them what to do age 7 or 8 3rel stage Kohlberg s moral development Preconventiona moral judgment moral reasoning that is marked by selfinterest and motivation based on rewards and punishments Conventional moral judgment moral reasoning that move beyond selfinterest to take into account the good of others Postconventiona moral judgment independently formed moral judgments that are based on universal principles that apply to all people Chapter 12 Social Development Social cognition how we think about and understand interactions between people Theory of mind the ability to understand self and others as agents who act on the basis of their mental states such as beliefs desires emotions and intentions Mindblindness the inability to understand and theorize about other people s thoughts a basic characteristic of people who suffer from autism False belief the understanding that someone else may believe something that a child knows to be untrue False belief paradigm an experimental task used to assess a child s understanding that others may believe something the child knows to be untrue Recursive thinking the ability to think about other people thinking about your thinking Hostile attributional bias a tendency to interpret others behaviors to be hostile and intentional rather than benign Joint attention a process in which an individual looks at the same object that someone else is looking at but also looks at the person to make sure that they are both involved with the same thing Play disruption an inability to play because the child s emotions are preventing the kind of free expression linked with the fun of play Physical activity play the type of play that involves large muscle activity Rhythmic stereotypies repeated large muscle movements that have no purpose such as kicking the legs or waving the hands Usually seen in infants Exercise play play in young children that involves large muscle movement such as running orjumping Roughandtumble play play that looks like fighting or wrestling where the goal is not to hurt or win but to have fun Play therapy a way to help children work through difficult feelings with the help of an adult who is trained to understand play as a type of communication Unoccupied behavior looking around at whatever occurs but engaging in no activity Onlooker behavior watching other children play Solitary independent play engaging actively with toys that are different from those being used by other children Parallel play playing next to a peer with the same type of materials but not interacting with the other child Associative play sharing toys and interacting with peers but without a common goal Cooperative play play with peers that has a common goal Friendship a mutual relationship marked by companionship closeness and affection Practice play performing a certain behavior repetitively for the mere pleasure of it Symbolicsociodramatic play using symbolic representations and imagination for play Games with rules making up rules for a game or playing games with preestablished rules Constructive play building or making something for the purposes of play Social status the level of peer acceptance or peer rejection of an individual in the peer group Sociometry a research technique used to assess a child s social status within the peer group Popular children children who receive a lot of nominations as quotlike most and few as quotlike least on a sociometric measure Rejected children a lot of quotlike least and a few quotlike most Average children receive a number of nomination for like most and like least that is close to the median in the peer group Neglected children few nominations as either quotlike most or quotlike least Controversial children receive both a large number for quotlike most and quotlike least Rejection sensitivity the extent to which a child is affected by peer rejection Bullying being exposed repeatedly and over time in negative actions on the part of peers including physical bullying verbal bullying andor emotional bullying Cyberbullying the use of electronic technologies including emails text messages digital images webpages including social network sites blogs or chat rooms to socially harm others Chapter 13 Families Family any two or more individuals living together who are related by birth marriage or adoption Nuclear family a family consisting of a husband a wife and their biological andor adopted children Emotional parentification a situation in which children become more concerned about their parent s emotional needs than their own Extended familya family that includes both nuclear family members and other relatives Constructive conflict family conflict that is resolved in a positive way using affection problem solving and emotional support Stepfamilies families in which there are two adults and at least on child from a previous relationship of one of the adults there also may be biological children of the couple Boundary ambiguity the lack of clarity as to who is in and who is out of the family system that can be an issue in many stepfamilies Open adoptions adoptions in which the children and their biological and adoptive families have access to each other Foster care the temporary placement of children in a family that is not their own because of unhealthy situations within their birth family Parental effects model a model of parenting effects that assumes that parents cause the characteristics that we see in their children Child effects model a model of parenting effects that assumes that it is the characteristics of the child that determine the parenting style that the parents use Transactional model a model of pa renting effects that assumes that influence move not only from parent to child but also from child to parent in a reciprocal process Socialization the process by which parents peers and other important figures in the child s world teach a child how to interact in appropriate ways according to the rules and norms of their society Internalization the process by which individuals adopt the attitudes beliefs and values help by their society Inductive discipline a parenting technique that involves setting clear limits for children and explaining the consequences for negative behavior why the behavior was wrong and what the child might do to fix the situation Selforiented induction a parenting technique in which the child is asked to think about the consequences that the child might experience as a result of his behavior Otheroriented induction a parenting technique in which the child thinks about consequences of the child s behavior for someone else Command strategy a parenting technique in which the parent does not make any overt threats of punishment but the child responds to the legitimate authority that the parent has to make a request of the child Relationship maintenance a parenting technique in which the parents try to create a positive relationship with their child so that the parents will have a greater influence on the child s behavior Power assertion a disciplinary technique that emphasizes control of the child s behavior through physical and nonphysical punishment Love withdrawal a parenting technique in which parents threaten to withhold their love until a child conforms to the parents expectations for his behavior The factors that occur due to divorce and make child outcomes worse anxiety aggression depression lackself control disobedient Why do grandparents raise grandchildren death of parents illness incarceration drug addiction young parents etc What are some of the conclusions of having gay or lesbian parents or adoptive parents children backfire because they are not the biological parents Family time positive functions less likely to become obese or have eating disorders les likely drugs and alcohol more likely to succeed in school Acceptanceresponsiveness a dimension of parenting that measures the amount of warmth and affection in the parentchild relationship Demandingnesscontrol a dimension of parenting that measures the amount of restrictiveness and structure that parents place on their children Authoritative parenting style a parenting style that combines high levels of control with a good deal of warmth and encouragement marked with reasonable expectations and explanations of parents rules Authoritarian parenting style a parenting style that combines high levels of control and low levels of warmth marked by an expectation of compliance from the child Permissive parenting style a parenting style that provides a great deal of warmth and acceptance but few if any rules of restrictions Uninvolved or neglectful parents a parenting style that is low both on the dimension of warmth and control parents may be disinterested in parenting or actively reject their children Parenting styles fairly regular and consistent patterns of interacting with children
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